Научная статья на тему 'Fatigue is a biomechanical category'

Fatigue is a biomechanical category Текст научной статьи по специальности «Науки о здоровье»

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Ключевые слова
factors of fatigue / biomechanics / muscular fatigability / physical load / psychological dependence

Аннотация научной статьи по наукам о здоровье, автор научной работы — Zinaida M. Kuznetsova

The notion “fatigue” is mainly connected with psychology and a common person got accustomed to the expression “chronic fatigue syndrome”. Material. Students of “Adaptive physical culture” specialty of Kuban State University of Physical Culture, Sport and Tourism, studying biomechanical characteristics of human body, compared body muscular fatigability with fatigability in a human’s organism. Research methods: scientific literature analysis and summarizing, interview. Results. The factors of fatigue, its essential development from biomechanical point of view were revealed. The problem of fatigue is not studied and presented enough in a scientific literature. In the article fatigue is considered as a physiological process in a human body, the stages of its development and its polyfactorial character are demonstrated. Conclusion. Fatigue has biomechanical characteristics, which are presented in the following: timesensuous demonstration of fatigue; each person’s physical rate of fatigue will have its own norm; fatigue as a dangerous category has a scale character and leads to serious consequences for an organism; fatigue causes a sense of shame; physical load as the demonstration of fatigue, a person should learn to spread the load during the day in order to prevent or decrease the level of fatigue; psychological fatigue ruins organism; a person’s working capacity spreading in order to prevent the period of fatigue.

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Текст научной работы на тему «Fatigue is a biomechanical category»

THE RUSSIAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT (Pedagogical-Psychological and Medico-Biological Problems of Physical Culture and Sports), Volume 13 No.1 2018 _ISSN 2588-008X ISSN 2588-0225

Hosseinikhezri S.A. - Institute of Physical Education, Sport and Youth Policy, Ural Federal University, 620002, Russia, Ekaterinburg, Mira str., House 19, e-mail: Khosseynikhezri@urfu.ru Zakharova A.B. - Institute of Physical Education, Sport and Youth Policy, Ural Federal University, 620002, Russia, Ekaterinburg, Mira str., House 19

For citations: Hosseinikhezri S.A., Zakharova A.B. The consideration of foot posture index in russian soccer players 10-12 years old, The Russian Journal of Physical Education and Sport (Pedagogico-Pshycological and Medico-Biological Problems of Physical Culture and Sports), 2018, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp.129-134. DOI 10/14526/01_2018_297

DOI 10/14526/01_2018_298

FATIGUE IS A BIOMECHANICAL CATEGORY

Zinaida M. Kuznetsova — Doctor of Pedagogics, Professor Ulyanovsk State Pedagogical University named after I.N. Ulyanov, 4, area of 100 th anniversary of V.I. Lenin's birth, Ulyanovsk, 432700, Russia Yriy D. Ovchinnikov — candidate of technical sciences, associate professor, Kuban State University of Physical Culture, Sport and Tourism, 161, Budenny str., Krasnodar, 350015, Russia

E-mail: kzm diss@mail.ru

Annotation: The notion "fatigue" is mainly connected with psychology and a common person got accustomed to the expression "chronic fatigue syndrome". Material. Students of "Adaptive physical culture" specialty of Kuban State University of Physical Culture, Sport and Tourism, studying biomechanical characteristics of human body, compared body muscular fatigability with fatigability in a human's organism. Research methods: scientific literature analysis and summarizing, interview. Results. The factors of fatigue, its essential development from biomechanical point of view were revealed. The problem of fatigue is not studied and presented enough in a scientific literature. In the article fatigue is considered as a physiological process in a human body, the stages of its development and its polyfactorial character are demonstrated. Conclusion. Fatigue has biomechanical characteristics, which are presented in the following: time-sensuous demonstration of fatigue; each person's physical rate of fatigue will have its own norm; fatigue as a dangerous category has a scale character and leads to serious consequences for an organism; fatigue causes a sense of shame; physical load as the demonstration of fatigue, a person should learn to spread the load during the day in order to prevent or decrease the level of fatigue; psychological fatigue ruins organism; a person's working capacity spreading in order to prevent the period of fatigue.

Keywords: factors of fatigue, biomechanics, muscular fatigability, physical load, psychological dependence.

The problem of fatigue is not studied enough, though it is very urgent both in scientific and practical activity of any person.

Fatigue as physical quantity can be considered from the point of biomechanics

view, which is the science about motional actions of a person. Students of "Adaptive physical culture" specialty of Kuban State University of Physical Culture, Sport and Tourism, studying biomechanical

characteristics of human body, compared body muscular fatigability with fatigability in a human's organism. The following question becomes urgent and demands many-sided examination: "Is it possible to recover a tired organism quickly?"

RESEARCH MATERIAL.

