Научная статья на тему 'Development of customs in Derbent in the XIX century Mahira A. Azizova'

Development of customs in Derbent in the XIX century Mahira A. Azizova Текст научной статьи по специальности «История и археология»

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РОССИЙСКАЯ ИМПЕРИЯ / ТАМОЖЕННАЯ ПОЛИТИКА / ЮЖНЫЙ КАВКАЗ / ДЕРБЕНТСКАЯ ТАМОЖНЯ / RUSSIAN EMPIRE / CUSTOMS POLICY / THE SOUTH CAUCASUS / DERBENT CUSTOMS OFFICE

Аннотация научной статьи по истории и археологии, автор научной работы — Azizova Mahira A.

Россия, которая окончательно утвердилась на Кавказе в начале XIX в., рассматривала расположившийся на пересечении международных торговых путей Дербент как важный торговый порт, прежде всего в торговых связях с каджарским Ираном. Вот почему вопрос учреждения таможенной системы в Дербенте находился в повестке дня с самого начала оккупации города русскими войсками. В представленной статье на основе актов Кавказской археографической комиссии, а также исходя из сведений соответствующей литературы по данному вопросу, исследуется организация таможенного и таможенно-карантинного дела в Дербенте. В ходе исследования мы пришли к выводу, что Дербентская таможенно-карантинная часть занимала важное место в таможенной системе Российской империи на Южном Кавказе. Ей были вменены такие функции, как пресечение прохождения контрабандным путем во внутренние губернии империи разных товаров из каджарского Ирана и Османской Турции, равно как и воспрепятствование проникновения заразных болезней.

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Russia, which was definitively consolidated in the Caucasus at the beginning of the XIX century, considered Derbent located at the crossroads of international trade routes as an important trading port, especially in trade relations with the Qajar Iran. That is why the question of the establishment of customs system in Derbent was on the agenda from the very beginning of the occupation of the city by Russian troops. In the present article on the basis of the Acts of Caucasian Archaeograpical Commission, and based on the information of the relevant literature on the subject, is studied the organization of the customs and quarantine services in Derbent. In the course of study, we arrived at the conclusion that the Derbent customs and quarantine department occupied an important place in the customs system of the Russian empire in the South Caucasus. It had been imputed to such functions as the prevention of the pass of different goods through smuggling into the provinces of the empire from the Qajar Iran and the Ottoman Empire, as well as impeding the penetration of contagious diseases.

Текст научной работы на тему «Development of customs in Derbent in the XIX century Mahira A. Azizova»

УДК 93/94

DOI 10.23683/2658-5820.2018.2.4 UOT 94(479.24)

Развитие таможенного дела в Дербенте в XIX веке

М.А. Азизова

Бакинский славянский университет, г. Баку, Республика Азербайджан

Аннотация: Россия, которая окончательно утвердилась на Кавказе в начале XIX в., рассматривала расположившийся на пересечении международных торговых путей Дербент как важный торговый порт, прежде всего в торговых связях с каджарским Ираном. Вот почему вопрос учреждения таможенной системы в Дербенте находился в повестке дня с самого начала оккупации города русскими войсками.

В представленной статье на основе актов Кавказской археографической комиссии, а также исходя из сведений соответствующей литературы по данному вопросу, исследуется организация таможенного и таможенно-карантинного дела в Дербенте.

В ходе исследования мы пришли к выводу, что Дербентская таможенно-карантинная часть занимала важное место в таможенной системе Российской империи на Южном Кавказе. Ей были вменены такие функции, как пресечение прохождения контрабандным путем во внутренние губернии империи разных товаров из каджарского Ирана и Османской Турции, равно как и воспрепятствование проникновения заразных болезней.

Ключевые слова: Российская империя; таможенная политика; Южный Кавказ; Дербентская таможня.

Для цитирования: Азизова М.А. Развитие таможенного дела в Дербенте в XIX веке // Caucasian Science Bridge. 2018.1(2). С. 48-56.

