Научная статья на тему 'The khans of Karabakh: the elder line by generations'

The khans of Karabakh: the elder line by generations Текст научной статьи по специальности «История и археология»

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THE KARABAKH KHANATE / SHUSHA / THE JEVANSHIR CLAN / PANAH ALI KHAN / IBRAHIM KHALIL KHAN / MEKHTI QULI KHAN / JAFAR QULI AGHA / TRANSFER TO RUSSIA / MURDER OF THE SECOND KHAN OF KARABAKH / ABOLITION OF POWER OF THE KHANS / HEIR TO THE KARABAKH KHANATE / HEAD OF THE KHAN HOUSE OF KARABAKH

Аннотация научной статьи по истории и археологии, автор научной работы — Ismailov Eldar Elkhan Ogly

The author goes into the history of one of the Jevanshir (Cavanşir in Azeri) clans of the khans of the Karabakh Khanate, a feudal state and fragment of the vast empire of Nadir Shah Afshar (1736-1747) that existed in Northern Azerbaijan from 1747 to 1822. In 1805, the khans became vassals of the Russian Empire; in November 1822, the power of the khans was abolished, while the khanate became one of the empire’s territories ruled from St. Petersburg.

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Текст научной работы на тему «The khans of Karabakh: the elder line by generations»

Eldar Elkhan ogly ISMAILOV

Corresponding Member, International Academy of Genealogy (France);

Member, Russian Historical Genealogical Society (Moscow, the Russian Federation).

THE KHANS OF KARABAKH: THE ELDER LINE BY GENERATIONS

Abstract

The author goes into the history of one of the Jevanshir (Cavan§ir in Azeri) clans of the khans of the Karabakh Khanate, a feudal state and fragment of the vast empire of Nadir Shah Afshar (17361747) that existed in Northern Azerbaijan

from 1747 to 1822. In 1805, the khans became vassals of the Russian Empire; in November 1822, the power of the khans was abolished, while the khanate became one of the empire's territories ruled from St. Petersburg.

KEYWORDS: the Karabakh Khanate, Shusha, the Jevanshir clan,

Panah Ali Khan, Ibrahim Khalil Khan, Mekhti Quli Khan, Jafar Quli Agha, transfer to Russia, murder of the second khan of Karabakh, abolition of power of the khans, heir to the Karabakh Khanate, head of the khan house of Karabakh.

Introduction

My previous article "The Khans of Karabakh"1 looks at the history of the Jevanshir khans, the story of unification of the khanate with the Russian Empire, the death of the second khan of Karabakh, the abolition of power of the khans, and the introduction of Russia's direct rule.

The present paper traces the fates of all the generations of the clan's elder line ascending from Ibrahim Khalil Khan's elder son Muhammad Hasan Agha, who became the heir to the Karabakh Khanate under the treaty signed on 14 May, 1805 by Ibrahim Khalil Khan and Infantry General Prince Tsitsianov, Commander-in-Chief of the Russian troops in Georgia, who acted in the name of Emperor Alexander I.

Here you will not find detailed biographies of the Karabakh khans that figured in the previous article. I concentrated on the life story of Muhammad Hasan Agha's elder son Jafar Quli Agha, who remained the legal heir to the Karabakh Khanate until the power of the khans was abolished in 1822. His descendants are the elders of the clan of Karabakh khans.

1 See: E.E. Ismailov, "The Khans of Karabakh: The Roots, Subordination to the Russian Empire, and Liquidation of the Khanate," The Caucasus & Globalization, Volume 8, Issue 1-2, pp. 127-154.

THE CAUCASUS & GLOBALIZATION

In the second quarter of the nineteenth century, the descendants of the khans of Karabakh who lived in the Russian Empire began using the Russified version of their clan name Jevanshir; this name became officially registered by the Shusha Bek Commission, which worked in Karabakh in 18701874; members of the younger lines of the same Karabakh family used the names of Panakhkhanovs (Panakhanovs), Begbudovs, Saryjalinskys, etc.

In May 1870, Second Captain of Cavalry Ahmed-bek Jevanshir, the author of political history of the Karabakh Khanate, pointed out in his application to the Shusha Bek Commission that the family name Jevanshir had belonged to Panah Ali Khan, the founder of the clan and to his descendants. The Ruling Senate registered this family name "on the strength of the firman that we presented to the Senate; it had been granted by Shah of Persia Karim Khan Zand to Mehrali-bek, one of our common ancestors, as the Beglyarbek, that is, the ruler of the Karabakh Khanate." The reference is to the youngest of Panah Ali Khan's sons who ruled the khanate while his father was fighting in Urmia together with his army and stayed in Shiraz.

He further wrote: "The fact that this name belonged to our ancestors is confirmed by the inscriptions on the tombstones of many of our ancestors that can still be seen at the cemetery in Agdam, other historical documents issued by Persian shahs kept in the family, quoted in Persian and Turkish history books about the events in which our ancestors were involved and, finally, the names of our relatives who descended from our common ancestor Panah Khan and who now live in Persia."

Ahmed-bek Jevanshir pointed out that his family name was translated into Russian as "young lion" and that there were many legends (some of them contradictory) about the origins of his family name. According to one of them, the name Jevanshir was a distorted Mongolian military term "javan-gar," meaning the right wing of the army. According to another legend, the title "young lion" was conferred on one of his ancestors by Persian shahs in recognition of "his special bravery in battle."

He concluded his application to the commission with, "Anyway, this name belongs only to those members of the khan family who directly descend from Panah Ali Khan," and pointed out that "we reject an appropriation of this name by any other relatives descending by the female line from Panah Khan or his relatives as unfair and if our claims are recognized we will never accept this."2

Under Soviet power, the name Jevanshir became Jevanshirov; in the 1920s the members of the elder line of the khan family began using this (Russified.—Ed.) version (more of them below). In the latter half of the twentieth century, the previous spelling Jevanshirov was changed to Javanshi-rov, to match the Azeri spelling. Below I will keep to the following pattern: from the seventeenth century to the 1920s—Jevanshir; from the 1920s to the 1950s—Jevanshirov, and from the 1950s to the present—Javanshirov.

The male descendants of Ibrahim Khalil Khan who lived in the Russian Empire in the nineteenth-early twentieth centuries were, as a rule, titled Agha; their wives and daughters were called Begum; and the descendants of Ibrahim Khalil Khan's brothers were "beks" and "khanums," respectively.

The Elder Line of the Khans of Karabakh by Generations

My previous article "The Khans of Karabakh" contains an ascending genealogy of the khans of Karabakh presented as a Table with four versions of the first generations of the Jevanshirs.

Three of the versions were borrowed from printed sources, namely, the work of Mirza Adigezal-bek, an Azeri historian of the first half of the nineteenth century, called Karabakh-name; "Rodo-

2 The State Historical Archives of the Azerbaijan Republic (hereinafter GIAAR), rec. gr. 69, inv. 1, f. 6 (On the request of Abas-bek and Agha-bek Jevanshirov to count them as belonging to the bek estate, 5 April, 1870-31 January, 1873), sheets 6-11rev.

THE CAUCASUS & GLOBALIZATION

slovnaia Ibrahim-khana i ego detey" (Genealogy of Ibrahim Khan and His Children) published in Vol. II of Akty kavkazskoy arkheograficheskoy komissii (Acts of the Caucasian Archeographic Commission); and Genealogicheskaia tablitsa Karabakhskikh khanov (The Genealogical Table of the Karabakh Khans) compiled by E. Shukiur-zade, a Soviet Azeri historian of the latter half of the twentieth century.

The fourth version is my own genealogical reconstruction based on primary sources: Iskender-bek Munshi's list of the emirs of 1628 and information derived from the firman of 1672/1673 quoted by Mir Mekhti Khazani in Kitabi-Tarixi Qarabag.

I have already written in the previous article that the four versions of the genealogy of the first four generations of the Jevanshirs have only one position in common—the name of Ibrahim Khalil Agha (II), father of Panah Ali Khan, the first khan of Karabakh—of the third generation. The genealogical table published in Vol. II of the Akty and the Table compiled by Shukyur-zade share the name of Panah Ali Khan's grandfather, who belonged to the second generation.

The Genealogical Table of the Khans of Karabakh, which I compiled and published in the present article (see pp. 160-161), contains all versions of the first two generations. I start my generation-by-generation description from the third generation.

The first figure that appears before the name in the generation-by-generation description points to the person's ordinal number in the Table, and the second to the ordinal number of his (her) father.

III Generation

> 3/2. Ibrahim Khalil Agha (II).

Head of the Jevanshir tribe and Otuziki mahal by inheritance.

> 4/2. Iskender-bek.

Younger brother of Ibrahim Khalil Agha (II); the descendants of his two sons—Mirza Khan-bek and Amir Khan-bek used the family name of Saryjalinsky since the mid-nineteenth century3 (not shown in the present Table).

IV Generation

> 5/3. Fazl Ali-bek (?-1738).

Elder son of Ibrahim Khalil Agha (II); served Nadir Shakh (1736-1747) as "eshigagasi" (an official who supervised the palace) and was murdered.4

> 6/3. Panah Ali Khan (c. 16935-July/August 17596).

Founder and the first khan of the Karabakh Khanate in 1747-1759. He was married to a sister of Sekhl Ali-bek, head of the Kebirlu clan.7

3 GIAAR, rec. gr. 69, inv. 1, f. 23 (On a request of the people living in the Shusha District Pasha-bek ogly Jevanshirov, Ahmed-bek Husseyn-bek ogly to include them in the bek estate, 5-23 May, 1870).

4 See: Mirza Adigezal-bek, Karabakh-name, Baku, 1950, p. 51.

5 This date is quoted in the book of Firudin of Shusha without specifying the source (see: F. Shushinsky, Shusha, Baku,

1968).

6 Not infrequently, the date of his death is cited as 1762, yet according to the tombstone, today kept at the National Museum of History of Azerbaijan, Panah Ali Khan died precisely in July/August 1759 (see footnote by E. Shukyur-zade on

p. 102 of A.-B. Javanshir, O politicheskom sushchestvovanii Karabakhskogo khanstva (s 1747po 1805 god), Baku, 1961).

7 See: Mirza Jamal Jevanshir Karabakhsky, IstoriaKarabakha, Baku, 1959, p. 119.

THE CAUCASUS & GLOBALIZATION

> 7/3. Begbut Ali-bek.

Brother of Panah Ali Khan8; since the mid-nineteenth century the descendants of his three sons—Abdus Samed-bek, Mirza Ali-bek and Kasum-bek—have been using the names of Jevan-shir, Begbutovs and Rustambekovs9 (not shown in the present genealogical table).

V Generation

> 8/6. Ibrahim Khalil Khan (c. 1726-27 May, 1806).

Elder son of Panah Ali Khan.

Khan of Karabakh in 1760-1806.

On 14 May, 1805, he signed an agreement on the transfer of the Karabakh Khanate to the Russian Empire. Under the treaty he preserved complete autonomy and recognized the supreme power of the Russian emperor.

In turn, "His Imperial Majesty ... promises in his name and the names of his heirs ... to keep His High Dignity Ibrahim Khan and the house of his heirs and descendants as khans of Shusha."10

On 8 July, 1805, Ibrahim Khalil Khan was promoted to Lieutenant-General by a royal decree.11

In the small hours of 27 May, 1806,12 Ibrahim Khalil Khan, one of his wives, two small children, and thirteen courtiers died in an attack on their camp (four versts from Shusha) ordered by Major Lisanevich and carried out by the chasseurs of the 17th regiment.13 The details are found in the previous article.

A.-K. Bakikhanov described Ibrahim Khalil Khan as "an enterprising, openhearted, and just man who could be cruelly strict."14

Mirza Jamal Jevanshir, the last vizier of the Karabakh Khanate, wrote about Ibrahim Khalil Khan as a "hospitable man who helped foreigners, patronized orphans, and looked after [his] subjects. [He was] energetic, brave, and generous, as a benefactor he distributed grants among big seids and the poor and patronized ulems and seids. He helped all those who sought refuge with him. The khans and beks of the nearby [districts] and vilayets of Azerbaijan, Shirvan etc. relied on his favors; he tried to help them and fulfill their wishes. He was especially fond of the company of beautiful women."15

8 The Russian State Historical Archives (hereinafter RGIA), rec. gr. 1268, inv. 2, f. 731b (On the proposal of Vicegerent of the Caucasus Adjutant General Prince Vorontsov to grant certain persons who belong to khan families beyond the Caucasus real estate in this territory and on declining this proposal because these families had been granted life rent, 26 December, 184729 July, 1865), sheets 104rev.-105.

9 Q. Qingizoglu, "Behbudsli aganin torsmssi," Azsrbaycan Tarixi §зсзгз Csmiyystinin ХзЬзгЬгі, 5-ci buraxih§, Baki, 2004. S. 18-29 (E. Chingizoglu, "Bekhbudali Agha's Descendants," Izvestia of the Azerbaijani Historical and Genealogical Society, Issue 5, Baku, 2004, pp. 18-29).

10 [Draft treaty of 14.05.1805 on the adoption of citizenship of the Russian Empire by Ibrahim Khan of Shusha and Karabakh and his family, descendants and possessions,] in: Akty, sobrannye Kavkazskoyu arkheograficheskoyu kommissieyu (hereinafter AKAK), Vol. II, Tiflis, 1868, p. 705, Doc. No. 1436.

11 See: Ibid., pp. 712-713, Doc. No. 1456.

12 See: P.O. Bobrovsky, Istoria 13-go leyb-grenaderskogo Erivanskogo Ego Velichestva polka za 250 let, Part III, St. Petersburg, 1893, p. 245.

13 See: Mirza Jamal Jevanshir Karabakhsky, op. cit., p. 96.

14 A.-K. Bakikhanov, Golestan-e Eram (The Blooming Flower Garden), ed. by Z.M. Buniyatov with his commentaries, notes and indices, Baku, 1991, p. 188.