People in big cities more often experience the state of fatigue. 100 respondents of the survey describe the state of fatigue with the help of the following criteria: drowsiness; flaccidity in movements; irritability; weakness; giddiness; prostration; hunger; anxiety; slowness in movements; lethargy; apathy; depression; dreariness; absence of creative ideas.

The term "fatigue" is not as straightforward as it may be understood by people. In reality it is a difficult category, which has practical importance for each person.

Fatigue is deeply physiological process in a person's organism, which shows its stage and polyfactorial character:

1. Time- sensuous demonstration of fatigue.

Many people don't realize that organism fatigue as a biological phenomenon and consider its demonstration sudden. Hormones are in charge of many senses in our organism. For example, during adrenaline burst a person is able not to feel a strong pain for a long time period and continue moving in spite of the fact that organism resources have limits. A person works and spends a lot of energy to fulfill tasks or to achieve the set aim at the establishment, firm and feels complete loss of strength. This loss of strength is not sudden: any sense of fatigue is preceded by a long period of work using the last resources of energy and power [7].

2. Each person's physical rate of fatigue will have its own norm. For different people and different kind of activity this norm will be different in different age periods of life.

It is normal to feel pleasant heaviness in muscles after a light running. It is not normal to be exhausted during three years. Fatigue is a natural reaction of an organism to overloading if it happens one time, a body and

mind will recover quickly. If a person doesn't have rest chronic fatigue develops and such kind of state should get his attention.

3. Fatigue as a dangerous category.

Being tired people make wrong

decisions, regardless of their age, attention level decreases and there comes suppressed, sad state, when the level of serotonin (this hormone gives joy) in blood decreases [6]. A tired organism is subject to different diseases, because of a low level of immunity a person has different dangerous somatic disorders: problems of cardiovascular system, headaches, musculoskeletal disorders and problems of thermoregulation [10].

4. Fatigue has a scale character.

A person gets used to the induced tempo and it seems to him that all people live in such kind of regimen. However, if people were as tired as modern people are, civilization would have died. A working week increased till 42 hours. Labor takes a lot of time its day volume is the following:

- work - 12-14 hours;

- sleeping - 5-7 hours;

- indeterminate kind of activity- 3-5 hours. A person doesn't know how to spend remaining time. A person becomes indifferent.

5. Fatigue causes a sense of shame.

Nowadays it is not fashionable to be

tired, it is necessary to make career, observe corporate style. Managers of different firms and establishments urge people to work harder. A person's organism is not a machine and its signals can't be ignored.

6. Fatigue consequences.

A modern person in terms of quick life tempo sleeps in the average 5 hours a day. For a normal work a person should sleep 8-10 hours a day. Lack of sleeping causes bad mood, psychic disorders, neuralgia, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes [9]. Research works show that sleep influences not only immune system, but even the results of weight loss.

7. Physical load as fatigue demonstration.

Mental activity, of course, doesn't spend as many calories as the activity with dumbbells in the gym, but influences the

psyche. Even office workers are tired at the end of a working day, though they spend most time sitting near computer [5].

8. Fatigue as the factor of the load spread.

Nowadays there are a lot of "useful" ideas in the Internet how to organize own time in order to have sufficient time. We all want to be "proactive", multifunctional, energetic and positive. That is why fatigue at the end of the day becomes, in a way, "success marker", which shows productivity

to be completely tired in order to fulfill all planned work, it is necessary to consider own abilities while forming the list of work. Students were given the following task: to make the list of own activities for 12 hours and spread the load in a way to avoid fatigue.

9. Psychological fatigue ruins the organism.

It is known that psychological fatigue ruins the organism [8]. Students defined kinds of psychological fatigue, which are peculiar to a modern person and described own feelings.

of ast 12 hours. In reality it is not necessary

Activity, which leads to psychological fatigue Feelings

1. Checkout line in a shop Indifference to environment

2. Wait one's turn for a doctor Annoyance

3. A long traffic jam Indignation

4. Waiting for the flight in the airport Anger

5. Walking a slippery road Anxiety

A person, in case of this kind of activity, doesn't experience any physical and intellectual load being is in a phase of inactivity. The result of activity is not seen, but a person can't have rest in such kind of conditions. In this case the following feelings appear: dormancy, despair, uselessness. Such feelings lead to psychological fatigue, which is not less ruinous for an organism, than an ordinary physical fatigue.

10. A person's working capacity spread in order to prevent the period of fatigue.

If we ignore accumulating fatigue we can get chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), which is the state of constant weakness and fatigability [1]. In order to recover after one "shock" day it is enough to sleep, but CFS is difficult to overcome [2]. An organism shouldn't be reduced to such kind of condition, it is necessary to help it to recover as quickly as possible [3,4]. The period of great working capacity is individual for each person. The problem is that most people are not able to organize this period and then use in their activity. Nowadays the factor of

working capacity in social consciousness is considered as social-economic category.