Abstract: Russia, which was definitively consolidated in the Caucasus at the beginning of the XIX century, considered Derbent located at the crossroads of international trade routes as an important trading port, especially in trade relations with the Qajar Iran. That is why the question of the establishment of customs system in Derbent was on the agenda from the very beginning of the occupation of the city by Russian troops.

In the present article on the basis of the Acts of Caucasian Archaeograpical Commission, and based on the information of the relevant literature on the subject, is studied the organization of the customs and quarantine services in Derbent.

In the course of study, we arrived at the conclusion that the Derbent customs and quarantine department occupied an important place in the customs system of the Russian empire in the South Caucasus. It had been imputed to such functions as the prevention of the pass of different goods through smuggling into the provinces of the empire from the Qajar Iran and the Ottoman Empire, as well as impeding the penetration of contagious diseases.

Keywords: Russian Empire; customs policy; the South Caucasus; Derbent customs office.

For citation: Azizova M. A. Development of customs in Derbent in the XIX century // Caucasian Science Bridge. 2018.1(2). P. 48-56.

Development of Customs in Derbent in the XIX Century Mahira A. Azizova

Baku Slavic University, Baku, Republic of Azerbaijan

An ancient city of Azerbaijan with five-thousand-year history of Derbent, after it went under board of the Czarist Russia on June 21, 1806, new region's governance policy has been brought in agenda about by social, political, economic and cultural reforms. For this purpose, Czarist Russia has begun to take some measures

INTRODUCTION

in the region. One of such measures was the reforms carried out in the direction of organizing customs-quarantine work in Derbent. In the article we have provided the information about the organization of customs, customs and quarantine work in Derbent based on Acts by the Caucasian Archaeological Commission as well as other literature on this subject.

Works done in the direction of the organization of the customs warehouse in Derbent

Since the Middle Ages Derbent has been one of the centers playing an important role in transit trade between East and West. Located at the Caspian Sea coasts, on the crossroads of international trade routes and having a favorable geographical position Derbent has always been of great importance in trade relations with neighboring nations and countries of the region. It is noted that at the beginning of the nineteenth century there were 420 shops that belonged to 80 merchants and 4 caravanserais in Derbent (Nuratinov, 2005. P. 39). A favorable geographical position of the port city of Der-bent, maritime trade, as well as the location on the crossroads of caravan routes, led it to be known as one of the centers of trade implemented by land. This factor made necessary to organize the customs system in Derbent from the very beginning when the region came under the Russian authorities. All of these issues were reflected extensively in the Acts of Caucasian Archaeographical Commission which is considered an unexampled source for studying the various areas of the nineteenth century Azerbaijan history. In the article issues related to the organization of the customs in Derbent are investigated on the basis of the information provided by the afore-mentioned acts.

First of all, it should be noted that from 15 October 1810 to 1 January 1844 the customs system of Derbent operated as Derbent customs outpost of the Baku port and border customs house; from January 2, 1844 to May 3, 1847 as the Der-bent customs post of Baku port and border customs house; from May 4, 1847 to 30 March 1861, as the customs and quarantine post of Baku customs and quarantine office; from March 31, 1861 to December 9, 1867, as the 3rd degree Der-bent customs and quarantine outpost of Dagestan customs and quarantine control; from December 10, 1867 to February 1, 1875, as the 3rd degree Derbent customs

and quarantine outpost of 1st Baku customs and quarantine office; from February 2, 1875 to March 24, 1881 as Derbent customs and quarantine post of Baku customs and quarantine office (Garunova, 2015. P. 91). Below we will focus on this issue in detail.