15 Mirza Jamal Jevanshir Karabakhsky, op. cit., p. 103.

THE CAUCASUS & GLOBALIZATION

Wives of Ibrahim Khalil Khan16:

(1) Khanum Agha (Khanum Khanuma), daughter of minbashi Nabi Kalantar Jevanshir; her sons are entered under Nos. 16 and 17;

(2) Tutu Begum (1740-1760), daughter of Shakhverdi Khan II of Ganja, sister of Javad Khan of Ganja (died childless and was buried in Ganja);

(3) (from 1761) Khurshid Begum (1743-?), daughter of Shakhverdi Khan II of Ganja; sister of Javad Khan of Ganja (her son is entered under No. 18 and two daughters under Nos. 29 and 30);

(4) Bike Khanum (Bakhtika) (born after 1744), daughter of Muhammad Nutsal IV, Khan of Avaria; sister of Umma Khan (Omar Khan) of Avaria (her sons are entered under Nos. 20 and 22 and daughter under No. 34);

(5) N.-Khanum, daughter of Allahyar-bek Ungutlinsky (her son is entered under No. 21);

(6) (since 1783) Jevahir Khanum (Sofia), daughter of Prince Evgeniy Abashidze (her son is entered under No. 25 and daughter under No. 35);

(7) Shakhnisa Khanum, daughter of Badyr Khan Shahsevenskiy (of Ardebil); (her daughters are entered under Nos. 31, 32 and 33);

(8) Muresse Khanum, daughter of Gul Mali-bek Saryjalinsky (her daughter is entered under No. 37);

(9) Tuba Khanum (?-27 May, 1806), sister of Selim Khan of Sheki;

(10) Khurizat Khanum, daughter of Melik Shahnazar Varandskiy (died childless);

(11) N.-Khanum, daughter of Mirza Rabi, vizier of King Irakly II of Kakhetia (her daughter is entered under No. 36);

(12) Khatay Khanum, daughter of Melik Bakhtam of Dizak (her sons are entered under Nos. 23 and 24);

(13) Rugam (Khanum) (her son is entered under No. 19)—"an Armenian girl from the Nakhchivanik village" "temporary wife" (probably concubine);

(14) Khadija (Khanum) (her son is entered under No. 26)—"a Tatar girl from Sham-shadil," an Azeri girl from the village of Begramlu, "temporary wife";

(15) Sona Khanum (?-after 1844) (her son is entered under No. 27)—"an Armenian girl from the village of Tug," "temporary wife";

(16) Ana Khanum (her son is entered under No. 28)—"daughter of Haji Kerim from Shusha," "temporary wife."

16 GIAAR, rec. gr. 290, inv. 2, f. 1046 (On a request of people from Shusha Jevad Agha, Hussein Agha and Najaf Quli Agha, sons of late Idayat Agha Jevanshir to give them a document on their ages and kinship with David Khan Agalarov Jevanshir, 1890); Genealogy of Ibrahim Khalil Khan and his children, in: AKAK, Vol. II, pp. 695-696, Doc. No. 1415; [Hajji Kha-mid Efendi, Mufti of Transcaucasia,] Genealogy of the khans of Ganja, in: AKAK, Vol. VI, Part II, Tiflis, 1875, pp. 905-906; "The Most Devoted Request of Jevahir Khanum, widow of Ibrahim Khan of 16 January, 1807," in: AKAK, Vol. III, Tiflis, 1869, p. 343, Doc. No. 627; T.M. Aytberov, "Materialy po khronologii i genealogii pravitely Avarii (VIII-XIX vv.)," Istoch-nikovedenie srednevekovogo Dagestana, Makhachkala, 1986, pp. 147-163; E.E. Ismailov, "The Rising Genealogy (Five Generations) of Khurshidbanu Beim Natavan," (in Russian), in: Azsrbaycan Tarixi §зсзгз Csmiyystinin ХзЬзгІзгі, 1-ci buraxih§, Baki, 2000. S. 34-40; Mirza Jamal Jevanshir Karabakhsky, op. cit., p. 105.

THE CAUCASUS & GLOBALIZATION

> 9/6. Mehrali-bek (?-1785).

Son of Panah Ali Khan; in 1759 ruled the Karabakh Khanate in the absence of his father and elder brother; murdered by Ahmed-bek, son of Agasi Khan of Shirvan.17 His descendants had the family names of Jevanshir or Jevanshirovs.

> 10-15/6. Talyb Khan-bek, Kelbali-bek, Agasi-bek, Alimadat-bek, Nasir-bek, Alipa-sha-bek.

Sons of Panah Ali Khan; when the Karabakh Khanate became part of the Russian Empire, their descendants had the family names of Jevanshir, Jevanshirovs, Panakhkhanovs (not shown in the present genealogical table).

VI Generation

> 16/8. Javad Agha.

Elder son of Ibrahim Khalil Khan, died young.

18

> 17/8. Muhammad Hasan Agha (Mamed Hasan Agha) (?-19 November, 1805).

Son of Ibrahim Khalil Khan by his "first legal and permanent wife" Khanum Agha of Jevanshir.19

When, on 14 May, 1805, his father signed a treaty under which the Karabakh Khanate became part of the Russian Empire, Muhammad Hasan Agha was recognized as the legal heir to the khanate. Prince Tsitsianov, who commanded the Russian troops in Georgia, suggested that he be promoted to Major General and awarded a gold medal with diamonds and a ligature "For Loyalty."20

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On 8 July, 1805, he was promoted to Major General by a royal decree "with full salary."21 The decree reached Prince Tsitsianov in Tiflis on 17 August, 180522; it was sent to Muhammad Hasan Agha much later, on 1 October, 1805, together with a letter of congratulations from Prince Tsitsianov which contained information that the medal was being made at the cabinet of H.I.M.23

In August 1805, Muhammad Hasan Agha fell gravely ill24 and died on 19 November, 1805 of tuberculosis. The death of Muhammad Hasan Agha, of whom Prince Tsitsianov wrote as "the most devoted and the most loyal slave" of the emperor, deprived the Russians of their "best support in Karabakh" since none of the khan family was "more loyal to Russia and served better than he."25

In June 1823, when Karabakh became one of the provinces of the Russian Empire, General Yermolov granted an annual pension of 250 silver rubles to the mother of late Major General Muhammad Hasan Agha, an old woman who had lost her eyesight.26

17 See: A.-B. Javanshir, O politicheskom sushchestvovanii Karabakhskogo khanstva (s 1747po 1805 god), p. 60.

18 See: Mirza Jamal Jevanshir Karabakhsky, op. cit., p. 105.

19 GIAAR, rec. gr. 290, inv. 2, f. 1046; Genealogy of Ibrahim Khan and his children, Doc. No. 1415.

20 AKAK, Vol. II, pp. 702-705, Doc. No. 1436; GIAAR, rec. gr. 69, inv. 1, f. 6, sheets 44-44rev.

21 AKAK, Vol. II, pp. 712-713, Doc. No. 1456.

22 Ibid., pp. 718-719, Doc. No. 1471.

23 See: Ibid., p. 722, Doc. Nos. 1477, 1478.

24 See: Ibid., p. 718, Doc. No. 1469.

25 Ibid., pp. 725-726, Doc. No. 1485.

26 See: Ibid., Vol. VI, Part I, Tiflis, 1874, p. 860, Doc. No. 1313.

THE CAUCASUS & GLOBALIZATION

The wives of Muhammad Hasan Agha27 were:

(1) Heyr Nisa Begum (Heyr En Nisa Begyum), daughter of Shakhverdi Khan II of Ganja; sister of Javad Khan of Ganja (her sons are entered under Nos. 44, 45, 46 and the daughter under No. 47);

(2) Magi Sharef Khanum, sister of Jafar Quli Khan Khoysky (her son is entered under No. 48).

"To reward the diligence and loyalty of late Mamed Hasan Agha, his salary of Major General, as it was late in 1806, was granted in equal shares to his widows—Heyr Nisa Begum and Magi Sharef Khanum."28

> 18/8. Mekhti Quli Khan (c. 1763 or c. 1772-14 May, 1845, Agdam).

Son of Ibrahim Khalil Khan by Hurshid Begum of Ganja.29 According to the report submitted by Prince Tsitsianov, he was 33 in November 1805.30

Khan of Karabakh in 1806-1822.

In May 1805, when his father signed a treaty on the transfer of the Karabakh Khanate to the Russian Empire, Mekhti Quli Agha was promoted to Major General by a royal decree of 8 July, 1805 at the suggestion of Commander-in-Chief in Georgia Prince Tsitsianov.31

Early in September 1806, after the murder of Ibrahim Khalil Khan, Mekhti Quli Agha was confirmed as the khan of Karabakh32 on a recommendation of the Russian military command in the Caucasus; Jafar Quli Agha, son of the elder brother of Major General Muhammad Hasan Agha, an heir apparent, was pushed aside.

On 11 November, 1806, Major General Mekhti Quli Khan came to Tiflis, where he swore allegiance to Emperor Alexander I in the presence of Commander-in-Chief of the Georgia Infantry General Gudovich.33 After the ceremony, Count Gudovich handed Mekhti Quli Khan the royal deed the czar had signed early in September 1806, which confirmed his new status.34

On 7 January, 1807, Foreign Minister of Russia Baron Budberg wrote to Count Gudovich that according to the wishes of Emperor Alexander I, the symbols of khan power—a banner with the Russian imperial insignia and a sword with precious stones intended for late Ibrahim Khalil Khan—dispatched after Prince Tsitsianov's death, should be handed to Major General Mekhti Quli Khan of Karabakh.35

In 1816-1827, General Yermolov, as the Vicegerent of the Caucasus, posed himself the task of depriving the Azeri khans of their possessions.36 On 21 November, 1822, Mekhti Quli Khan had to flee to Persia; soon thereafter, in December 1822, the power of the khans in Kara-bakh was abolished.

On 9 December, 1822, his wives were sent out of Karabakh.37 Mekhti Quli Khan crossed the border of the Erivan Khanate and, together with his family, reached Nakhchivan via the mahal of Sharur.38

27 See: Genealogy of Ibrahim Khalil Khan and his children, Doc. No. 1415; [Hajji Khamid Efendi, Mufti of Transcaucasia,] Genealogy of the khans of Ganja, pp. 905-906.

28 AKAK, Vol. III, Tiflis, 1869, p. 270, Doc. No. 484.

29 See: Genealogy of Ibrahim Khan and his children, Doc. No. 1415.

30 See: AKAK, Vol. II, pp. 725-726, Doc. No. 1485.

31 See: Ibid., pp. 712-713, Doc. No. 1456.

32 See: Ibid., Vol. III, pp. 333-334, Doc. No. 609.

33 See: Ibid., p. 338, Doc. No. 618.

34 See: Ibid., pp. 336-337, Doc. No. 613.

35 See: Ibid., p. 330, Doc. No. 601; p. 342, Doc. No. 625.

36 See: Ibid., Vol. VI, Part I, p. V.

37 See: Ibid., p. 852, Doc. No. 1303.

38 See: Ibid., pp. 860-861, Doc. No. 1314.

THE CAUCASUS & GLOBALIZATION

The Persian government gave Mekhti Quli Khan an annual salary of 6 thousand tumans and leased out to him the incomes from the Gerger Province?9

In March 1827, at the height of the Second Russo-Persian War of 1826-1828, Infantry General Ivan Paskevich replaced General Yermolov as Commander of the Separate Caucasian Corps and head of the Caucasian Area.40 The newly appointed official deemed it politically expedient to lure the former khan of Karabakh onto Russia's side "to stem discontent in the border region, where people were displeased with the humiliation of their former ruler." The Russian general hoped to rely on Mekhti Quli Khan's "vast friendly contacts and kinship with the most important people in Persia or even with the shah through Mekhti Quli Khan's sister, who was one of the khan's favorite wives."41

Negotiations were entrusted to Colonel Prince Ivan Abkhazov, who had replaced General Madatov as military chief of the Muslim provinces. Sub-lieutenant Mirza Adigezak-bek (the future author of Karabakh-name (History of Karabakh) and Prince Ivan Melikov, who served under Prince Abkhazov, were selected for the most responsible and hazardous part of the mission, viz. direct contacts, and coped brilliantly. Early in June 1827, General Paskevich reported to Chief of Staff Count Dibich, "I have the honor to inform Your Excellency that the talks about pulling Mekhti Quli Khan onto our side were successful. On the 8th of this month, I received a dispatch from Karabakh that the khan had returned. On the way back, he was pursued by Persian cavalry, lost all of his carts, but safely reached Ak Karavanserai, where our troops met him. Three thousand nomadic families are following him from Daralagez to our domains."42

Vasily Potto quoted one of the members of the Russian unit who met Mekhti Quli Khan at Ak Karavanserai: "He was met with honors and brought to the tent of General Pankratiev." The eyewitnesses said that "he was an old man of 60 with a short and thin grey beard, dull and lifeless eyes, tall and thin, and carried himself proudly, a habit learned when he was the real ruler of Karabakh."43

There are earlier descriptions of his appearance. In his memoirs, Spaniard Juan Van Halen, who as a major of the Nizhny Novgorod Dragoon Regiment (1819-1820) fought in the Caucasus, wrote that in 1820 Mekhti Quli Khan "looked like a man of forty or fifty; he was rather tall, his face, eyes, and beard were the same color as that of most Tatars (Azeris.—E.I.); half of his nose was missing, which he lost as a young man when fighting the Persians. In May, the khan left the capital to live outside it in a beautiful tower that stood in the mountains close to the road to Shahbulag; his harem was also there."44

On 7 July, 1827, under a royal decree, Mekhti Quli Khan received an annual grant of 4 thousand chervontsy and the right to administer the families who had come with him from Persia.45

In the same year, he was restored in his military rank of Major General and got back his personal land (1,315 households with the land attached to them); the emperor gave him a diamond pen.46

On 30 April, 1838, "according to information supplied by the Chief Commander in Georgia about his outstanding services to Russia and loyalty to the Throne of All Russia and to

39 See: AKAK, Vol. VII, Tiflis, 1878, pp. 457-458, Doc. No. 406.

40 See: Ibid., p. 1.

41 Ibid., pp. 453-455, Doc. No. 402.

42 Ibidem.

43 V. Potto, Kavkazskaia voyna v otdelnykh ocherkakh, epizodakh, legendakh i biografiiakh, Vol. III, Issue III, St. Petersburg, 1888, p. 413.

44 Kavkazskaia voyna: istoki i nachalo. 1770-1820 gody, "Vospominaniya uchastnikov Kavkazskoy voyny XIX veka" Series, St. Petersburg, 2002, p. 420.

