Научная статья на тему 'Euroontegration aspects of basic mechanisms development in public administration'

Euroontegration aspects of basic mechanisms development in public administration Текст научной статьи по специальности «Экономика и бизнес»

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Ключевые слова
aspects / basic mechanisms / public administration / eurointegration / paradigm “Good Governance” / development / аспекти / базові механізми / державне управління / євроін- теграція / парадигма “Good Governance” / розвиток

Аннотация научной статьи по экономике и бизнесу, автор научной работы — Usachenko Alexander Alexandrovich

The article considers a number of European integration aspects of the basic mechanisms development in public administration in the context of the “Good Governance” paradigm. Their peculiarities and corresponding problem questions are singled out. Proved that the efficiency and effectiveness of adopting and implementing state-management decisions associated with an increase in receiving and processing information electronically through a computer system and information technology (electronic information and referral and information-legal systems, networks, grid-technology, automated work places of the manager, etc.). It is about forecasting, planning and designing, monitoring, evaluation, monitoring, etc. All of this relates to strategic management and planning, programmatic and targeted (government action programs, national and other targeted programs, regional programs, national projects) management, state and local budgeting. It is noted that increasing the efficiency of providing various administrative services is associated with an increase in the volume of administrative services and their geography and the reduction in the time of their provision (technology “single window”, information and reference electronic networks, etc.). Identified the introduction of the model and paradigm of “good governance” in the national system of public administration, ignoring the world, especially European experience implementing the model and paradigm of “good governance”; excessive lobbying for decentralization by the authorities at the city level; an attempt to reform the public administration system, in particular by moving to the model of “state management” in real conditions of the limited budget of the state; lack of serious preparedness, first of all recruiting, to such a transition; in fact, there is an artificial attempt to combine two different models of public administration, namely, “good governance” and “state management”, etc.

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ЄВРОІНТЕГРАЦІЙНІ АСПЕКТИ РОЗВИТКУ БАЗОВИХ МЕХАНІЗМІВ ДЕРЖАВНОГО УПРАВЛІННЯ

Розглянуто низку евроінтеграційних аспектів розвитку базових механізмів державного управління, зокрема, в контексті парадигми “GoodGovernance”. Виділені їх особливості та відповідні проблемні питання. Обґрунтовано, що підвищення ефективності та результативності прийняття та реалізації державно-управлінських рішень пов’язане із збільшенням обсягів отримання та оброблення інформації в електронному вигляді за допомогою комп’ютерних систем та інформаційних технологій (електронні інформаційно-довідкові та інформаційно-правові системи, мережі, грід-технології, автоматизовані робочі місця управлінця та інше). Йдеться про прогнозування, планування та проектування, контроль, оцінювання, моніторинг тощо. Все це стосується стратегічного управління та планування, програмно-цільового (програми діяльності уряду, загальнодержавні та інші цільові програми, регіональні програми, національні проекти) управління, державного і місцевого бюджетування. Відзначено, що підвищення ефективності надання різноманітних адміністративних послуг пов’язане із збільшенням обсягів адміністративних послуг та їх географії та зменшенням часу їх надання (технологія “єдине вікно”, інформаційно-довідкові електронні мережі та інше). Визначено проблемні питання запровадження моделі та парадигми “доброчесного врядування” у вітчизняній системі державного управління: неврахування світового, насамперед європейського досвіду впровадження моделі та парадигми “доброчесного врядування”; надмірне лобіювання децентралізації владою на міському рівні; спроба реформування системи державного управління, зокрема шляхом переходу до моделі “державного менеджменту” в реальних умовах обмеженості державного бюджету; відсутність серйозної підготовленості, в першу чергу кадрової, до такого переходу; фактично спостерігається штучна спроба поєднати дві різні моделі державного управління, а саме “доброчесного врядування” та “державного менеджменту” та ін.

Текст научной работы на тему «Euroontegration aspects of basic mechanisms development in public administration»

UDC 35: 002.8

Usachenko Alexander Alexandrovich,

post-graduate student, Interregional Academy of Personnel Management, 03039, Kyiv, Str. Frometivska, 2, tel.: (093) 871 00 48, e-mail: info@erosi.org

ORCID: 0000-0002-5458-8976

Усаченко Олександр Олександрович,

астрант, Мгжрегюнальна Академ1я управлтня персоналом, 03039, м. Kuïe, вул. Фромет1вська, 2, тел.: (093) 8710048, e-mail: info@erosi.org

ORCID: 0000-0002-5458-8976

Усаченко Александр Александрович,

аспирант, Межрегиональная Академия управления персоналом, 03039, г. Киев, ул. Фрометовская, 2, тел.: (093) 87100 48, e-mail: info@erosi.org ORCID: 0000-0002-5458-8976 DOI https://doi.org/10.31618/vadnd.vim.34

EUROONTEGRATION ASPECTS OF BASIC MECHANISMS DEVELOPMENT IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

Abstract. The article considers a number of European integration aspects of the basic mechanisms development in public administration in the context of the "Good Governance" paradigm. Their peculiarities and corresponding problem questions are singled out.