It should be noted that aiming to organize the customs in the South Caucasus still on October 3, 1803, the Russian Senate made a decision on the establishment of customs houses in Georgia and collection of customs taxes based on duties tariff of Astrakhan. In accordance with the decision the preparatory works on the organization of customs checkpoints in the territory of Azerbaijan began to be carried out. Commander-in-chief of Russian forces in the Caucasus Count I.V. Gudovich in the memorandum sent to Russia's Trade Ministry found advisable forming of first customs house in Baku. As we know, in October 1806, the Baku Khanate was occupied. Shortly after this event, in January 1807 the aforementioned memorandum of Gudovich was submitted to the emperor for approval. In order to take control over the Baku port's turnover, on January 25, 1807, the Russian government issued a decree on the establishment of the customs institution in Baku by its Senate. However, the hostilities between Russia and the Qajar state started since 1804, as well as the presence of the Khan's governance in most areas of Azerbaijan had somehow detained the opening of customs house. Under Tsar's special decree "On the opening of the customs house in Baku" on August 6, 1809, Baku Customs house began its operation (Tagiev, 1999. P. 101; Otnoshenie gr. Rumyantseva k gr. Gudovichu, 1869. P. 40-41).

From the first days of the occupation of the town by Russians the organization of the customs system in the city of Derbent - important port city on the Caspian Sea and one of the first trade centers in the South Caucasus, was on the agenda. In January 1807, in his letter to the commander of Russian forces in the Caucasus

Count I.V.Gudovich the empire's Trade Minister Count N.P. Rumyantsev offered by bringing Derbent in obedience the organization of customs outpost there, then to subject it to the Baku customs house. According to him, this would connect the trade on the Caspian Sea to the Georgia and other provinces along the Black Sea (Otnosheniegr. Rumyantseva kgr. Gudovichu, 1869. P. 40).

But in his response letter on March 10, 1807 Commander-in-chief Count I.V. Gudovich advises to postpone the organization of the planned customs checkpoints. He considered the organization of the customs post in Derbent in the absence of suitable bridge for berthing of vessels to be still early. Gudovich considered too early to apply the Russian customs regulations in the areas recently brought to obedience and that this may cause dissatisfaction among the local population who are not used to new rules. Moreover, till the war with Iran was not ended and the borders were not determined it was not appropriate to establish such checkpoints (Otnoshenie gr. Gudovicha k gr. Rumyantsevu, 1869. P. 42).

First of all, were taken preparatory measures for the opening of Derbent customs check point. The Russian government that regarded the city of Derbent as an important seaport on the Caspian Sea along with Baku, aiming to put in order trade routes between these cities takes some steps. First of all, it was considered to direct a part of revenues from the city of Derbent to the organization of this work. In this regard, in his letter to Count I.V. Gudovich dated 14 November 1806, empire's Minister of Foreign Affairs, Baron A.Y. Budberq noted that revenues from Derbent should remain at Gudovich's disposal and those funds should be spent on the restoration of the caravanserais in areas from Baku to Derbent, even to Qizlar (Pis'mo barona Budberga k gr. Gudovichu, 1869. P. 703).

In a short time the instruction was realized. It appears from the letter on January 27, 1809, sent to Treasury expedition by Count I.V. Gudovich that funds collected from the revenues of Baku and Derbent posts giv-

en at his disposal by the decree of former foreign minister, Baron A.Y. Budberq were spent on extraordinary expenditure, to the organization of a favourable and safe port in Baku, as well as the restoration of the caravanserais' operation in areas from Baku to Derbent, even to Qizlar, and the restoration of the Baku fortress (Predlozhenie gr. Gudo-vicha Kazennoy Ekspeditsii, 1869. P. 49).

The director of Astrakhan port customs house Ivanov was sent from Tiflis to Baku to organize a number of customs checkpoints in the towns of South Caucasus, including Derbent, and to review these locations. After the observations in the considered areas on June 25, 1809, Ivanov submits to the commander of Russian forces his report. In the report he comes to the conclusion that "taking into account the direction of trade turnover in the place, it is necessary to establish customs check points in Yelizavet-pol, Baku, Shusha, Sheki, Shirvan, Derbent and Kura (Predpolozhenie, gde nuzhno..., 1870. P. 82).