45 See: AKAK, Vol. VII, pp. 453-455. Doc. No. 402.

46 See: Kolonialnaiapolitika rossiyskogo tsarizma v Azerbaidzhane v 20-60-kh gg. XIX v., Parts I-II, Part II, Comp. by N.G. Bogdanova, Ya.M. Pritykin, ed. by I.P. Petrushevskiy, Moscow, Leningrad, 1936-1937, pp. 45-47.

THE CAUCASUS & GLOBALIZATION

demonstrate special benevolence," Major General Mekhti Quli Khan of Karabakh was awarded the Order of St. Anne First Class.47

According to archival documents, "His High Dignity Major General Knight of the Order of St. Anne First Class Mekhti Quli Khan died after seven days of illness at 7 a.m. in Agdam on 14 May, 1845;"48 he was buried there at the family cemetery. The tombstone carries an inscription in Arabic: "This is the burial of late and forgiven General Mekhti Qulu, son of Ibrahim Khalil Khan."49

The wives of Mekhti Quli Khan50 were:

(1) Khankhanum Begum, daughter of his uncle Mehrali-bek Jevanshir (see No. 42/9);

(2) Sarai Khanum, daughter of Ahmed Khan Karachorlinsky;

(3) Magi Sharef Khanum Khoyskaya, widow of his elder brother Muhammad Hasan Agha;

(4) Badir Jahan Begum (1802-1861), daughter of Ugurlu Khan (III) of Ganja (she gave birth to daughter Khurshid Banu Begum Natavan, more details below).

After the death of her husband, Badir Jahan Begum was granted an annual life pension of one thousand chervontsy by a royal decree of 3 September, 1846; she remained the owner of the landed property she had received from Mekhti Quli Khan under their marriage contract.51 In 1861, after her death, their daughter Khurshid Banu Begum inherited it.52

According to information related to 1849-1851, "Badyr Jan Begum, widow of Lieutenant General Mekhti Quli Khan" (a slip of the pen; it should be "widow of Major General"), was a member of the Shemakha Department of the St. Nina Female Charity.53

> 19/8. Abulfat Agha (1766-1839).

Son of Ibrahim Khalil Khan by Rugan Khanum.54

In 1796, when Russian troops led by General Zubov had occupied several big towns in Azerbaijan and Daghestan, Ibrahim Khalil Khan sent his son Abulfat Agha to the Russian camp. Mirza Jamal Jevanshir, the last vizier of the Karabakh Khanate, left us a description of this mission: "While Agha Muhammad Shah was still at Fars and Khorasan, General-in-Chief Count Valerian Zubov, on the orders of Her Majesty Empress Catherine, arrived with a large unit in the Derbent area, captured the Derbent fortress, and, after approaching the city of Shemakha, set up camp. Ibrahim Khan, on his own free will, sent his son Abulfat Khan and sons of several beks of Karabakh to Valerian Zubov with presents and pure-bred horses expressing his obedience and sincere feelings to the high Russian state. He had also written a request in which he expressed his loyalty to Her Majesty the Empress."55

47 See: Sankt-Peterburgskie senatskie vedomosti, No. 22, 28 May, 1838.

48 GIAAR, rec. gr. 77, inv. 1, f. 6, sheets 3-9.

49 Meshadi Khanum Neymatova, "Epigraficheskie pamiatniki Karabakha," in: Karabakh: istoria v kontekste konflikta, Comp. by K.K. Shukyurov, T.R. Bagiev, St. Petersburg, 2014, pp. 149-152.

50 See: Genealogy of Ibrahim Khalil Khan and his children, Doc. No. 1415; [Hajji Khamid Efendi, Mufti of Transcaucasia,] Genealogy of the khans of Ganja, pp. 905-906; E.E. Ismailov, "The Rising Genealogy (Five Generations) of Khurshidbanu Beim Natavan," pp. 34-40.

51 RGIA, rec. gr. 1268, inv. 2, f. 731b, sheets 85rev.-89.

52 GIAAR, rec. gr. 123, inv. 1, f. 4 (Correspondence with the Tiflis Court on land disagreements that appeared during land-surveying of Hankendi, domain of the khan's daughter Khurshidbanu Begum. 1 September, 1870-9 October, 1874), sheet 6rev.

53 See: Kavkazskiy kalendar na 1849 god, Tiflis, 1848, p. 63; Kavkazskiy kalendar na 1850 god, Tiflis, 1849, p. 48; Kavkazskiy kalendar na 1851 god, Tiflis, 1850, p. 53.

54 See: Genealogy of Ibrahim Khalil Khan and his children, Doc. No. 1415.

55 Mirza Jamal Jevanshir Karabakhsky, op. cit., p. 81.

THE CAUCASUS & GLOBALIZATION

"They were all ready to become the loyal subjects of the great power when the empress suddenly died. Commander-in-Chief Zubov let Abulfat Khan, as well as the sons of the beks and elders of Karabakh, go back home with great honors and presents and informed Ibrahim Khan [through them] that he was returning [to Russia] on an order from Emperor Paul."56

In 1797, Ibrahim Khalil Khan had to agree to marry his daughter Agha Begum Agha to Fatali Shah and sent his son Abulfat Agha to the court of the shah, who "treated him as one of his noble emirs. After making him [one of[ his closest interlocutors, he invariably lavished honors on him."57

Later Abulfat Agha was made khan and headed the Persian units, in particular during the First Russo-Persian War of 1804-1813.

Under the Treaty of Gulistan signed on 12 October, 1813, part of the Karabakh territory (Kapan, Gyuney, Meghri, and Chugundur mahals with up to 4 thousand families)58 remained in Persia. Abulfat Agha became their ruler (the Gyuney and Meghri mahals had been transferred to him earlier by his father Ibrahim Khalil Khan).59

In June 1820, General Yermolov wrote to Foreign Minister Count Nesselrode that Mekhti Quli Khan, who at that time had no children, would like to see his younger brother Abulfat Khan his heir. He had repeatedly asked General Yermolov to let his brother come back. The general, who feared that Prince Abbas Mirza had too much influence on Abulfat Khan, who "enjoyed the special benevolence of Abbas Mirza," refused.60

Abulfat Agha also fought in the Second Russo-Persian War of 1826-1828, which deprived him of his lands occupied by Russia.

He was also known under the pseudonym Tuti, which he used as the author of poems and ghazals in Azeri and Persian. He died in Persia and was buried in the city of Qum (Iran).61

He was married to Nisa Khanum, daughter of Mirza Rabi, vizier of King Irakly II of Kakhetia and to Badir Khanum, daughter of Ismail Khan Agha Jevanshir; he had one daughter Govhar Nisa Begum62 and six sons: Muhammad Ali Khan, Abbas Quli Khan, Muhammad Quli Khan, Muhammad Tagi Khan, Abdul Hussein Khan, and Muhammad Ibrahim Khan Jevanshir63 (his descendants lived in Persia and are not shown in the present genealogical table).

> 20/8. Khanlar Agha (c. 1785-1832).

Son of Ibrahim Khalil Khan by Bike Khanum of Avaria.64 According to Prince Tsitsianov's report he was 20 in November 1805.65

Under the royal decree of 8 July, 1805, which followed the treaty of May 1805 signed by his father under which the Karabakh Khanate became part of the Russian Empire, Khanlar Agha was promoted to a colonel.66

56 Mirza Jamal Jevanshir Karabakhsky, op. cit., p. 83.

57 Ibid., p. 88.

58 See: AKAK, Vol. VI, Part I, p. 834, Doc. No. 1261.

59 See: Ibid., Vol. IV, pp. 751-752, Doc. No. 1148.

60 Ibid., Vol. VI, Part II, Tiflis, 1875, pp. 209-300, Doc. No. 422.

61 See: Бsjлsр Мsммsдов, Натзванын шаир гоhумлары, Бакы, 1989 (B.A. Mamedov, Natavan's Relatives (Literary Portraits), Baku, 1989).

62 See: Genealogy of Ibrahim Khalil Khan and his children, Doc. No. 1415.

63 See: Q. Qingizoglu, "QbUlfst xan Qarabaghrnn torsmssi," Az3rbaycan Tarixi §зсзгз Csmiyystinin ХзЬзгІзгі, 6-ci buraxih§, Baki, 2007. S. 55-70 (E. Chingizoglu, "Abulfat Khan of Karabakh's Descendants," Izvestia of the Azerbaijani Historical and Genealogical Society, Issue 6, Baku, 2007, pp. 55-70).

64 See: Genealogy of Ibrahim Khalil Khan and his children, Doc. No. 1415.

65 See: AKAK, Vol. II, pp. 725-726, Doc. No. 1485.

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66 See: Ibid., pp. 712-713, Doc. No. 1456.

THE CAUCASUS & GLOBALIZATION

On 27 May, 1806, Khanlar Agha and his father were in a summer camp where the latter was killed during a sudden attack by Major Lisanevich's chasseurs. "Frightened by this unexpected attack, Khanlar Agha fled to Persia where he remained until newly appointed Commander-in-Chief in Georgia Count Gudovich arrived in Tiflis. As soon as the new Commander-in-Chief reached Tiflis, Khanlar Agha approached him through his brother Mekhti Quli Khan 'to ask for forgiveness for his act and for permission to return to Karabakh'." He was forgiven and could immediately return to Karabakh, where on 16 April, 1807, he renewed his oath of allegiance, was restored to his old rank of lieutenant colonel, and started drawing his salary.67

Until 1823, Lieutenant Colonel Khanlar Agha could draw on the taxes derived from two leased budget items: rakhdar khane—trade in silk, alum, common madder, cotton, iron, steel and copper, hides, burkas, cloth, lambskin, petrol, Persian fruit, as well as commodities sold in villages (khavai-pulu) and the slaughter house: trade in horned and small cattle. In 1823, General Yermolov transferred the slaughter house and rakhdar khane to the treasury, which leased it off to private persons.68

Colonel Khanlar Agha was rewarded with an annual pension of 371.44 silver rubles; by the time the power of the khans was abolished the colonel owned ten villages and nomadic lands, inherited with the permission of Russian authorities; all of his possessions (except the annual pension) were inherited after his death in 1832 by his half-brother Ahmed Agha.69

> 21/8. Muhammad Kasum Agha (Mamed Kasum Agha, Mamed Kasim Agha) (?-before 1843).

Son of Ibrahim Khalil Khan by daughter of Allahyar-bek Ungutlinsky.70 Even if he had not been with his father when he was murdered by Major Lisanevich's chasseurs, he deemed it wise to follow the example of his elder brother Khanlar Agha; he fled to Persia and returned in the fall of 1807 under new Commander-in-Chief in Georgia Count Gudovich (1806-1809), was pardoned, and could resume his oath of allegiance.71

By December 1822, when the power of the Karabakh khans was abolished, he owned twelve villages and nomad lands; the Russian government confirmed his rights of inheritance.72 On 24 December, 1823, "on the strength of a report of Commander of the Separate Caucasian Corps Infantry General Yermolov on Muhammad Kasum Agha loyalty to the Russian Government and his well-intentioned behavior," he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant colonel with an annual salary of 600 silver rubles.73

Half of the salary was stopped after his death; the other half was paid to his heirs under a royal order of 28 October, 184374 and instructions of the Department of State Treasury of the Shemakha Treasury Chamber of 4 March, 1844.75

Muhammad Kasum Agha was married to Khadija Begum, daughter of his uncle Mehrali-bek Jevanshir (see No. 43/9)76 and to Gyusni Jahan Khanum. He had four sons—Najaf Quli Agha, Pasha Agha (c. 1820-?), Kerim Agha (1826-1907), and Kasum Agha (c. 1834-?) and two

67 See: Ibid., Vol. III, p. 346, Doc. No. 636.

68 See: Ibid., Vol. VI, Part I, pp. 852-855, Doc. No. 1305; pp. 856-858, Doc. No. 1308.

69 RGIA, rec. gr. 1268, inv. 2, f. 731b, pp. 89rev.-90.

70 See: Genealogy of Ibrahim Khalil Khan and his children, Doc. No. 1415.

71 See: AKAK, Vol. III, p. 346, Doc. No. 635.

72 The National Archives of Georgia (hereinafter NAG), rec. gr. 3, inv. 2, f. 120 (Correspondence ... on continued support of members of the khan families, 20.05.1844-28.05.1845), sheets 190rev.-191.

73 See: AKAK, Vol. VI, Part I, pp. 862-863, Doc. No. 1319.

74 NAG, rec. gr. 3, inv. 2, f. 120, sheets 190rev.-191.

75 RGIA, rec. gr. 1268, inv. 2, f. 731b, sheets 102rev.-105.

76 See: Mirza Jamal Jevanshir Karabakhsky, op. cit., p. 105; Genealogy of Ibrahim Khalil Khan and his children, Doc. No. 1415.

THE CAUCASUS & GLOBALIZATION

daughters—Jahan Khanum and Bala Khanum Jevanshir11 (not shown in the present genealogical table). Pasha Agha's grandson, called Begbud Agha Jevanshir (c. 1879-18.07.1921, Istanbul), stands apart from the rest of the descendants. He graduated from the Freiberg Mining Academy in Germany, was elected to the parliament during the Azerbaijan Republic of 1918-1920, and served as minister of the interior and minister of trade and economics in the second Cabinet. He was murdered in Istanbul by an Armenian terrorist, member of the Dashnaktsutiun Party.

> 22.8. Ahmed Agha (c. 1793 or c. 1795-died not later than 1851).

Son of Ibrahim Khalil Khan by Bike Khanum of Avaria.78

According to Prince Tsitsianov's report, he was 10 in November 1805.79

The financial survey of the beks of Shusha compiled in 1848 cited his age as 55.80

By the time the power of the khans was abolished in December 1822, Ahmed Agha had four villages and nomad lands in his possession, the rights to which had been granted by the Russian government; later he inherited the lands of his mother and his brother Colonel Khanlar Agha.81

Ahmed Agha was married to Gyuri Jahan Begum (c. 1820-?), daughter of Yusif Khan of Shamshadil; she bore him a son Khanlar Agha and a daughter Bike Agha JevanshirsS2( not shown in the present genealogical table). After her husband's death, Gyuri Jahan Begum married his nephew Lieutenant Colonel Suleyman Khan of Sheki (c. 1803-1858), son of Tuti Begum (see No. 32/8). They had one child, daughter Tuti Begum, born about 185283; this means that Ahmed Agha Jevanshir died before 1851.