Proved that the efficiency and effectiveness of adopting and implementing state-management decisions associated with an increase in receiving and processing information electronically through a computer system and information technology (electronic information and referral and information-legal systems, networks, grid-technology, automated work places of the manager, etc.). It is about forecasting, planning and designing, monitoring, evaluation, monitoring, etc. All of this relates to strategic management and planning, programmatic and targeted (government action programs, national and other targeted programs, regional programs, national projects) management, state and local budgeting.

It is noted that increasing the efficiency of providing various administrative services is associated with an increase in the volume of administrative services and their geography and the reduction in the time of their provision (technology "single window", information and reference electronic networks, etc.).

Identified the introduction of the model and paradigm of "good governance" in the national system of public administration, ignoring the world, especially European experience implementing the model and paradigm of "good governance"; excessive lobbying for decentralization by the authorities at the city level; an attempt to reform the public administration system, in particular by moving to the model of "state management" in real conditions of the limited budget of the state; lack of serious preparedness, first of all recruiting, to such a transition; in fact, there is an artificial attempt to combine two different models of public administration, namely, "good governance" and "state management", etc.

Keywords: aspects, basic mechanisms, public administration, eurointegration, paradigm "Good Governance", development.

еВРОШТЕГРАЦШШ АСПЕКТИ РОЗВИТКУ БАЗОВИХ МЕХАН1ЗМ1В ДЕРЖАВНОГО УПРАВЛ1ННЯ

Анотащя. Розглянуто низку евроштеграцшних аспекпв розвитку ба-зових MexaHÍ3MÍB державного управлшня, зокрема, в контексп парадигми "GoodGovernance". Видшеш ïx особливосп та вщповщш проблемш питан-ня. Обгрунтовано, що шдвищення ефективносп та результативносп при-йняття та реалiзацiï державно-управлшських рiшень пов'язане iз збшьшен-ням обсягiв отримання та оброблення шформацп в електронному виглядi за допомогою комп'ютерних систем та шформацшних теxнологiй (електроннi iнформацiйно-довiдковi та iнформацiйно-правовi системи, мережi, грщ-тех-нологп, автоматизоваш робочi мiсця управлiнця та шше). Йдеться про прогнозування, планування та проектування, контроль, оцшювання, мош-торинг тощо. Все це стосуеться стратепчного управлiння та планування, програмно-цiльового (програми дiяльностi уряду, загальнодержавнi та iншi цiльовi програми, регiональнi програми, нащональш проекти) управлiння, державного i мюцевого бюджетування.

Вiдзначено, що пiдвищення ефективносп надання рiзноманiтниx адм^ нiстративниx послуг пов'язане iз збiльшенням обсягiв адмшютративних послуг та ïx географй' та зменшенням часу ïx надання (технолопя "едине вiкно", iнформацiйно-довiдковi електроннi мережi та iнше).

Визначено проблемнi питання запровадження моделi та парадигми "до-брочесного врядування" у вiтчизнянiй системi державного управлiння: неврахування свiтового, насамперед европейського досвщу впроваджен-ня моделi та парадигми "доброчесного врядування"; надмiрне лобiювання децентралiзацiï владою на мюькому рiвнi; спроба реформування системи державного управлшня, зокрема шляхом переходу до моделi "державного менеджменту" в реальних умовах обмеженосп державного бюджету; ввдсут-шсть серйозно'1' пiдготовленостi, в першу чергу кадрово'1', до такого переходу; фактично спостертаеться штучна спроба поеднати двi рiзнi моделi державного управлшня, а саме "доброчесного врядування" та "державного менеджменту" та ш.

K^40Bi слова: аспекти, 6a30Bi механiзми, державне управлшня, еврош-теграцiя, парадигма "Good Governance", розвиток.

ЕВРОИНТЕГРАЦИОННЫЕ АСПЕКТЫ РАЗВИТИЯ БАЗОВЫХ МЕХАНИЗМОВ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОГО УПРАВЛЕНИЯ

Аннотация. Рассмотрен ряд евроинтеграционных аспектов развития базовых механизмов государственного управления, в частности, в контексте парадигмы "GoodGovernance". Выделены их особенности и соответствующие проблемные вопросы.