But Count A.P. Tormasov who replaced general I.V. Gudovich in the Caucasus in 1809, advises to approach to the issue of the establishment of the customs check points in Derbent more cautiously. According to him, the organization of such check points would lead to the cancellation of rahdar tax being on the competence of khans, and it could cause dissatisfaction of the khans. He proposed to give compensation instead of the khans' rahdar tax that would be abolished and only then begin to organize the checkpoints (Otnoshenie gen. Tormasova k grafu Rumyantsevu, 1870. P. 87). However, it appears from the documents that A.P. Tormasov's concern was not about the rahdar tax that would be abolished. In fact, he was thinking about the sources for the expenses needed to maintain military forces to protect new customs check-points that would be open. In his letter on 30 October 1809 to Count N.P. Rumyantsev he wrote about it. At that time, in a wide area from Baku to Guba and Der-bent there was just one Sevastopol regiment and a garrison battalion of Russians. Nevertheless, after the establishment of customs

check-points here would have been needed additional troops to protect them, and the source of expenses for their maintenance had not been known yet (Otnoshenie gen. Tormasova k grafu Rumyantsevu, 1870. P. 88).

But despite all the difficulties, the necessity for the organization of customs services on the conquered territories of Azerbaijan, as well as in Derbent, showed itself strongly. One of the main factors that made the opening of customs check-points in Der-bent necessary was the presence of customs system in the provinces of the South Caucasus remained from the khanate era that hindered the development of trade. According to the currently operating archaic rules, merchants paid fees in each province through which they passed which forced them to increase price of their goods artificially. The commandant of Baku city Lieutenant-General I.I. Repin providing information about it stated that merchants paying rahdar duty for their goods in Derbent had to pay duties in Guba area and they were obliged to pay once again when reached Baku (Predpisanie gen. Tormasova Bakinskoy Tamozhne, 1870. P. 91). Count A.P. Tormasov emphasizing that the threefold duty payment was unacceptable, stated that the merchants should pay for their goods only in one place. Thus, after duty payments in Derbent the merchants' goods should be sealed and released from further payments. If these goods are brought into Baku bypassing Der-bent, then duties should be paid in Baku customs house (Predpisanie gen. Tormasova Bakinskoy Tamozhne, 1870. P. 91).

Such a situation made necessary to undertake urgent measures in this direction. Eventually, it was decided opening of a customs check point in Derbent, and according to the port and border customs house to the storehouse inspector staff-captain Akim Avtarov was charged with it. To this end, in 1809 A. Avtarov comes to Derbent. In the report sent by him to the Baku port and border customs houses was stated that on 26 November of the same year with the participation of the commandant of the city colonel Adriano, officials of the city administration

and honorary residents of the city was held the opening ceremony of Derbent customs check point. A college assessor (court assessor in tsarist Russia, a civil rank. - M.A.) Andrei Andreyev was appointed as the Commandant of Derbent customs check point. The custom-house officers conducting inspection in warehouses and stores in Derbent city had announced through Derbent military governor that from the opening day of the check point till 1 January 1811, no duties will be paid for imported goods (Garunova, 2015. P. 90-91).

At the time, the abolishment of the customs houses in South Caucasus becomes a burning question again. Finance Minister D.A. Quryev in a letter sent to General Rtishchev in the summer of 1815 stated that, at a time when the war continued it was considered to abolish the customs check-points in Baku and Tiflis and instead in addition to the existing Qizlar customs posts along the line of the Caucasus to establish customs check-points in Mozdok as well. But in the new conditions created after the end of the war with Qajar Iran, there arise need not to abolish customs posts in Baku and Tiflis, but rather to strengthen them with additional customs outposts (Zapiska o zastavakh..., 1873. P. 319).