His daughter Bike Agha was married to General Hasan-bek Agalarov (1815-after 1881), the last commander of the Transcaucasian Muslim Cavalry Regiment, Knight of the Order of St. George Fourth Class, and of all Russian orders up to St. Vladimir Second Class with swords.84

> 23/8. Hussein Quli Agha (?-before 1844).

Son of Ibrahim Khalil Khan by Khatay Khanum of Dizak.85

According to the description of the Karabakh province compiled on orders of General Yermolov, in 1823 Hussein Quli Agha had the Zengish Ali nomadic lands and a small income created by the budget items leased to him by Mekhti Quli Khan. General Yermolov left the lands under his management and in June 1823 replaced the income from the leased budget items with an annual pension of 450 silver rubles.86

He was married to Khurizat Khanum, daughter of Namaz-bek Saryjalinsky.87

> 24/8. Sefi Quli Agha (?-after 1862).

Son of Ibrahim Khalil Khan by Khatay Khanum of Dizak.88

11 GIAAR, rec. gr. 69, inv. 1, f. 6, sheets 63-65; RGIA, rec. gr. 1268, inv. 2, f. 731b, sheets 102rev.-105.

78 Genealogy of Ibrahim Khalil Khan and his children, Doc. No. 1415.

79 See: AKAK, Vol. II, pp. 725-726, Doc. No. 1485.

80 GIAAR, rec. gr. 10, inv. 1, f. 9 (Financial survey of the town of Shusha and a list of beks living in the town of Shusha compiled in 1848).

81 NAG, rec. gr. 3, inv. 2, f. 120, sheets 190rev.-191.

82 RGIA, rec. gr. 1268, inv. 2, f. 731b, sheets 89rev.-90.

83 GIAAR, rec. gr. 69, inv. 1, f. 6, sheets 29rev.-30, 73, 109-110rev.

84 See: E.E. Ismailov, Georgievskie kavalery-azerbaidzhantsy, Moscow, 2005, pp. 77-86.

85 See: Genealogy of Ibrahim Khalil Khan and his children, Doc. No. 1415.

86 See: AKAK, Vol. VI, Part I, p. 859, Doc. No. 1310.

87 See: Genealogy of Ibrahim Khalil Khan and his children, Doc. No. 1415.

88 See: Ibidem.

THE CAUCASUS & GLOBALIZATION

In December 1822, when the power of khans was abolished, Sefi Quli Agha had two villages in his possession. They were transferred to the treasury in 1822 when he and his elder brother Mekhti Quli Khan fled to Persia. After returning from Persia, his elder son inherited an estate left to him in the last will and testament by Hussein Quli Agha, the elder brother of Sefi Quli Agha.89

In 1847, according to available information, he was widowed; he had eight sons: Ismail Agha (c. 1820-?), Mustafa Agha (c. 1825-?), Gashim Agha (c. 1835-?), Mamed Agha (c. 1849-?), Hussein Quli Agha (c. 1850-?), Teymur Agha (c. 1855-?), Ashraf Agha (c. 1860-?), Hamza Agha Jevanshirs (c. 1862-?) and one daughter Zakhra Nisa Khanum Jevanshir90 (not shown in the present genealogical table).

> 25/8. Abbas Quli Agha (c. 1795-27 May, 1806).

Son of Ibrahim Khalil Khan by Princess Abashidze.91

Murdered at the age of 11 together with his father by chasseurs of Major Lisanevich.92

> 26/8. Sheikh Ali Agha (?-after 1847).

Son of Ibrahim Khalil Khan by Khadija Khanum.93

According to the description of the Karabakh province complied on the orders of General Yermolov, in 1823 Sheikh Ali Agha possessed the Kullar nomad lands. In June 1823, General Yermolov let Sheikh Ali Agha look after his former possessions and established an annual pension of 300 silver rubles.94

Sheikh Ali Agha was married to Nigar Khanum, who bore him seven sons: Hussein Ali Agha (c. 1820-?), Selim Agha (c. 1830-?), Ragim Agha (c. 1840-?), Geray Agha (c. 1845-?), Mamed Tagi Agha, Hasan Agha, Kyazum Agha (c. 1847-?) Jevanshirs and daughter Ayna Kha-num Jevanshir95 (not shown in the present genealogical table).

> 27/8. Suleyman Agha (?-before 1844).

Son of Ibrahim Khalil Khan by Sona Khanum.96

By the time the power of the khans was abolished in December 1822, Suleyman Agha had seven villages inherited on the strength of the rights confirmed by the Russian govern-

ment.97

He was married to Tyukezban Khanum, who bore him two sons, Shir Khan Agha (c. 1820-?) and Aslan Agha Jevanshirs98 (not shown in this work).

> 28/8. Fatali Agha.

Son of Ibrahim Khalil Khan by Ana Khanum.99

89 NAG, rec. gr. 3, inv. 2, f. 120, sheets 192rev.-193.

90 GIAAR, rec. gr. 69, inv. 1, f. 6, sheets 55-57; RGIA, rec. gr. 1268, inv. 2, f. 731b, sheets 95rev.-97.

91 See: Genealogy of Ibrahim Khalil Khan and his children, Doc. No. 1415.

92 See: AKAK, Vol. III, p. 343, Doc. No. 627.

93 See: Genealogy of Ibrahim Khalil Khan and his children, Doc. No. 1415.

94 See: AKAK, Vol. VI, Part I, pp. 859-860, Doc. No. 1311.

95 GIAAR, rec. gr. 69, inv. 1, f. 6, sheets 67-69; RGIA, rec. gr. 1268, inv. 2, f. 731b, sheets 99rev.-100.

96 See: Genealogy of Ibrahim Khalil Khan and his children, Doc. No. 1415.

97 NAG, rec. gr. 3, inv. 2, f. 120, sheets 191rev.-192.

98 GIAAR, rec. gr. 69, inv. 1, f. 6, sheets 71-72; RGIA, rec. gr. 1268, inv. 2, f. 731b, sheets 100rev.-101.

99 See: Genealogy of Ibrahim Khalil Khan and his children, Doc. No. 1415.

THE CAUCASUS & GLOBALIZATION

> 29/8. Tubi Begum.

Daughter of Ibrahim Khalil Khan by Khurshid Begum of Ganja; was married to Fezi-bek100 (Fevzi-bek).

> 30/8. Agha Begum Agha (1782-1831).

Daughter of Ibrahim Khalil Khan by Khurshid Begum of Ganja.101 In 1798, she married Fatali Shah Qajar.

Mirza Jamal Jevanshir, the last vizier of the Karabakh Khanate, wrote about the marriage of the Persian shah to one of the daughters of Ibrahim Khalil Khan: Fatali Shah "... sent Ibrahim Khan a robe and a saber, transferred to him Karadag and its incomes, and expressed his desire to become his relative. He said, 'In the interests of tranquility of both sides [the khan] should believe that his dear daughter Agha Begum Agha is worthy of our harem; let her be the head of our harem.' After a talk [this proposal] was accepted. The shah sent noble khans with precious presents to fetch the bride and solemnly married her and made her his respectable wife and the head of the harem."102

Agha Begum Agha wrote poetry in Azeri and Persian; she died childless and was buried in Qum (Iran).103

> 31/8. Bakhshi Khanum.

Daughter of Ibrahim Khalil Khan by Shakhnisa Khanum Shahsevan; was married to Far-ajullah Khan Shahsevan (of Ardabil).104

> 32/8. Tuti Begum.

Daughter of Ibrahim Khalil Khan by Shakhnisa Khanum Shahsevan; was married to Selim Khan of Sheki105; they had one son, Suleyman Khan of Sheki.106

> 33/8. Kichik Khanum.

Daughter of Ibrahim Khalil Khan by Shakhnisa Khanum Shahsevan; was married to Mirza Muhammad Khan, beglyarbek of Tehran.107

> 34/8. Soltanat Begum (?-27 May, 1806).

Daughter of Ibrahim Khalil Khan by Bike Khanum of Avaria.108 Was killed together with her father by chasseurs of Major Lisanevich.109

> 35/8. Gevhar Agha (c. 1796-before 1884).

Daughter of Ibrahim Khalil Khan by Princess Abashidze.110

100 See: Genealogy of Ibrahim Khalil Khan and his children, Doc. No. 1415.

101 See: Ibidem.

102 Mirza Jamal Jevanshir Karabakhsky, op. cit., p. 81.

103 See: Бsjлsр Мsммsдов, op. cit.

104 See: Genealogy of Ibrahim Khalil Khan and his children, Doc. No. 1415.

105 See: Ibidem.

106 RGIA, rec. gr. 1268, inv. 2, f. 731b, sheets 93rev.-94.

107 See: Genealogy of Ibrahim Khalil Khan and his children, Doc. No. 1415.

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108 See: Ibidem.

109 See: Mirza Jamal Jevanshir Karabakhsky, op. cit., p. 96.

110 See: Genealogy of Ibrahim Khalil Khan and his children, Doc. No. 1415.

THE CAUCASUS & GLOBALIZATION

Was married twice—to Jafar Quli Khan Khoysky (?-1814) and, after his death, to her cousin Khan Kishi-bek Jevanshir (see No. 40/9).

Until 1823, she derived money from a farmed-off tax called darga-bazaar, under which she was obliged to keep guards in the shops, make sure there was enough lighting, and answer for any robberies at night. Darga-bazaar brought revenues in kind from each batch of watermelons, melons, vegetables, fruit, fish, firewood, and coal; money from each head of slaughtered cattle and monthly income from all the shops. In 1823, General Yermolov transferred this tax to the budget, which farmed it off to private persons, while Gevhar Agha could count on remuneration.111

In December 1822, when the power of the khans was abolished, Gevhar Agha owned ten villages and nomadic lands, her inheritance rights being confirmed by the Russian government; under an imperial decree of 10 March, 1831, she received an annual pension of 952.38 silver rubles as a recompense for the lost darga-bazaar income.112

She spent her money on religious buildings and helped restore the big Friday mosque in Shusha built in 1182 Hegira (that is, in 1768/69), which was falling apart. Mirza Jamal Jevanshir, the last vizier of the Karabakh Khanate, wrote that the restored mosque "became even more beautiful."113 The Arabic inscription on the main fagade of the mosque says that restoration was completed in 1302 (1884/1885) under the last will and testament of Gevhar Agha; since that time, it has been known as the Gevhar Agha mosque. She paid for the newly built upper and lower mosques and two madrassahs in Shusha in 1865/1866.114 According to waqfname, the text of which is carved on the main fagade, in 1866/1867 Gevhar Agha bequeathed her real estate (land, orchards, and shops) to two mosques and two madrassahs for charitable purposes. She used the waqfs money to open a hospital for sick vagrants called Dar ul-Shafa, paid the bills of the madrassahs, and bought books on the Shari'a and social sciences for their libraries.115 According to information for 1852-1860, Gevgar Agha, daughter of Lieutenant General Ibrahim Khan, belonged to the Shemakha Department of the St. Nina Female Charity.116

> 36/8. Azad Begum (Izzyat Begim) (?-between 1839 and 1847).

Daughter of Ibrahim Khalil Khan by Mirza Rabi117; was married to Capitan Abuturab Khan (Abra Khan) Khoysky; had one sonAta Khan and three daughters Begum Khanum, Sharaf Jahan Begum, and Tubu Begum Abrakhanovs.us

Until 1823, Azad Begum derived 3,500 panabadi every year from the farmed-off tax (kapan) brought by each batch of flour, raisins, fruit, water melons and melons, cotton and slaughtered or live cattle either sold in the city or exported from Karabakh. She was entitled to tobacco money (400 panabadi every year); under this item, tobacco trade was limited to the lease holder or agents. In 1823, these items, like all others, were transferred to the treasury and from that time on the treasury farmed-off the taxes to private persons on the orders of General

111 See: AKAK, Vol. VI, Part I, pp. 852-855, Doc. No. 1305; pp. 856-858, Doc. No. 1308.

112 NAG, rec. gr. 3, inv. 2, f. 120, sheets 191rev.-192.

113 Mirza Jamal Jevanshir Karabakhsky, op. cit., p. 101.

114 See: M. Neimat, "Epigraficheskie pamiatniki Karabakha," International Azeri Journal IRS-Nasledie, No. 2-3 (14-15), 2005, pp. 66-69.

115 See: Meshadi Khanum Neymatova, op. cit., pp. 163-170.

116 See: Kavkazskiy kalendar na 1852 god, Tiflis, 1851, p. 602; Kavkazskiy kalendar na 1853 god, Tiflis, 1852, p. 560; Kavkazskiy kalendar na 1855 god, Tiflis, 1854, p. 669; Kavkazskiy kalendar na 1856 god, Tiflis, 1855, p. 660; Kavkazskiy kalendar na 1857 god, Tiflis, 1856, p. 560; Kavkazskiy kalendar na 1858 god, Tiflis, 1857, p. 457; Kavkazskiy kalendar na 1859 god, Tiflis, 1858, p. 478; Kavkazskiy kalendar na 1860 god, Tiflis, 1859, p. 36.

117 See: Mirza Jamal Jevanshir Karabakhsky, op. cit., p. 105.

118 GIAAR, rec. gr. 77, inv. 1, f. 14 (Reports.), sheet 37; RGIA, rec. gr. 1268, inv. 2, f. 731b, sheets 98rev.-99.

THE CAUCASUS & GLOBALIZATION

Yermolov; Azad Begum was entitled to remuneration.119 Her lost income was replaced by an annual pension of 619.80 silver rubles; she owned nine villages and nomad lands.120

> 37/8. Shah Nisa Khanum.

Daughter of Ibrahim Khalil Khan by Muressa Khanum Saryjalinskaya121; was married to her second cousin Ali-bek Mirza Ali-bek, grandson of Begbut Ali-bek (see No. 7/3); they had two sons Bala-bek and Abbas-bek and daughter Beyuk Khanum}22

> 38/9. Muhammad-bek (c. 1762-1797).

Son of Mehrali-bek, grandson of Panah Ali Khan.