Обосновано, что повышение эффективности и результативности принятия и реализации государственно-управленческих решений связано с увеличением объемов получения и обработки информации в электронном виде с помощью компьютерных систем и информационных технологий (электронные информационно-справочные и информационно-правовые системы, сети, грид-технологии, автоматизированные рабочие места управленца и прочее). Речь идет о прогнозировании, планировании и проектировании, контроле, оценке, мониторинге и тому подобном. Все это касается стратегического управления и планирования, программно-целевого (программы деятельности правительства, общегосударственные и другие целевые программы, региональные программы, национальные проекты) управления, государственного и местного бюджетирования.

Отмечено, что повышение эффективности предоставления различных административных услуг связано с увеличением объемов административных услуг и их географии и уменьшением времени их предоставления (технология "единое окно", информационно-справочные электронные сети и т. д.).

Определены проблемные вопросы внедрения модели и парадигмы "добродетельного управления" в отечественной системе государственного управления: неучет мирового, прежде всего европейского опыта внедрения модели и парадигмы "добродетельного управления"; чрезмерное лоббирование децентрализации власти на городском уровне; попытка реформирования системы государственного управления, в частности путем перехода к модели "государственного менеджмента" в реальных условиях ограниченности государственного бюджета; отсутствие серьезной подготовленности, в первую очередь кадровой, к такому переходу; фактически наблюдается искусственная попытка совместить две разные модели государственного управления, а именно "добродетельного управления" и "государственного менеджмента" и др.

Ключевые слова: аспекты, базовые механизмы, государственное управление, евроинтеграция, парадигма "Good Governance", развитие.

Target setting. In Ukraine, there is an accelerated implementation of its European integration aspirations. In

this context, in our opinion, the question of the impact of this aspiration on the development of basic mechanisms

inpublic administration deserves attention.

Analysis of recent publications on issues. Various aspects of the application of the European integration approach are highlighted in the domestic legal and regulatory framework, in the reference literature, as well as in studies of public administration of the domestic (A. Kolodiy, V. Martynenko, P. Nad-olishniy, L. Novak-Kalyaev, I. Grigor-chak, A. Pukhtetskaya , O. Krasovskii and others) and foreign (Y. Gonzigzh, D. Krasilnikov, O. Sivintseva, E. Troits-kaya, etc.) scholars [1-13].

The purpose of the article. The purpose of this article is to highlight the Eurointegration aspect of the development of the basic mechanisms of public administration.

The statement of basic materials. Ukraine since 2002, when for the first time in the Address of the President of Ukraine to the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine was noted about the European choice, by 2014 the political (March 21) and economic (June 27) parts of the Association Agreement with the European Union were signed, made a big breakthrough on the way European integration. The question arises, what does this give the country in the context of the development of basic mechanisms of public administration.

To the basic mechanisms of public administration, we include those that ensure the implementation of its main management functions (planning, organization, motivation, control, management decisions, communication) and are typical for various objects in public administration. Among them, we have: state strategic planning (long-term goal-setting), state policy (agreed

action plan for the medium-term perspective), state programming (state development programs, state target programs, national projects), state budgeting (development of annual state budgets), state control (all its types and forms), administrative reform (institutional and structural-functional update of public administration system). The latter is aimed at modernizing the system of public administration as a subject of governance (the system of state authorities), while others — on its development (modernization, increase of efficiency and effectiveness, etc.) as an object of management (systems of social spheres, branches, relations, territories).

To answer the above question, one has to turn to the essence of European integration.

In Wikipedia, European integration is defined as a process of industrial, political, legal, economic integration of states that are wholly or partly in Europe. According to the institutional approach proposed by Ernst Haas, European integration is seen as a process of transforming national practices of the interaction of institutions, which leads to the creation of a multi-level management system with a plurality of decision-making centers [4].

Thus, as a consequence of Ukraine's further accession to the European Union, one should expect the transformation of the public administration system into one of the decision-making centers in its composition. This, in turn, requires the transition of public administration system and all spheres in public life of Ukraine to the current standards and regulations of the EU, which is now really happening. In the

course of a sufficiently significant period of time in Ukraine, bringing its legislative framework in line with the European one is under way. Initially, the Ukraine-European Union Action Plan, and then the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement between the European Communities and Ukraine, made a lot of changes and adaptations in the political, economic, social, environmental, humanitarian and security spheres.

The Association Agreement with the European Union requires the implementation a number of key provisions that are schematically shown in Figure [5].