Measures in this direction expanded the staff of the Derbent customs outpost. In the reports of 1815 was stated that the staff of Derbent customs post consisted of a controller paid 170 rubles (paper money) per year, the storage controller - 150 rubles, the 2 tax collectors - paid 85 rubles each, the watchman paid 35 rubles, the traffic controller paid 135 silver rubles, 5 rider watchmen paid 85 rubles each and 3 customs controller paid 50 silver rubles each. For repair of frontier post building, renting a ship for inspection if necessary, for additional expenditure such as sending letters was allocated from the treasury 120 rubles. On the whole, for the maintenance of Derbent customs post was allocated from the treasury 1375 rubles (Zapiska o zastavakh..., 1873. P. 320; Kozubskiy, 1906. P. 149).

However, the unsatisfactory condition in the customs system of the South Caucasus, the inspection of imported goods at first in Baku customs house, because of the subjection of Derbent customs post to the Baku customs house, and after the payment of duties here to be brought to Derbent again created serious obstacles to the development of trade. The employment of this rule to the local population not only was undermining the domestic trade but also it caused dissatisfaction among the population in provinces recently brought to obedience. It is shown that as a result of this procrastination, delays and because of the exceeded amount of travel expenses on the roads sometimes merchants were obliged to refuse from their goods (Predpisanie gen. Ermolova Bakinskoy tamozhne, 1874. P. 215).

The customs policy of the General Commander A.P. Yermolov in the region: Therefore, General A.P. Yermolov beginning his career as the commanderin-chief, in a letter dated August 23, 1818 emphasized in this respect the importance of taking duties for goods imported to Derbent and Guba for sale only in Derbent and Guba customs checkpoints, and proposed to provide these outposts with seals and other materials (Raportgen. Ermolova k gr. Gur'evu, 1874. P. 217; Raport gen. Vel'yaminova k gr. Gur'evu, 1874. P. 216). Chief of the Staff of Detached Caucasus Corps, Lieutenant-General A.A.Velyaminov in his letter dated February 6, 1820, addressed to Finance Minister, Count D.A.Quryev stated that though Yermolov had grounded the necessity of taking customs duty for goods imported to Derbent and Guba just on the spot, that is in the customs checkpoints of Derbent and Guba for the development of domestic trade, but still no opinion was uttered about it (Raport gen. Vel'yaminova k gr. Gur'evu, 1874. P. 216).

Army commander of troops in Gu-ba province, Major-General Baron B.A. Vrede in his letter to Lieutenant-General A.A. Velyaminov stated that the local population complained about customs duties

they were undergone during selling their goods and that they were sent to Baku Customs. After the warning by Vrede head of the Baku customs house ordered the checkpoints under his subordination in Guba and Derbent not to treat badly with local people for their goods sold in the domestic market, and not to impose customs duties on them. But the situation in this area did not change after this instruction either. As the regulations of May 30, 1817, considered imposing customs duties on the goods to be sold, so as a way out of a situation Vrede offered to take duty from the peasants on the spot and to send only merchants to Baku (Raport gen. barona Vrede 1-go gen. Vel'yaminovu, 1874. P. 215).

After the suppression of the movement rose in 1818 in Dagestan, the commander-in-chief, General A.P. Yer-molov gave specific instructions in order to establish trade with the mountain people that were recently brought to obedience, to eliminate all existing obstacles in this and to raise confidence to the Russian authorities. In the instruction given to the Baku Customs house on January 19, 1820, by General A.P. Yermolov was stated that till the relevant decision of the Minister of Finance the duty for commodities brought to Derbent and Guba provinces would be taken from the local population in the local border outposts, they would not go to Baku for it. For the accurate fulfillment of the decision the Baku Customs was charged to provide the Derbent and Guba checkpoints with necessary instructions (Predpisanie gen. Ermolova Bakinskoy tamozhne, 1874. P. 215-216).

A.P. Yermolov had also provided the Derbent and Guba checkpoints with the instructions of the same content. Regulations provided that the duty would be taken by the Baku Customs only for goods imported from abroad, as well as for goods manufactured abroad and sold by the local population (Predpisanie gen. Ermolova Der-bentskoy zastave, 1874. P. 216).