Muhammad-bek seized power in the Karabakh Khanate after the murder of Agha Muhammad Shah in Shusha on 17 June, 1797 and remained in power until Ibrahim Khalil Khan returned; then he fled to the Sheki Khanate, but was "transferred to his deadly enemy Mustafa Khan of Shirvan, who killed him to avenge the death of his father and brothers."123

When the Karabakh Khanate became part of the Russian Empire, his descendants became Jevanshirs (not shown in the present genealogical table). Two of his descendants stood apart— grandson Second Captain of Cavalry Ahmed-bek Jevanshir (2 March, 1828, Kekhrizli village-9 January, 1903, Kekhrizli village), the author of Politicheskaia istoria Karabakhskogo Khanstva (Political History of the Karabakh Khanate) and Ahmed-bek's daughter Khamidu Khanum Jevanshir (6/19 January, 1873, Kekhrizli village-6 February, 1955, Baku), one of the first women enlighteners in Azerbaijan.

> 39-43/9. Asad-bek, Khan Kishi-bek, Ali Gumbat-bek, Khankhanum Begum, Khadija Begum

Children of Mehrali-bek, grandchildren of Panah Ali Khan.

When the Karabakh Khanate became part of the Russian Empire, they assumed the family name of Jevanshir (not shown in the present genealogical table).

VII Generation

> 44/17. Jafar Quli Agha (Khan) (c. 1782/1783 or c. 1787, Shusha-3 December, 1866, Shusha).

Elder son of Muhammad Hasan Agha, heir to the Karabakh Khanate by Heyr Nisa Begum of Ganja124; this means that he was grandson of Ibrahim Khalil Khan of Karabakh and Shah-verdi Khan II of Ganja.

According to Prince Tsitsianov's report, he was 18 in November 1805.125 According to the lists of the beks who lived in Shusha compiled in 1848, he was 66.126

119 See: AKAK, Vol. VI, Part I, pp. 852-855, Doc. No. 1305; pp. 856-858, Doc. 1308.

120 RGIA, rec. gr. 1268, inv. 2, f. 731b, sheets 98rev.-100.

121 See: Genealogy of Ibrahim Khalil Khan and his children, Doc. No. 1415.

122 RGIA, rec. gr. 1268, inv. 2, f. 731b, sheets 104rev.-105.

123 A.-K. Bakikhanov, op. cit., p. 179.

124 See: Genealogy of Ibrahim Khalil Khan and his children, Doc. No. 1415; [Hajji Khamid Efendi, Mufti of Transcaucasia,] Genealogy of the khans of Ganja, pp. 905-906.

125 See: AKAK, Vol. II, pp. 725-726, Doc. No. 1485.

126 GIAAR, rec. gr. 10, inv. 1, f. 9.

THE CAUCASUS & GLOBALIZATION

According to the lists of the beks of Shusha compiled in 1860, he was 77.127 In November 1805, after the death of his father, he "was recognized by the Russian Government as the legal heir to the Karabakh Khanate and became owner of all the estates left after the death of his father."128

In August 1806, however, new Commander-in-Chief in Georgia Infantry General Count Gudovich recommended Foreign Minister Infantry General Baron Budberg to confirm Major General Mekhti Quli Agha as the Khan of Karabakh on the strength of reports supplied by Major General Nesvetaev, interim commander of the Russian troops in Transcaucasia and Major General Nebolsin, Chief of the Troitsky Musketeer Regiment.129

Jafar Quli Agha distinguished himself at the beginning of the First Russo-Persian War (1804-1813). In December 1805, after the death of his father Major General Muhammad Hasan Agha, who was heir to Karabakh, he was dispatched by his granddad Ibrahim Khalil Khan at the head of a Karabakh cavalry unit to punish the Karadag Kurds "for their inroads into Karabakh villages;" Jafar Quli Agha routed them and captured several thousand heads of cattle.130

Later, after his granddad was murdered, his cavalry twice fought side by side with the chasseurs of Major Lisanevich and defeated the Iranian troops. In particular, the day after the murder, Persian troops appeared two versts away from the Shusha fortress. Major Lisanevich with 150 chasseurs and Jafar Quli Agha's cavalry moved toward the Persians, pushed them back, and returned the people from several Karabakh villages who had followed the Persian unit.131 On 16 June, 1806, Jafar Quli Agha, at the head of a unit of 250 mounted Azeris and 200 Armenian infantrymen, joined the 900-strong unit of Major Lisanevich's chasseurs; together they left Shusha and moved on a forced march to the Nakhchivan border. On 20 June, they caught up with the Persians at Ordubad, defeated them, and pushed them beyond the Arax. In his report to Major General Nebolsin, Major Lisanevich deemed it necessary to write, "Jafar Quli and his officers showed exceptional bravery."132

In October 1806, Jafar Quli Agha set off for Tiflis where he planned to lodge a complaint against his uncle Mekhti Quli Khan to Count Gudovich.133

Count Gudovuch reached Tiflis in late October 1806; on 11 November, Mekhti Quli Khan turned up there to swear eternal allegiance to His Imperial Majesty in the presence of Count

Gudovich.134

While still in Georgievsk, Count Gudovich finally received the medal made for Major General Muhammad Hasan Agha, father of Jafar Quli Agha, and instructions to hand the medal to the heirs. In full conformity with the instructions given to Foreign Minister Baron Budberg dated 22 October, 1806, Count Gudovich planned to hand the medal to Jafar Quli Agha as soon as he reached Tiflis, "on the condition that he will not wear it without permission from His Majesty."135

Finally, in the latter half of November 1806, he received Jafar Quli Khan in Tiflis and, after obtaining his firm promise to recognize Mekhti Quli Khan's power, which "had been given to him by His Majesty together with the title of khan, and obey him as long as Mekhti Quli Khan himself remains in due obedience to His Imperial Majesty,"136 Count Gudovich prob-

127 GIAAR, rec. gr. 10, inv. 1, f. 77 (List of beks, meliks, agalars and officials of Shusha in 1860), sheet 1.

128 RGIA, rec. gr. 1268, inv. 2, f. 731b, sheets 107rev.-108.

129 See: AKAK, Vol. III, p. 332, Doc. No. 606.

130 See: Ibid., Vol. II, pp. 726-727, Doc. No. 1489.

131 See: Ibid., Vol. III, pp. 334-335, Doc. No. 610.

132 P.O. Bobrovsky, op. cit., pp. 246-248; Mirza Jamal Jevanshir Karabakhsky, op. cit., pp. 97-98.

133 See: AKAK, Vol. III, p. 337, Docs. Nos. 615 and 616.

134 See: Ibid., p. 338, Doc. No. 618.

135 Ibid., p. 348, Doc. No. 642.

136 Ibid., pp. 339-340, Doc. No. 621.

THE CAUCASUS & GLOBALIZATION

ably gave Jafar Quli Agha the gold medal encrusted with diamonds and bearing an inscription on the obverse: "To Karabakh Heir Mamad Asan Agha" and "For Loyalty 1805" on the reverse.

On 2 January, 1807, on Count Gudovich's recommendation, Jafar Quli Agha was promoted to colonel, bypassing intermediate ranks, by an imperial rescript with an annual salary of 1,072.50 silver rubles137.

"Rescript to Nephew of Khan of Karabakh Jafar Quli Agha of 2 January, 1807. St. Petersburg.

"You diligence and loyalty to Our Imperial Throne attracted Our Most Gracious Attention. We express our recognition and Our Special Benevolence by granting you the rank of Colonel of Russia accompanied by a corresponding remuneration in silver from Our State Treasury and remain firmly convinced that Our Benevolence will increase your zeal and will add your praiseworthy loyalty to Our High Imperial Throne. I remain well-disposed toward you. Signed 'Alexander'."138

In November 1811 (Zil-Kaade 1226 Hegira), Crown Prince of Persia Abbas Mirza signed a document to the name of Jafar Quli Agha, in which he promised "signs of his attention and benevolence," including the promise to confer on him the title of hakim.139

The Iranian courier who carried the document was captured; after familiarizing himself with the document, Lieutenant General Marquise Philip Osipovich Paulucci, who served Commander-in-Chief in Georgia from September 1811 to March 1812, suspected Colonel Jafar Quli Agha of contacts with Iranians and ordered that he should be arrested and sent to Tiflis.

When crossing the River Terter on the way to Tiflis, Jafar Quli Agha snatched the horse reins from the hands of one of the guards, pushed the other who sat behind him into the river, and fled to his estate and the Jebraillu tribe.140

Marquise Paulucci ordered for Heyr Nisa Begum, mother of the fugitive colonel, to be brought to Tiflis where he offered her a choice: "either permanent exile" in Russia or a fine of 150 thousand silver rubles—the sum Jafar Quli Agha had allegedly received from Persians. She preferred the second option and pledged to transfer her jewelry to the treasury, including that which had belonged to Agha Muhammad Shah Qajar murdered in Shusha.141

In his letter to Marquise Paulucci, Jafar Quli Agha insisted that the "Persians acted in their own interests" when sending him the document to deprive him of benevolence of the Commander-in-Chief; that he had never written to Prince Abbas, never sent messengers to him, never gotten the accursed document, had not known anything about it, and, most important, had never acted as traitor.142

After learning that Jafar Quli Agha had fled, Prince Abbas Mirza and his troops crossed the Arax and moved to Sultan-Bud defended by a battalion of the Troitsky Regiment and a small unit of Mekhti Quli Khan's cavalry. Later Mekhti Quli Khan wrote to Marquise Paulucci to push responsibility for Prince Abbas Mirza's march onto "ill-intentioned scoundrel Jafar Quli Agha" and his intrigues.143

On 1 February, 1812, the battalion of the Troitsky Regiment was completely routed; many were killed, and those who survived were taken prisoner. Mekhti Quli Khan accompanied by several of his nukers fled for their lives. Prince Abbas Mirza ordered Jafar Quli Agha to move

137 RGIA, rec. gr. 1268, inv. 2, f. 731b, sheets 107rev.-108.

138 AKAK, Vol. III, p. 342, Doc. No. 625.

139 See: Ibid., Vol. V, Tiflis, 1873, p. 131, Doc. No. 194.

140 See: A.-K. Bakikhanov, op. cit., p. 195.

141 See: AKAK, Vol. V, pp. 133-134, Doc. No. 201.

142 See: Ibid., p. 135, Doc. No. 202.

143 See: Ibid., pp. 135-139, Doc. No. 203.

THE CAUCASUS & GLOBALIZATION

the Jebraillu tribe beyond the Arax, conferred on him the title of khan, and moved part of the Karabakh Khanate under his rule.144

Meanwhile, Commander-in-Chief in Georgia (1812-1816) Infantry General Nikolay Rtishchev in his letter of 16 May, 1815 wrote to Acting Foreign Minister (1814-1816) Privy Councilor Ivan Weydemeyer that immediately after his flight, Jafar Quli Agha, who for three years "enjoyed the personal respect of the Persian Government and received 12,000 silver rubles every year," had been seeking, through General Rtishchev, permission to return to Karabakh. While in Persia, wrote the general, Jafar Quli Agha had never agreed to take part in the inroads on Karabakh, even though "his knowledge of the roads, his popularity among the greater part of the local people, and his personal presence could have helped the Persians to succeed and completely ravage the khanate." His mother, Heyr Nisa Begum, kept under military guard in Tiflis, in turn asked for permission for her son to return to Karabakh. Finally, when the Gulistan Peace Treaty was signed on 12 October, 1813 and ratified in May 1814 by Emperor Alexander I, General Rtishchev could send his representative to Persia to present the treaty to Fatali Shah and to obtain permission from the Persians for Jafar Quli Agha to return. Late in 1814, Jafar Quli Agha, after obtaining permission to return to Karabakh together with 300 families of his subjects, immediately went to Tiflis where he renewed his oath of allegiance to Emperor Alexander I in the presence of General Rtishchev.145

In February 1815, he was permitted to come back to Karabakh, his landed property and the salary of a colonel of the Russian army restored to him; he also acquired "complete protection against encroachments of Mekhti Quli Khan; his subjects were removed from the power of Mekhti Quli Khan to take command only from their landlord. None of the owners and landlords of Karabakh had similar rights."146

The most important decision was made on 17 March, 1815 when General Rtishchev, on the strength of the Manifesto of 30 August, 1814, confirmed, in writing the right of Jafar Quli Agha to the title of the heir of the Karabakh Khanate and "all advantages and honors" he had had before his flight to Persia.147

These privileges were short-lived. In his report to Emperor Alexander I, newly appointed Commander-in-Chief in Georgia (1816-1827) Lieutenant General Alexey Yermolov asked him not to confirm Colonel Jafar Quli Agha's title of the heir of the Karabakh Khanate because he, General Yermolov, would find enough "plausible reasons to keep him away from the throne."148 Moreover, the general piled the guilt for the defeat of the battalion of the Troitsky Regiment in February 1812 on Jafar Quli Agha.149

The general, however, never hesitated when appointing Colonel Jafar Quli Agha commander of the Karabakh cavalry, which took part in the 1819 military expedition of the Russian army in southern Daghestan.

Jafar Quli Agha's outstanding service under the command of Major General Madatov, Chief of the Military Districts of the Sheki, Shirvan and Karabakh khanates, was rewarded with a Gold Saber incrusted with diamonds.

General Madatov's regiment included two infantry battalions of the Sevastopol and Troitsky regiments (1,500 people in all), three hundred Cossacks of the line, and eight pieces of artillery. "Fully aware that these forces were inadequate for the coming battles in Daghestan,

144 See: A.-K. Bakikhanov, op. cit., p. 195.

145 AKAK, Vol. V, p. 585-587, Doc. No. 704.

146 RGIA, rec. gr. 1268, inv. 2, f. 731b, sheets 110-111.

147 AKAK, Vol. V, pp. 583-585, Doc. No. 703.

148 This was described in detail in the previous article (see: E. Ismailov, "The Khans of Karabakh: The Roots, Subordination to the Russian Empire, and Liquidation of the Khanate," p. 161).