Democratization means respect for the rule of law in all its manifestations, adherence to the principles of respect for independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity and inviolability of borders.

The fight against crime involves strengthening the fight against corruption, terrorism and other forms of crime.

The introduction of European standards actually means the process of their implementation in almost all spheres of public life, in particular in

the field of education, health care, jurisprudence, and so on.

The requirement for information is due to the fact that every country in the European Union should be informed about changes in legislation and in the moment.

Creation of joint bodies of government means the creation of several joint bodies of Ukraine and the European Union, which have to solve topical issues within the association.

According to Article 14 "The Rule of Law and Respect for Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms", the Association Agreement with the European Union has: strengthening institutions of all levels in the field of general administration and law enforcement and judicial authorities in particular: strengthening the judiciary; fight against corruption [6].

European integration as a way to the community for the sake of safety and peace of mind of the countries in the world is certainly the best opportunity to become a real European country with developed economies, a system of

Key provisions of the Association of Ukraine with the European Union

social protection, a high level of environmental protection and the use of natural resources, and high prestige in the world system of countries. In addition, the mechanism of European integration, as we see, is a comprehensive and widely vectored means of bringing the domestic public system in general and the public administration system in particular in line with European counterparts.

But on this way there are a number of significant problems that the country's resources — human, financial, material, informational, and natural — should be addressed in a priority direction.

The first and main problem is that everything is clear at all, and which specific analogues seek to achieve — this is the choice of Ukraine itself. It is logical to seek the analogues of those countries with the most similar social system and the public administration system. The choice of such analogues will make it possible to clearly formulate the mission and develop a system of European integration goals in the long, medium and short-term perspective.

The second problem is that each step will have to be planned by itself, but it must be coordinated with the other, by European partners from different international institutions and countries. From which — it will show the time when these steps will be planned and turn to them.

The third problem is the considerable backwardness of the leading EU countries in terms of economic and social indicators. Similarly, according to the indicators of the public administration system. It is also worth mentioning about the achievement of the fourth technological level in comparison with

the sixth in the advanced countries of the world, about the significant level of corruption that permeates the entire society.

Fourth, perhaps, the most important problem is pathologically constant political instability in the country, which impedes its movement in a definite way, but still far from its own, the European community.

The fifth reason is the remnants of the Soviet mentality and the need to gradually adapt to the cultural and mental level of the European community. Certainly, this is not easy, but dozens of countries of the former socialist camp have passed or are going through such a path. So the experience of such a process is.

The sixth reason is the need for a significant increase in the level of the common culture, integrates the spiritual and material components, to the level of the European culture of law, economics, social provision, collective security, the production of knowledge and services, science, attitude to people of any kind of work.

In fact, the European integration processes in Ukraine take place against the backdrop of the development of basic mechanisms in public administration in the context of the paradigm "Good Governance" (virtuous governance).

The paradigm of "Good Governance", or virtuous governance, as it is often called in Ukraine, was first proposed in 1997 in the documents of the United Nations Development Program [7].

It is based on a new model of public administration that differs from the previous model of "state management" by

reducing, firstly, the level of decentralization, as the countries of the world are building up an information society that needs to realize large centralized funds; secondly, such a decrease in decentralization leads to a lower level of corruption losses, which, unfortunately, quantitatively (the amount, total amount of funds) have shown themselves to be at the local level of governance worse than the central one; thirdly, introduces a new higher level of efficiency and democratization of the public administration itself through the transition to a system of principles, among which are the principles: the rule of law; political pluralism; democracy; division and balance of power; election and turnover of officials; accountability of executive power institutions; achievement of the goals in due time; minimum cost of public resources; inclusiveness; transparency; partisipativeness; the independence of the media.

As stated in the paper [8], the paradigm of good governance "is particularly relevant for our state, since, after declaring the course on European integration right up to EU membership, it is very important to take into account the experience of the participating countries of this organization in modernizing public administration systems".

Let's analyze what this really gives the country in the context of developing the basic mechanisms in public administration.

First of all, the implementation of the paradigm of good governance is accompanied by an increase in the amount of centralized funds in the county's budget and an increase in the cost of informatization of society as a

whole and the informatization of the public administration system in particular. In turn, it is reasonably expected to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the adoption, implementation of government-management decisions, and increase the efficiency of providing various administrative services.

Improving the efficiency and effectiveness of the adoption and implementation of government-management decisions is associated with an increase in the amount of information received and processed electronically through computer systems and information technologies (electronic information and reference, information and legal systems, networks, grid technologies, automated workstations of the manager, etc.). It is about forecasting, planning and designing, monitoring, evaluation, monitoring, etc.