A.P. Yermolov noted that this would have a positive impact not only on

the domestic trade with mountain people, but also on trade with Iran. Because, according to the current customs regulations, goods for sale imported to Derbent, Guba, Salyan and other places from Iran, at first had to pass control in Baku customs-house. This regulation obliged the merchants to return Baku to pay customs duty, whereas there were customs checkpoints in the places (Raport gen. Vel'yami-nova kgr. Gur'evu, 1874. P. 216).

Yermolov arrived to Derbent and after becoming familiar with the issue on the spot had come to such a conclusion. In his report to Finance Minister, Count D.A. Quryev on 17 February 1820 wrote that after becoming acquainted with the situation on the spot while being in Derbent he was convinced that the application of this system is very important in terms of "development of the domestic trade and improvement of mountain peoples' attitude toward us" (Raport gen. Ermolova k gr. Gur'evu, 1874. P. 217).

Goods taken from one place to another, as well as those imported from the Qajar state and Ottoman Turkey were facing with artificial obstacles, and after passing through the Baku customs outpost they were transferred to selling areas, including to Derbent which was an obstacle on the way of the development of trade. At the same time, such a rule caused a decrease in revenues of Derbent customs outposts and their operation at a loss. Yermolov deals in detail with this issue in his official letters on May 20 and August 31, 1824 addressed to the Imperial Minister of Finance Y.F. Kankrin. He noted that the amount of duties collected from customs checkpoints in Derbent and Guba was very few, and the maintenance of these unprofitable outposts was additional burden on the treasury. The amount of annual customs duties collected in these customs check points was 86 rubles in silver, 1571 in paper money and 118 rubles in copper in Derbent outpost, and 380 silver rubles and 16 copper rubles in Guba. While keeping of this check points cost the Treasury 2335 silver rubles,

that's, 3 times dear than the revenues collected from the same check points. Based on these considerations A.P. Yermolov proposed to close them, and instead to organize a frontier post in Salyan (Otnos-henie gen. Ermolova k gen. Kankrinu, 20.05.1824,1874. P. 225; 31.08.1824, 1874. P. 232).

As a way out of the situation the government circles tried various ways. First of all was decided to establish a post to examine goods on the spot, and to take the customs duties there. For this purpose the inspector of Derbent outpost of Baku customs-house Dyachenkov looked for a suitable place in Derbent and Guba, but could not find (Otnoshenie gen. Ermolova k gen. Kankrinu, 31.08.1824, 1874. P. 235236).

There is information about the plans of the Russian government in the notes sent to Count Paskevich on the activities of the commission consisting of the state adviser Salvatori and the palace adviser I.F.Khripkov sent by Adjutant General Sinyaqin to the South Caucasus to inspect the Customs job. It was mentioned in the "Notes" that border outposts considered to be established in Astara and Lankaran can replace the outposts that would go into liquidation in Guba and Derbent, and the port of Derbent may be temporarily put under the control of the Baku customs house (Zapiska general-ad"yutanta Sinyagina ..., 1878. P. 131). It appears from the documents that despite certain proposals in this direction in the next few years, no practical steps were taken to implement them. In his official letter to the Minister of Finance Y.F. Kankrin on February 1, 1827 A.P. Yermolov stated that he was still in his previous opinion about the Derbent and Guba customs outposts, on the possibility of inspection of the Iranian goods brought to Derbent just on the spot, without sending them to Baku and Qizlar, providing with necessary regulations to entrust this job to the commandant of Derbent; once again stressed that otherwise the maintenance of these outposts was not profitable for

treasury (Otnoshenie gen. Ermolova k gen. Kankrinu, 01.02.1827,1874. P. 248).