11. Lack of water in an organism also leads to fatigue. The structure of water is not studied enough, but it is known that dewatering of the organism causes unpleasant physical feelings: headaches, constipation, pain and spasms in muscles, pressure surge and general weakness.

As the held research works showed water provides energy metabolism optimization in cells of an organism and working capacity rehabilitation. Water ratio in a person's organism is the following: bones contain 22% of water; blood - 83% of water; muscles - 75% of water; brain - 90% of water.

It can be taking shower, bath, swimming in the swimming pool. Drinking ordinary still water during the day tones up muscles and improves breathing. A glass of warm water on an empty stomach before breakfast cleans organism from accumulated during the night mucus and this way organism gets ready for work during the day.

Conclusion. Fatigue has the definite biomechanical characteristics:

- time- sensuous demonstration of fatigue;

- each person's physical rate of fatigue will have its own norm;

- fatigue as a dangerous category has a scale character and leads to serious consequences for an organism;

- fatigue causes a sense of shame;

- physical load as the demonstration of fatigue, a person should learn to spread the load during the day in order to prevent or decrease the level of fatigue;

- psychological fatigue ruins organism;

- a person's working capacity spreading in order to prevent the period of fatigue.

References

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Submitted: 09.01.2018 Received: 11.01.2018

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Author's information

Zinaida M. Kuznetsova — Doctor of Pedagogics, Professor Ulyanovsk State Pedagogical University named after I.N. Ulyanov, 4, area of 100 th anniversary of V.I. Lenin's birth, Ulyanovsk, 432700, Russia, E-mail: kzm_diss@mail.ru

THE RUSSIAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT (Pedagogical-Psychological and Medico-Biological Problems of Physical Culture and Sports), Volume 13 No.1 2018

_ISSN 2588-008X ISSN 2588-0225

Yriy D. Ovchinnikov — candidate of technical sciences, associate professor, Kuban State University of Physical Culture, Sport and Tourism, 161, Budenny str., Krasnodar, 350015, Russia Nadezhda A. Nazarenko — student Kuban State University of Physical Culture, Sport and Tourism, 161, Budenny str., Krasnodar, 350015, Russia

For citations: Kuznetsova Z.M., Ovchinnikov Y.D. Fatigue is a biomechanical category, The Russian Journal of Physical Education and Sport (Pedagogico-Phycological and Medico-Biological Problems of Physical Culture and Sports), 2018, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 134-138. DOI 10/14526/01 2018 297

DOI 10/14526/01_2018_298

THEORETICAL IMPORTANCE SUBSTANTIATION OF TAKING INTO CONSIDERATION ADAPTATION REGULARITIES OF AN ORGANISM DURING THE

PROCESS OF SPORTS TRAINING

Ludmila D. Nazarenko - Doctor of Pedagogics, Professor Elena E. Panova — Candidate of Pedagogics, Associate Professor Olga N. Valkina - Candidate of Biological Sciences, Associate Professor Ulyanovsk State Pedagogical University named after I.N. Ulyanov, 4, area of 100 th anniversary of V.I. Lenin's birth, Ulyanovsk, 432700, Russia

E-mail:ld nazarenk(@ mail. ru

Annotation. An effective control of sports training process is based on its structural components optimization, which helps to control a sportsman's functional state and the peculiarities of an organism adaptation to the conditions of training and competitive activity. Only sports training is the main form of physical activity, which provides physiological systems and organs indices improvement. Material. Special training lessons are the main form of sportsmanship increase, which provides physiological systems indices improvement. Physical loads cause biochemical and morphological changes in functioning muscles, the result of which is their lability and irritability increase, muscular power, mobility, dexterity, flexibility and other motional-coordinating qualities increase. Training modeling provides medical-biological and psycho-pedagogical knowledge integration, which is necessary for the search of effective ways of sports training system control. Research methods: scientific and scientific-methodical literature analysis and systematization, progressive pedagogical experience summarizing, testing, expert estimation, statistical data manipulation. Results. One of the main questions of an effective training process organization is the degree of muscular load influence on a functional state of an organism, which is conditioned by its volume and intensity, character of alternation with rest, different rehabilitation means use. It demands the peculiarities revelation and taking into consideration of interconnection between the kinds of physical exercises, reaction of an organism and the speed of its adaptation as the main theoretical substantiation of the training process effectiveness and a sportsman's motional activity. The factors, which condition the peculiarities of an organism adaptation to muscular load, are considered: gradual volume and intensity increase of the training loads and their complication; different conditions of their fulfillment use; positive psycho-emotional content of the lessons, diversity of the used means, methods of training and also forms of motional activity organization. The stages of adaptive changes under the influence of the training loads are created. Conclusion. A rational organization of sports training system among sportsmen gives additional opportunities for

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