All this relates to strategic management and planning, program-target (government action programs, national and other targeted programs, regional programs, national projects) management, state and local budgeting.

Increasing the efficiency of providing various administrative services is associated with an increase in the volume of administrative services and their geography, and a reduction in the time of their provision (technology "single window", information and reference electronic networks, etc.).

Secondly, the introduction of a good governance paradigm is accompanied by a reduction in corruption opportunities at the local level of government, as well as by providing administrative services to officials. It also contributes to the purposeful use of state budget funds and local budgets.

Thus, the significant contribution of informational and administrative aspects to improving the efficiency of the basic mechanisms in public administration is made.

Similarly, the new system of good governance principles is also influenced.

Among these principles we have:

• the rule of law, since the Constitution of Ukraine actually proclaims the mission of Ukraine as a sovereign, independent, democratic, legal, social state; The laws of Ukraine adopt state-level targeted programs and annual state budgets; the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine adopts other state target programs and national projects;

• election and turnover of officials, in particular, the President of Ukraine, people's deputies, heads and deputies of local councils, as they influence the formation of strategies, as well as national and regional development programs at the appropriate levels of government and local self-government;

• political pluralism, which emphasizes the spread of all human rights and freedoms to people, regardless of their political views (civil servants and officials of local self-government can engage in political activities outside their place of work);

• accountability of executive power institutions, since the government, ministries, other central and local executive authorities ensure the implementation of development strategies and programs, and the implementation of state and local budgets;

• achievement of goals in due time, as this is an important factor in the functioning that characterizes its effectiveness;

• the minimum costs of public resources, since this factor characterizes the efficiency of functioning;

• the division and balance of power, since the Constitution of Ukraine defines the administrative-territorial structure and the main institutions of the branches of power (parliament, president, government, central and local executive authorities, the system of courts), their functions and powers;

• the minimum cost of public resources, since this factor characterizes the effectiveness of development.

The principles of inclusiveness (col-legiality), transparency (openness), participativity (participation) are the principles of democratization of the adoption of public-management decisions by involving the public and all interested individuals and organizations in this process.

The principle of independence of the media is a kind of public function of monitoring the implementation of all mechanisms of public administration.

Within the European dimension, there are other modern concepts of the development of the system of public administration. At the same time, as noted in [9], for most of them, "it is characteristic to develop new mechanisms of relations with society, politicians and citizens ... in two directions: on the one hand, efforts are being made to improve the quality of services provided by the state in particular, in education, health care, social insurance, etc., on the other — new mechanisms are being formed to involve citizens in the process of adopting and implementing state decisions".

A very interesting remark was made in [10], in particular that "good go-

vemance" defines an ideal that is difficult to achieve in its entirety, although this must be sought. Democratization, civil society, decentralization, peaceful conflict resolution and government accountability are characteristics of the concept of good governance that is inherent in effective, democratic public administration. The emphasis on good governance promotes democratic governments in the development of democratic institutions ... "

A very important factor in the implementation of the concept of good governance is that within this "management model, the need to focus on the institutional context of the state in which it is implemented" is emphasized [11].

At the same time, domestic researchers pay attention to certain shortcomings of the implementation of the good governance principles in the public administration system of Ukraine. For example, the paper [12] states that "the current state of normative consolidation of the rule of law principle in Ukraine's current legislation is characterized by inadequate specification of the content of the stated principle and the main features (criteria) of its due observance by both the public (state and self-government) authorities and citizens".

Well-known Polish analyst J. Gon-zig, who has been working in Ukraine for a long time, believes that "the public administration system that exists today in Ukraine, despite repeated attempts to reform it, has rudiments of a command-administrative system of governance based on excessive centralization of powers and functions. The main reasons for this state are the lack of political will of the ruling elite to

change this system and the fragmentary approach to reform (attempts to make point changes)" [13].

Among other problematic issues of introducing the model and paradigm of "good governance" in the domestic public administration system, in our opinion, it should be noted the following:

• disregard for the world, first of all, European experience in implementing the model and paradigm of "good governance";

• excessive lobbying for decentralization by the authorities at the city level;

• an attempt to reform the public administration system, in particular by moving to the model of "state management" in real conditions of the limited state's budget;

• lack of serious preparedness, first of all recruiting, to such a transition;

• in fact, there is an artificial attempt to combine two different models of public administration, namely, "good governance" and "state management", etc.

Conclusions. The article considers a number of contemporary aspects of the development of the basic mechanisms of public administration, in particular, the European integration and in the context of the "Good Governance" paradigm. The relevant issues are highlighted.

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