Influence of customs-quarantine reforms on Darband's development: In

the "Regulations on the organization of trade and customs in Trans-Caucasian region" issued by His Majesty on June 3, 1831, the customs outpost of Derbent was subjected to the customs house of Baku. Staff of the check-point would include 1 controller paid 350 silver rubles per year, 1 storage watchman - 250 rubles, 2 clerks each paid 150 and 100 silver rubles, 3 custom-checkers paid 50 rubles for each. The treasury had to spend a total of 1350 silver rubles for keeping the customs outpost in Derbent (Kozubskiy, 1906. P. 149; Guliev, 2014, P. 76). As a result, in 1832, from the customs outpost in Derbent goods worth of 1168327 rubles 10 kopecks was let out, and goods worth of 40430 rubles 20 kopecks was brought in (Otnoshenie barona Rozena k t.s. Bludovu, 1881. P. 141).

Beginning from the 30s of the nineteenth century, in order to prevent the infectious diseases brought together with goods from different places it started to be organized the quarantines with dispensaries to examine the people, goods and ships came here from the places where epidemic diseases had outburst. For this purpose, in 1835, the quarantine and customs line was founded (Garunova, 2015. P. 91). So these dispensaries being organized within the country and at the border points were divided into two parts. Der-bent quarantine station together with Baku, Salyan, Lankaran and Javad was considered to be the domestic quarantine (Otnoshenie barona Rozena k t.s. Bludovu, 1881. P. 137). Goods imported by sea from Anzali, Rasht, Astarabad, Turkmenistan after being examined in Derbent quarantine station was let into the territory of the empire (Otnoshenie barona Rozena k t.s. Bludovu, 1881. P. 141). The Derbent quarantine station was given 2 boats with 8 rowers and 1 sea guides (sea pilots) on each in order to control from the sea

(Otnoshenie barona Rozena k t.s. Bludovu, 1881. P. 144).

According to the project given for approval to the member of State Council, Senator Baron P.V. Qan in connection with the quarantine department in the Caucasus it was intended to establish quarantine stations in the distance from the Caspian Sea to the Black Sea along the ridge of the Caucasus Mountains in Sukhumqala, Vladikavkaz and Derbent. The purpose of these stations was to protect the Caucasus region from infectious diseases (Otnoshenie gen. Golovina kgr. Kleynmikhelyu, 1883. P. 63).

In 1844, Derbent customs frontier post becoming Derbent customs outpost was subjected to the Baku border and port customs-house. In 1847, the customs and quarantine departments in Port-Petrovsk and Derbent were unified. In accordance with the regulations from May 4, 1847, by giving a new staff to customs and quarantine post in Derbent, following year the quarantine department was placed on the shore (Kozubskiy, 1906. P. 202). In the coming years certain structural changes were made in the customs department of Derbent. As a result, in 1861 it was called as the 3rd grade quarantine and customs frontier post, and in 1875, as the quarantine and customs post (Garunova, 2015. P. 91).

RESULTS

Derbent, which was on cross of the international trade routes for Czarist Russia primarily was an important port city in its trade relations with Qajar Iran. Therefore, organizing the customs system in Derbent was on the agenda from the occupation of the city by Russian troops. During the investigation of the problem of customs and quarantine work in Derbent, it was concluded that Derbent customs-quarantine had a special place in the customs system of the Russian Empire in the South Caucasus. Derbent customs-quarantine was entrusted with important functions such as to smuggle various goods - including weapons, political literature entry, as well as the prevention of various infectious diseases from inner part of the Gajar Iran and Ottoman Empire's.

Литература

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18. Предположение, где нужно более и в каких именно пунктах постановить сухопутный по реке Куре и вообще на границе, прилегающей к Персии... заставы... (Составлен директором Астраханской портовой таможни н.с. Ивановым для ген. Тормасова) // АКАК. Т. IV. Тифлис, 1870.

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ИНФОРМАЦИЯ ОБ АВТОРЕ / INFORMATION ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Азизова Махира Афсар-кызы

Преподаватель кафедры дипломатии и международных отношений, Бакинский славянский университет; E-mail: mahiraaziz@mail.ru

Mahira A. Azizova

Lecturer at the Department of Diplomacy and International Relations, Baku Slavic University; E-mail: mahiraaziz@mail.ru

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