149 See: AKAK, Vol. VI, Part I, p. 835, Doc. No. 1264.

THE CAUCASUS & GLOBALIZATION

Madatov decided to use its influence in the Muslim provinces entrusted to his administration to convince the khans to strengthen his expedition with mounted units of hunters chasseurs formed in each of the khanates. Vey soon several hundreds of excellent Asian cavalrymen arrived from Karabakh, Shirvan, and Sheki."150 In his Zapiski (Diaries), General Yermolov wrote that "this cavalry could considerably strengthen the expedition; it was no less useful as a guarantee of the khans' good behavior."151

In August 1819, General Madatov and his expeditionary corps subjugated Tabasaran, and in September-October 1819, Karakaytag.152 In November, General Madatov was ordered to go on a forced march to the borders of the Akusha community; the main forces of the Russian army (nine infantry battalions and artillery) under General Yermolov himself were moving in the same direction.153 On 19 December, 1819, they took the village of Lavashi by force, and on 21 December, they seized the Akusha community.154 On 27 December, 1819, the "Tatar" cavalry gathered in Azeri khanates was disbanded.155

On 20 February, 1820, in his residence in Tsarskoe Selo, Emperor Alexander I signed a decree to the Chapter of Russian Orders: "To reward the outstanding bravery demonstrated in battles with the Lezghians and in defeating Akusha on 19 December, 1819, I Most Graciously award the Order of Great Martyr St. George the Victorious Fourth Class to Colonel Aslan Khan of the Kyura Khanate; Order of St. Prince Vladimir Equal to the Apostles Fourth Class with Great Ribbon to Major Hasan Agha of the same khanate; Gold Saber encrusted with precious stones and an inscription "For Bravery" to Colonel Jafar Quli Agha of the Karabakh Khanate. We order the Chapter of the Russian Orders on the strength of our decree to the Ruling Senate of 24 April, 1816 to supply them with documents and orders; the gold saber should be taken from Our Cabinet."156

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Newspapers wrote that Colonel Jafar Quli Agha had been awarded a Gold Saber incrusted with diamonds.157

Colonel Jafar Quli Agha was the first Azeri and the second Muslim to receive this military "general" award.158 Only two more Muslim officers (both Azeri) were awarded the Gold Saber incrusted with diamonds: Major General Kelbali Khan of Nakhchivan on 8 December, 1878 and Lieutenant General Samed-bek Mekhmandarov on 14 February, 1914.159

Early in the 1820s, not without the efforts of General Madatov, the enmity between Jafar Quli Agha and his uncle Mekhti Quli Khan flared up. Contrary to what was said in the official correspondence, in particular in Administrator of Civilian Affairs in Georgia General Velyami-nov's letter of 12 July, 1821 to Jafar Quli Agha, namely that all members of the Caucasian administration "were aggrieved" by the renewed disagreements between him and his uncle, which "many times in the past had caused the government to worry about the prospect of the unpleas-

150 V. Potto, Kavkazskaia voyna v otdelnykh ocherkakh, epizodakh, legendakh i biografiiakh, Vol. II, Yermolovskoe vremya, Issue II, St. Petersburg, 1888, p. 229.

151 "Zapiski generala Yermolova vo vremia upravleniia Gruzieyu," in: Zapiski AlekseiaPetrovicha Yermolova. S prilozhe-niiami. 1816-1827, Published by N.P. Yermolov, Part II, Moscow, 1868, p. 80.

152 See: V. Potto, op. cit., Vol. II, Issue II, pp. 233, 240.

153 See: Ibid., pp. 252-253.

154 See: Ibid., pp. 259-260, 263.

155 See: "Zapiski generala Yermolova.," p. 102.

156 The Russian State Military-Historical Archives (hereinafter RGVIA), rec. gr. 29, inv. 1/153v, f. 162a, Part 132, sheet 5.

157 See: Russkiy invalid or Voennye vedomosti, No. 55, 6 March, 1820; Moskovskie vedomosti, No. 21, 13 March, 1820.

158 Colonel Aslan Khan of the Kyura Khanate of the Lak Kazi-Kumuk khan family was the first Muslim who received the Gold Saber incrusted with diamonds for his "distinctive service in fighting mountaineers" on 17 February, 1819 (see: E. Ismailov, Zolotoe oruzhie s nadpisiu "Za khrabrost". Spiski kavalerov. 1788-1913, Moscow, 2007, p. 171).

159 See: Ibid., pp. 8, 172, 305.

THE CAUCASUS & GLOBALIZATION

ant examination of mutual claims,"160 General Yermolov, who wanted to liquidate the power of the khans, very much approved of these "disagreements," which supplied him with a "plausible reason" to prevent Colonel Jafar Quli Agha from becoming the khan.

Those who investigated the attempt on the life of Colonel Jafar Quli Agha carried out by General Madatov in November 1822 when Mekhti Quli Khan fled the khanate, which was transferred to the direct rule of Russia, supplied General Yermolov with "plausible reasons." "This and the very bad attitude toward Jafar Quli Agha in Karabakh and the fact that he was a traitor in the past forced me to remove him to Russia."161 On 26 December, 1822, former heir to the Karabakh Khanate Colonel Jafar Quli Agha was exiled to Simbirsk on the Volga.162

Here is what prominent Russian military commander Nikolay Muravyev, who had seen everything with his own eyes and who disagreed with what Yermolov had written about how people of Karabakh treated Jafar Quli Agha, wrote in his memoirs:

"Before leaving Shusha I, on the same day, after saying goodbye to Alexey Petrovich [Yermolov], went to Lieutenant Colonel Reut (commander of the 42nd regiment of chasseurs.— E.I). His house was encircled with infantrymen; I went in and saw Jafar Quli Agha of Karabakh sitting on the bed and taking leave of his children and mother.

"Jafar Quli Agha, with the right to the khanate, was loved by the people of Karabakh and was an enemy of the khan. When the khan fled, he, expecting to replace him as the khan of Karabakh, wounded himself in the arm . to spread rumors that before leaving the khan had tried to kill him but merely wounded him. I think that it was Madatov who advised him in order to acquire a plausible reason to send him to Russia and appropriate the khanate. I cannot understand how he was persuaded to keep silence about Madatov's advice; he was probably afraid because he kept telling me that he had been wounded by the khan's servants when the khan fled.

"Jafar Quli Agha is a young man, very fit, sharp, and fairly educated. He was captured in Reut's apartment, to which he had been lured under a false pretext. He was given two hours to pack and say farewell to his relatives.

"He looked extremely bewildered. There was also his son Kerim aged 15 who studied in Tiflis and was leaving with him. People who loved him were gathering in the squares and streets to talk about his fate.

"I left Shusha the same day and spent the night at the Pojalinsky outpost where I met Councilor of State Mogilevsky and P.N. Yermolov on their way to Shusha to compile an inventory of the khanate, count the income, and introduce our administration. Jafar Quli Agha arrived the same night with his son Kerim accompanied by mounted Cossacks and infantrymen.

"I spent the second night in Terter; Jafar Quli Agha and his Cossack guard also spent the night there. I went with him to Tiflis; in the evenings we played chess. He was very worried about his future and kept asking me where he was being taken and whether he would be allowed to go to St. Petersburg to enter military service and preserve his rank of a colonel. I knew nothing about this and could not answer his questions; I tried to console him as best as I could; the evenings we spent together at the stations were fairly pleasant.

"On the third day I arrived in Elisavetpol, where I spent two days. On 31st (December 1822.—Ed) I left the city and in Shamkhor met Jafar Quli Agha accompanied by Cossack Lieutenant Colonel Dolotin, who traveling with him as far as Demurgasov where he was replaced by interpreter Major Nazarov who took Jafar Quli Agha to Russia and, after bringing him to Simbirsk, returned him the saber awarded by the Czar."163

160 AKAK, Vol. VI, Part I, p. 843, Doc. No. 1281.

161 "Zapiski generala Yermolova.," pp. 138-140.

162 See: AKAK, Vol. VI, Part I, pp. 851-852, Doc. No.1302.

163 "Zapiski Nikolaia Nikolaevicha Muravyeva-Karskogo, 1822 i 1823 gody," in: Russkiy arkhiv, Istoriko-literaturny

sbornik, Issue 7, Moscow, 1888, pp. 350-352.

THE CAUCASUS & GLOBALIZATION

Jafar Quli Agha arrived in Simbirsk on 14 March, 1823; he was given an annual pension of 12,000 in paper money (in the 1820s, it was equal to 3,000 silver rubles); under the royal decree of 21 July, 1823, he also received 1,200 rubles a year in paper money to rent an apartment.164

His estate in Karabakh was transferred to the state: according to General Yermolov, there were 1,047 peasant families; Jafar Quli Agha owned two houses—in Shusha and not far from the village of Aglis-kend, which stood in an orchard; his herd of horses counted 56 fillies and 36 stallions; he had a herd of 423 heads of horned and small cattle and 27 camels. The house with the orchard was given to the colonel's younger brother Shukyur Agha; 20 fillies and 3 stallions were moved to the state stud farm; the rest was transferred to Jafar Quli Agha's second brother Khanjan Agha, who pledged to pay all of the elder brother's debts.165

On top of this Jafar Quli Agha was entitled to the farmed-off dyeing tax; he received 24,620 panabadi a year from the leaseholders (which amounted to 3,693 silver rubles—1 panabadi was equal to 15 to 16 kopeks). Under this item, the leaseholders drew money from the sales of dyed silk and cotton. In 1823, this practice was discontinued; the tax was removed to the treasury, which farmed it off to private businessmen.166

Colonel Jafar Quli Agha seized the opportunity presented by Emperor Alexander I's short stay in Simbirsk to lodge a request to return him his Karabakh estate, allow him to reside in St. Petersburg, and let his son join the army. On 28 August, 1825, by "an imperial order," Colonel Jafar Quli Agha was allowed to live in St. Petersburg; his annual pension was increased by 12,000 rubles in paper money.167

In this way, his annual budget in St. Petersburg was 24,000 ruble in paper money (that is, 6,000 silver rubles); in 1823, when the tax farmed-off to him was returned to the treasury, the annual pension for his mother and younger brothers was increased by 700 silver rubles over the pension of 1,118.02 rubles for Heyr Nisa Begum, 500 silver rubles for Khanjan Agha, and 400 silver rubles for Shukyur Agha. In 1824, Jafar Quli Agha's landed possessions and tax brought in 9,385.45 silver rubles.168

In 1826 and 1827, Colonel Jafar Quli Agha lodged several requests to Emperor Nicholas I asking for the return of his landed possessions and permission to return to Karabakh. The imperial order issued on 6 August, 1829 said that "Jafar Quli Agha, a smart man who has adjusted to life in Russia and became member of St. Petersburg English Club," could go back to his homeland. He returned in 1830 and settled in the city of Shusha. His property and his estate (with the exception of the farmed-off tax) were returned to him, "as well as the income produced by his possessions during the time he resided in Russia."169

His salary, suspended during his exile in Simbirsk, was not restored; on 1 January, 1846, he started drawing 2,500 silver rubles a year from the Shusha District revenue office in replacement of the money produced by the farmed-off tax.170

Vasily Potto, Russian military historian (1836-1911), briefly mentioned Jafar Quli Agha in the chapter dealing with Mekhti Quli Khan's return to Karabakh: "It should be said here that somewhat later Jafar Quli Agha, nephew of Mekhti Quli Khan, also returned to Karabakh. He played a great historical role in the fate of his motherland. Exiled to Simbirsk by General Yermolov, he managed to obtain permission to move to St. Petersburg during the reign of Alexan-

1 See: Kolonialnaiapolitika rossiyskogo tsarizma v Azerbaidzhane v 20-60-kh gg. XIX v., Part I, pp. 41-46.

5 See: AKAK, Vol. VI, Part I, pp. 869-870, Doc. No. 1329.

6 See: Ibid., pp. 852-855, Doc. No. 1305; pp. 856-858, Doc. No. 1308.

7 See: Kolonialnaia politika rossiyskogo tsarizma v Azerbaidzhane v 20-60-kh gg. XIX v. , Part I, pp. 41-46.

8 See: AKAK, Vol. VI, Part I, pp. 869-870, Doc. No. 1329.

169 RGIA, rec. gr. 1268, inv. 2, f. 731b, sheets 107rev.-119; Kolonialnaia politika rossiyskogo tsarizma v Azerbaidzhane v 20-60-kh gg. XIX v., Part II, p. 35.

1 RGIA, rec. gr. 1268, inv. 2, f. 731b, sheets 107rev.-119rev.

THE CAUCASUS & GLOBALIZATION

der I; his sons were studying there, while Kerim was serving in the life guard lancer regiment. As soon as Yermolov left the Caucasus, Jafar Quli Agha asked for permission to return and join the army. The czar deemed it necessary to consult Paskevich. Count Nesselrode wrote to Paskev-ich: "The petitioner is brave and gallant because he was promoted to the rank of a colonel and awarded with a gold saber incrusted with diamonds; yet before that he had been as gallant and as brave fighting us on the Persian side." Paskevich found it embarrassing to have two blood enemies—the nephew and the uncle—in one and the same place, which could have caused discontent in the province. He no longer trusted either of them. Jafar Quli Agha lost his chance to fight in the Persian war. He came back in 1830 and, like his uncle, lived his last years in Karabakh as a private person."171

In 1831, when irregular mounted Muslim regiments conscripted in Azerbaijan were used, after a long interval, in military expeditions of the Russian army to Daghestan and Chechnia, it was planned to appoint Colonel Jafar Quli Agha commander of the First Mounted Muslim Regiment staffed with people from the former Karabakh Khanate.172 This probably never happened. Anyway there is not enough information to confirm his involvement in the military campaigns of Russian army of the early 1830s in Daghestan and Chechnia.

Later, by an imperial decree of 18 October, 1848, "Colonel Jafar Quli Agha, who lives in the Shusha District of the Shemakha Gubernia," was awarded the Order of St. Anne Second Class "for special efforts he demonstrated, according to Vicegerent of the Caucasus, when capturing highwaymen."173

On 6 December, 1850, by an imperial order, Colonel Jafar Quli Agha of the Separate Caucasian Corps was promoted to Major General "for distinguished service."174

The printed lists of generals by seniority mentioned Major General Jafar Quli Agha (his family name was never mentioned in these lists and imperial orders) as belonging to the Separate Caucasian Corps for political reasons.175

By an imperial decree of 17 February, 1859, Major General Jafar Quli Agha of the Caucasian Army (the Separate Caucasian Corps had been transformed into the Caucasian Army in December 1857) was awarded the Order of St. Vladimir Third Class (with a special sign for non-Christians) "for his excellent and diligent service confirmed by his superiors."176

On a request from the Chief Commander of the Caucasian Army, Major General Jafar Quli Agha of the Cavalry was awarded the Order of St. Stanislav First Class (18.05.1861) "for his excellent and diligent service."177

According to information for the 1850s-1860s, Major General Jafar Quli Agha did not serve and lived in the city of Shusha.178

According to Kavkazskiy kalendar (Caucasian Calendar), in 1852-1853 Major General Jafar Quli Agha was Honorary Supervisor of the Shemakha District School179; he also belonged to the Caucasian Agricultural Society from its first year (1850) until his death in 1866.180 The

171 V. Potto, op. cit., Vol. III, Issue III, pp. 419-420.

172 GIAAR, rec. gr. 130, inv. 1, f. 26, sheets 239-240.

173 Russkiy invalid, No. 246, 6 November, 1848.

174 Russkiy invalid, No. 268, 8 December, 1850.

175 See, for example: Spisokgeneralam po starshinstvu. Ispravlenopo 13-e iyulia, St. Petersburg, 1855, p. 346; Spisok generalam po starshinstvu. Ispravleno po 7-e ianvaria, St. Petersburg, 1856, p. 455.

176 Sankt-Peterburgskie senatskie vedomosti, No. 50, 23 June, 1859.

177 GIAAR, rec. gr. 44, inv. 1, f. 590a (Lists of officers who lived in the Shemakha Gubernia, 370 people in all and the band-roll of the same officers, 1854-1893), sheet 21; Kavkaz, No. 48, 22 June, 1861.

178 GIAAR, rec. gr. 44, inv. 1, f. 590a, sheet 21.

179 See: Kavkazskiy kalendar na 1852 god, p. 595; Kavkazskiy kalendar na 1853 god, p. 552.

180 See: Kavkazskiy kalendar na 1851 god, p. 57; Kavkazskiy kalendar na 1852 god, p. 608; Kavkazskiy kalendar na 1853 god, p. 569; Kavkazskiy kalendar na 1855 god, p. 676; Kavkazskiy kalendar na 1856 god, p. 667; Kavkazskiy kalendar

THE CAUCASUS & GLOBALIZATION

Caucasian Agricultural Society was set up in Tiflis and confirmed by an imperial decree of 27 February, 1850, which described its main aim as "pooling private efforts to popularize in the Caucasian and Transcaucasian territories useful knowledge, novelties, and improvements in all agricultural branches." Landowners and people living in the Caucasus, as well as officials "known for their knowledge and experiments in agriculture or scholarly works related to the Society's aim," could be elected full members.181

Major General Jafar Quli Agha died on 3 December, 1866.182

By an imperial order of 11 January, 1867, Major General Jafar Quli Agha of the Cavalry was excluded from the lists as dead.183

The wives of Jafar Quli Agha were:

(1) Ajaib Nisa (Khanum), daughter of Tuni-bek, "an Armenian girl from the village of Banazur," "temporary wife" (she bore him two sons—Nos. 50 and 51)184;

(2) Etar Khanum (Eter Khanum), daughter of Hussein Quli-bek (her son No. 52).185

He was frequently mentioned by his contemporaries, both historians and travelers who visited the Caucasus during his lifetime.

Mir-Mohsun Navvab (1833-1918), prominent Azeri artist, calligrapher, theorist of music, and poet mentioned Jafar Quli Agha in his Tezkirey-i-Navvab, which contains biographical information about over 100 of nineteen-century Karabakh poets. He met Jafar Quli Agha when he was over 80 and described him as a tall and well-built man obviously very strong in his youth. Jafar Quli Agha liked poetry and wrote under the penname Arif. Mir-Mohsun Navvab quoted some of his poems in his book. Jafar Quli Agha played several musical instruments and was a keen connoisseur of the Azeri classic Mugham. He gathered musical and literary mejlises at home and loved competitions between local and visiting wrestlers, performances of conjurers and jesters, camel and goat races, and dog and cock fights.186

Prussian official Baron August von Haxthausen (1792-1866) traveled in the Caucasus in August-October 1843; in 1849 he wrote and in 1857 published a work called Studien uber die innern Zustande, das Volksleben und insbesondere die landlichen Einrichtungen Russ-lands (shortened English translation The Russian Empire: Its People, Institutions and Resources). He relied not only on his notes made during the journey, but also on stories and reminiscences of Russian officials he heard in 1849 and later. He described Jafar Quli Agha's house and personal life.

"My companion Herr Aderkas presented to him (Jafar Quli Agha.—E.I.) in Shusha was invited for a cup of tea. He saw a very strange mixture of eastern and European customs and life style. His house looked very much like the houses of other rich Tatars (Azeris.—E.I.) in Shusha. Inside there was a big hall in the European style—mirrors on the walls, a chandelier hanging from the ceiling, walls lined with elegant redwood furniture, sofas, armchairs, tables, and chairs. There were pictures on the papered walls; in short, there were all signs of European comfort and

na 1857god, p. 565; Kavkazskiy kalendar na 1858god, p. 462; Kavkazskiy kalendar na 1859god, p. 482; Kavkazskiy kalendar na 1860 god, p. 40; Kavkazskiy kalendar na 1861 god, Tiflis, 1860, p. 49; Kavkazskiy kalendar na 1862 god, Tiflis, 1861, p. 375; Kavkazskiy kalendar na 1864 god, Tiflis, 1863, p. 355; Kavkazskiy kalendar na 1865 god, Tiflis, 1864, p. 60; Kavkazskiy kalendar na 1866 god, Tiflis, 1865, p. 68.

181 Polnoe sobranie zakonov Rossiyskoy Imperii. Sobranie 2, Vol. XXV, Otdelenie I, 1850, St. Petersburg, 1851, pp. 133-139, No. 23948.

182 GIAAR, rec. gr. 44, inv. 1, f. 590a, sheet 21.

183 See: Kavkaz, No. 12, 9/21 February, 1867; Russkiy invalid, No. 12, 12/24 January, 1867.

184 GIAAR, rec. gr. 290, inv. 2, f. 1059; Genealogy of Ibrahim Khalil Khan and his children, Doc. No. 1415.

185 GIAAR, rec. gr. 290, inv. 2, f. 1046.

186 See: Мир MehcYH Нэвваб, Тззкире]и-Нзвваб, Азэрба]чан нэшри^аты, Бакы, 1998. S. 60-67 (Mir-Mohsun Navvab, Tezkirey-i-Navvab, Azerbaijan Publishers, Baku, 1998, pp. 60-67).

THE CAUCASUS & GLOBALIZATION

luxury. Jaffar, in the uniform of a Russian general with numerous orders greeted his guests, Herr Aderkas and other Europeans, in European style. He is a handsome, tall, and well-built man with a noble and very attractive face, proud bearing, and still very strong. They all sat at the table; then came his oriental relatives and guests who sat cross-legged oriental fashion on the sofa, smoked pipes, drank tea, and spoke when addressed. Mirza Chamil was among them, the former minister of Ibrahim, who advised him to seek support of the Russians (Mirza Jamal Jevanshir, the last vizier of the Karabakh Khanate and author of Karabakh-name, he died in 1853. Since Jafar Quli Agha was promoted to Major General in December 1850, the meeting took place between 1850 and 1853.—E.I.). Servants in European liveries served tea, cakes, jams, punch, sherbet, and ice cream; other servants were dressed in Tatar and Circassian clothes. An expensive Vienna clock played an overture from the opera La muette de Portici! Jaffar kept a big harem, had numerous children, whom the guests, however, did not notice."187

In 1891, the Russkiy arkhiv journal published the memoirs of Andrey Fadeev (1789-1867), who served for a long time as a member of the Council of the Main Administration and administrator of the expedition of state property of Transcaucasia. In the summer of 1848, he went to Shusha where, accompanied by the head of the Shusha district, he "paid visits to the respected leaders of local aristocracy: the rich widow of Mekhti Quli Khan, Colonel Jafar Quli Khan, and elderly dowager Javahir Khanum." The Russian official described the widow as "a fairly educated woman, or even a woman of the world Oriental style; she was very hospitable with the guests and even presented them with an excellent carpet, which she had made herself." Her daughter Khurshid Banu Begum, "a pretty woman called the Rose of Karabakh because of her beauty," lived with her. Andrey Fadeev had the following to say about Colonel Jafar Quli Agha: "He lived in Shusha in European style with a strong Tatar accent." He invited Fadeev to dinner, "which turned out to be a great feast with Asian entertainments, dances, music, and singing and, naturally, champagne; in the evening there were card games which lasted well into the night..." The author described Georgian Princess dowager Javahir Khanum, widow of Ibrahim Khalil Khan, as "a very important Tatar lady of advanced years" who "carefully preserved her khan dignity."188

In his history of the Caucasian war, Vasily Potto wrote: "One of the travelers who saw Jafar in 1857 says that he was a venerable old man who still amazed with his attractive typically (Caucasian) face with a full beard and a huge figure bent under the weight of years, yet still showing its former vitality and force. His composure, proud bearing, and tallness distinguished him from the crowd of honorable beks, also tall and prominent people, who looked very different from the common Tatars. In the East, tallness and a proud bearing are the signs of good blood and aristocratic origins. This was one of the strongest human characters that never bends under the weight of circumstances and hardly succumbs to the years."189

In 1864, Vasily Vereshchagin (1842-1904), Russian war artist and writer, visited the Caucasus for the first time. He published his travel notes in 1870 in the Vsemirny puteshestvennik journal, in which he described his meeting with Jafar Quli Agha, two years before his death.

".In Shusha I saw a Jebrail horse (from a small settlement close to Shusha). The best horses I saw in Shusha belonged to the stud farm of the same Jafar Quli Khan. There were few of them, but all were excellent. Jafar bought them from other beks. I did not know whether he was an expert on horses or merely lucky, but, let me repeat, I had never seen anything similar.

187 Zakavkazskiy kray. Zametki o semeynoy i obshchestvennoy zhizni i otnosheniiakh narodov, obitaiushchikh mezhdu Chernym i Kaspiyskim moriami. Putevye vpechatlenia i vospominania barona Avgusta von-Haksthausena. V 2-kh chastiakh v odnoy knige, St. Petersburg, 1857, Part II, p. 150.

188 "Vospominania A.M. Fadeeva. 1848 god," Russkiy arkhiv. Istoriko-literaturny sbornik, Issue 10, Moscow, 1891, pp. 240-241.

189 B. Potto, op. cit., Vol. III, Issue III, St. Petersburg, 1888, p. 420.

THE CAUCASUS & GLOBALIZATION

I painted one of the studs. Jafar Quli Agha Khan told me that in the past he had been the first among the horse breeders in the quantity and quality of his horses and that he had lost half of the stud farm and half of the income because he was frequently away, sometimes for a long time.

"Jafar Quli Khan is a respectable man and no fool. He lived a lot in society; he saw a lot and heard a lot, which made him an interesting interlocutor. I met him at one of the evening spectacles he gave at home in the yard. .In the first nine days of moharem, rich and faithful Muslims usually organize performances reproducing the last sufferings of the imam. Normally they are given either at home or in the yard or in front of the house. They invite actors; the performances attract relatives, friends, and acquaintances. I was lucky enough to be invited as a traveler interested in the city's sights.

"I found the master of the house laying on pillows in front of the window that looked onto the balcony and the street. He started talking to me in pure Russian, apologized for not getting up, and kindly repeated his invitation to the evening performance. It was a copy of those I had seen before, therefore I wasn't interested. I was much more interested in the master of the house.

"He was an old man with an intelligent and expressive face; his long red beard reached his chest. Bedridden for a long time, he was a shadow of the brave Jafar of the past. He had been one of the contenders to the Karabakh throne, but his bravery, courage, and determination had made him too dangerous—he spent many years in exile. A handsome, young, and rich man, he had been very popular in fashionable Petersburg society where he lived a dissipated life. Today, he probably tries to atone for his past sins with good deeds.

"One of the rooms is decorated in the Western style; there is an old piano there; sometimes he is brought up to it (he cannot walk without support) and plays old melodies with his shaking fingers. I tried to talk to him about his life, which had been full of adventures, but he did not like to recollect the past. He liked my sketches and portraits of people we both knew, but his enthusiasm reached the highest point when he saw my sketches of horses. He could barely believe that they had been done in pencil without other means."190

> 45/17. Shukyur Agha (c. 1789-before 1844).

Son of Muhammad Hasan Agha by Heyr Nisa Begum of Ganja.191 According to Prince Tsitsianov's report, he was 16 in November 1805.192 By December 1822, when the power of khans was liquidated, he owned seven villages and nomad lands, his right of inheritance also being confirmed by the Russian government.193

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He had one son Ismail Agha Jevanshir (c. 1807-?)194 (not shown in the present genealogical table).

> 46/17. Khanjan Agha (c. 1793-before 1844).

Son of Muhammad Hasan Agha by Heyr Nisa Begum of Ganja.195 According to Prince Tsitsianov's report, he was 12 in November 1805.196 By December 1822, when the power of khans was liquidated, Khanjan Agha owned five villages and nomad lands, his right of inheritance also being confirmed by the Russian govern-

190 "Puteshestvie po Zakavkaziu v 1864-1865 gg. Vasiliia Vereshchagina," in: Vsemirny puteshestvennik, Vol. 7, Obshchestvennaia polza Print shop, St. Petersburg, 1870, pp. 209-305.

191 See: Genealogy of Ibrahim Khalil Khan and his children, Doc. No. 1415.

192 See: AKAK, Vol. II, pp. 725-726, Doc. No. 1485.

193 NAG, rec. gr. 3, inv. 2, f. 120, sheets 190rev.-191.

194 RGIA, rec. gr. 1268, inv. 2, f. 731b, sheets 124rev.-125.

195 See: Genealogy of Ibrahim Khalil Khan and his children, Doc. No. 1415.

196 See: AKAK, Vol. II, pp. 725-126, Doc. No. 1485.

THE CAUCASUS & GLOBALIZATION

ment; until 1840 he drew a quarter of the income produced by the farmed-off dyeing tax in Shusha.197

He was married to Zogra Khanum and had three sons and three daughters: Mahmud Agha (c. 1818-?); Agha Khan, Abbas Quli Agha (c. 1834-?); Gyulli Begum, Shirin Begum and Kichik Begum Jevanshirs198 (not shown in the present genealogical table). Isfendiyar Javanshirov, grandson of Mahmud Agha Jevanshir, was People's Artist of Azerbaijan S.S.R. since 1943, soloist of the State Philharmonic of Azerbaijan (pseudonym Khan of Susha [Shushinsky]) born on 20.08.1901 in Shusha, died on 18.03.1979 in Baku.

> 47/17. Tubi Begum.

Daughter of Muhammad Hasan Agha by Heyr Nisa Begum of Ganja.199

> 48/17. Beyuk Khan (c. 1804-after 1844).

Son of Muhammad Hasan Agha by Magi Sharef Begum Khoyskaya.200

By December 1822, when the power of the khans was liquidated, Beyuk Khan owned nine villages and nomad lands, his right of inheritance also being confirmed by the Russian govern-

ment.201

He was married to Shagra Bani, who bore him four sons and four daughters: Gashim Agha (c. 1830-21.12.1889); Kasum Agha (c. 1835-?); Selim Agha (c. 1837-?); Sadykh Agha (c. 1840?); Pyusta Khanum, Nabat Khanum, Sheker Khanum and Begum Khanum Jevanshirs202 (not shown in the present genealogical table).

> 49/18. Khurshid Banu Begum (penname Natavan) (August 1832, Shusha-2 October, 1897, Shusha).

Prominent Azeri poetess, artist, and public figure.

The only daughter of Mekhti Quli Khan, the last sovereign khan of Karabakh by his marriage to Badir Jakhan Begum of Ganja.203

In January 1846, after the death of Mekhti Quli Khan on 15 May, 1845, the Civilian Administration of the Transcaucasian Territory offered Khurshid Banu Begum an estate of 1,315 households, as inherited possessions, in 41 nomad lands and 7 villages, which her father possessed for life.204 The Caucasian Committee was prepared to transfer these possessions to the khan's daughter as estate for life; it specified that the "question of the type of ownership of the so-called bek estates has not yet been resolved; this makes it impossible to transfer Mekhti Quli Agha's estates for life to his daughter as inherited possessions on principles that have been not accepted as final." This was confirmed by Emperor Nicholas I on 3 September, 1846205; on 6 December, 1846, however, the emperor signed a rescript On Confirming the Right of the Khans,-beks and Agalars to the Lands they Owned when the Caucasus was Joined to Russia as Inherited Possessions. Khurshid Banu Begum acquired the right to the real estate of her father Major General Mekhti Quli Khan of Karabakh.

197 NAG, rec. gr. 3, inv. 2, f. 120, sheets 190rev.-191.

198 GIAAR, rec. gr. 69, inv. 1, f. 6, sheet 32rev.; RGIA, rec. gr. 1268, inv. 2, f. 731b, sheets 101rev.-103.

199 See: Genealogy of Ibrahim Khalil Khan and his children, Doc. No. 1415.

200 See: Ibidem.

201 NAG, rec. gr. 3, inv. 2, f. 120, sheets 189rev.-190.

202 GIAAR, rec. gr. 69, inv. 1, f. 6, sheets 51-51rev.; RGIA, rec. gr. 1268, inv. 2, f. 731b, sheets 105rev.-106rev.

203 See: [Hajji Khamid Efendi, Mufti of Transcaucasia,] Genealogy of the khans of Ganja, pp. 905-906.

204 See: Kolonialnaia politika rossiyskogo tsarizma v Azerbaidzhane v 20-60-kh gg. XIX v., Part II, pp. 45-47.

205 See: Ibid., pp. 47-48.

THE CAUCASUS & GLOBALIZATION

Early in the 1870s, the real estate in the Jevanshir, Varand, Zangezur, Kebirli, and Chelya-byurd parts of the Shusha District consisted of 53 villages (1,778 households). In 1861, Khurshid Banu Begum inherited 9 villages of 185 households from her mother.206

Khurshid Banu Begum received her primary education at home where she studied Farsi and Persian literature; later she lived for a while in Tiflis,207 where she probably met Russian officer, Kumyk, Prince Khasay Musaevich Utsmiev (22 March, 1808-21 April, 1867). In his genealogy of the khans of Ganja, Haji Hamid Efendi wrongly dated their marriage as 1853.208 They were probably married in 1847, since the name of Lieutenant Colonel Khasay Utsmiev appeared in the 1848 list of members of the Shusha privileged social group.209

The marriage between the heiress to the vast possessions of the last khan of Karabakh and a Russian officer, member of an influential Kumyk family, probably played into the hands of the Caucasian Administration and was approved by Vicegerent of the Caucasus Adjutant General Prince Vorontsov. Khurshid Banu Begum and Major General (promoted in 1862) Prince Utsmiev had two children: son Prince Mekhti Quli Khan Utsmiev (1855, Shusha-1900, Tiflis) and daughter Princess Khan Bike Utsmieva (1856 Shusha-1921, Agdam).210

After the death of her first husband, Khurshid Banu Begum married a commoner Seiid Hussein; by that time she had become a famous poetess, well known in Karabakh and also in Azerbaijan. This is confirmed by the caustic responses of poets of Shirvan, Baku, Quba, Karabakh, and Sheki to poet Abdullah-bek Asi, who dared to reproach her for her marriage to a commoner.211

It was in 1868 that information about Khurshid Banu Begum appeared in academic publications212 in the book Dichtungen transkaukasischer Sanger des XVIII. und XIX. Jahrhunderts in adserbeidshanischer Mundart, gesammelt von Adolph Berge, which contains none of her poems; there is, however, a poem by Kasum-bek Zakir (pp. 99-100) entitled in Farsi "Dar sana-ye doxtar-e Mehdiqulu xan Xur§id banu bagim qofte ast," which means "Written as a Sign of Gratitude to Khurshid Banu Begum, Daughter of Mekhti Quli Khan."213

She wrote numerous lyric songs (ghazels) performed with great skill and widely known in her lifetime in manuscripts. Her poems were repeatedly published in her native language; the first Russian edition appeared in 1937. The first collection of her poems translated into Russian by A. Plavnik was published in Baku in 1982.214

In 1872, she gathered the poets of Karabakh into a literary society called Myajlisi uns (Gathering of Friends) in Shusha. She was very active in public life and charities. In 1873, she paid for the first water-supply system in Shusha known as Khan gyzy bulagy (The Spring of Khan's Daughter).215

Her second husband and their children—three sons and two daughters: Mir Abbas Agha (1868-1885), Mir Hasan Agha (1870-1903), Mir Jafar Agha (?-1914?) and Sara Begum and Khajar Bike (1869-?)— since the late 1870s-early 1880s used the family name Agamirovs. Her husband Seiid Hussein (c. 1833-?) was registered among the members of the privileged social

206 GIAAR, rec. gr. 123, inv. 1, f. 4, sheets 2-6rev.

207 See: A. Jafarzade, "Khurshid Banu Natavan—poetessa i khudozhnitsa Azerbaidzhana XIX veka," Trudy respublikanskogo rukopisnogo fonda, Vol. I, Baku, 1961, pp. 43-54.

208 See: [Haji Khamid Efendi, Mufti of Transcaucasia,] Genealogy of the khans of Ganja, pp. 905-906.

209 GIAAR, rec. gr. 10, inv. 1, f. 9.

210 See: E.E. Ismailov, "Princes Utsmievs in Azerbaijan," (in Russian), in: Az3rbaycan Tarixi §зсзгз Csmiyystinin ХзЬзНзгі. 6-ci buraxilis, Baki, 2007. S. 7-42.

211 See: A. Jafarzade, op. cit., pp. 43-44.

212 See: Poety Azerbaidzhana, Leningrad, 1970, p. 422.

213 I am very grateful to Prof. Adalet Tagirzade who identified and translated the poem.

214 See: Natavan. Lirika, Russian translation, Baku, 1982.

215 See: Б^лэр Мэммэдов, op. cit.

THE CAUCASUS & GLOBALIZATION

group of Shusha in 1886 in the rank of a gubernia secretary who filled the post of supervisor of the Elisavetpol Grammar School.216

Until her death in 1897, the poetess was officially called either Utsmieva, daughter of a khan of Karabakh, or went by the title and family name of her first husband Princess Utsmieva. On 5 October, 1888, when Emperor Alexander III traveled across the Caucasus, "he Most Graciously presented a brooch to Daughter of Karabakh Khan Utsmieva on an intercession of the General Director of Civilian Administration of the Caucasus."217

Khurshid Banu Begum died in Shusha in the month of rabi us-sani 1314 (September-8 October 1897) and was buried in the family vault in Agdam.218

The present author has compiled and published an ascending genealogy of Khurshid Banu Begum219 and made an approach to a genealogical table of her descendants. I have already written that she had a son and a daughter in her first marriage and three sons and three daughters in her second marriage. She had 16 grandchildren, 3 9 great grandchildren, etc. A far from complete genealogical table contains over 150 names of the poetess' descendants from her two marriag-es220 (her children and descendants, who belonged to other family names, are not shown in the present genealogical table).

VIII Generation

> 50/44. Abdulla Pasha (c. 1803-died before 1860).

Elder son of Jafar Quli Agha Jevanshir by Ajaib Nisa Khanum.221

The financial inventory of the beks living in the city of Shusha compiled in 1848 cites his

age as 45.222

His name is absent from the 1860 list of Shusha beks, which means that he probably died before that date.223

He was married to his cousin Gyulli Begum, daughter of Khanjan Agha Jevanshir (No. 46/17).224 According to the General Family List of All Members of the Khan Family of the Karabakh Khanate compiled in 1870 and attached to the file of the Shusha Bek Commission, Abdulla Pasha had five daughters.225

> 51/44. Kerim Agha (c. 1807-died after 1851 and before 1860).

Second son of Jafar Quli Agha Jevanshir, heir to the Karabakh Khanate, by Ajaib Nisa Khanum.226

The financial inventory of the beks living in the city of Shusha compiled in 1848 cites his

age as 40.227

216 GIAAR, rec. gr. 43, inv. 2, f. 7344 (Financial description and a list of members of the privileged social group of the city of Shusha for the year 1886), sheet 259.

217 GIAAR, rec. gr. 62, inv. 1, f. 25, sheet 5.

218 See: Meshadi Khanum Neytmatova, op. cit., pp. 149-152.

219 See: E.E. Ismailov, "The Rising Genealogy (Five Generations) of Khurshidbanu Beim Natavan," pp. 37-40.

220 E.E. Ismailov, "Princes Utsmievs in Azerbaijan," pp. 7-42.

221 See: Genealogy of Ibrahim Khalil Khan and his children, Doc. No. 1415.

222 GIAAR, rec. gr. 10, inv. 1, f. 9.

223 GIAAR, rec. gr. 10, inv. 1, f. 77, sheet 1.

224 GIAAR, rec. gr. 290, inv. 2, f. 1059.

225 GIAAR, rec. gr. 69, inv. 1, f. 6, sheet 32.

226 See: Genealogy of Ibrahim Khalil Khan and his children, Doc. No. 1415.

227 GIAAR, rec. gr. 10, inv. 1, f. 9.

THE CAUCASUS & GLOBALIZATION

His name is absent from the 1860 list of Shusha beks, which means that he probably died before that date.228

Until 1822 he studied at a Tiflis college; in December 1822, when the power of the khans had been liquidated in Karabakh, he was exiled with his father to Simbirsk. His father, Colonel Jafar Quli Agha, directly applied to Emperor Alexander I during his short stay in Simbirsk with a request to return him his landed possessions in Karabakh, allow him to move to St. Petersburg, and let his son join the military service.229

By an imperial order of 9 August, 1825, Kerim Agha was registered as a cornet of the Life Guards Uhlan Regiment.230

According to document No. 627, Foreign Minister Privy Councilor Count Karl Nesselrode sent on 28 August, 1825 to Chief of the General Staff Infantry General Baron Dibich, "imperial permission was given for the above-mentioned Kerim to use the title and the name of Prince Kerim Javansher."231

From that time on, Kerim Agha was mentioned in all the handbooks, documents, and correspondence as Prince Kerim-Jevandzhir, Jevanshir Prince Kerim or Kerim, Prince of Jevanshir. He is the only member of the family of the Karabakh khans who had an official title of prince in the Russian Empire.

Under the imperial decree of 22 September, 1825, he acquired an annual salary of 4,000 rubles and 4,000 rubles more to buy uniforms and equipment.232

According to the list of service of 1 April, 1831, he was 25 (in his request for resignation because of an illness issued on 4 February, 1831, he cited his age as 24); "he can read and write in Russian, French, Persian, Georgian, Armenian, and Tatar (Azeri.—E.I.), knows arithmetic and mathematics;" he never took part in military expeditions and battles; he was never punished for negligence, was worthy of his promotion, was not married.

On 28 January, 1828, he was promoted to lieutenant of the same regiment. Together with other field and subaltern officers of the Life Guard Uhlan Regiment, he received Supreme Benevolence233 for reviews of troops, military exercises, parades, and maneuvers carried out on 15 and 18 December, 1825, 20 March, 2, 7 and 11 July, 14 October, 1826, 5 May, 16, 24 and 28 June, 7, 10, 12, 16, 22 and 24 July, 27 August and 23 September, 1827 in the Emperor's presence.

From 16 May, 1830 he was on leave.

On 4 February, 1831 Kerim Agha submitted his resignation. According to the document issued on 4 February, 1831 by the Tiflis Military Hospital Prince Kerim Jevansher could no longer remain in military service for health reasons.234

On 25 June, 1831, Kerim Prince Javansher, son of Colonel Jafar Quli Agha of Karabakh, was dismissed from service for health reasons with the next rank of second captain of cavalry.235 According to the List of Generals and Field Officers from among the Asians of 1 January, 1852, "Jevanshir Prince Kerim" was promoted to major on 28 July, 1833.236 According to the

228 GIAAR, rec. gr. 10, inv. 1, f. 77, sheet 1.

229 Kolonialnaia politika rossiyskogo tsarizma v Azerbaidzhane v 20-60-kh gg. XIX v., Part I, pp. 41-46.

230 RGVIA, rec. gr. 395, inv. 20, f. 294, sheets 5-6.

231 RGVIA, rec. gr. 395, inv. 80, f. 131, sheet 1.

232 Kolonialnaia politika rossiyskogo tsarizma v Azerbaidzhane v 20-60-kh gg. XIX v., Part I, p. 45.

233 Supreme Benevolence was one of the awards in the Russian Empire. Supreme Benevolence (or Gratitude) could be general, that is, awarded to a military unit, department or ministry and personalized, awarded to individuals. It was announced in rescripts in the name of the people awarded or in imperial decrees.

234 RGVIA, rec. gr. 395, inv. 20, f. 294, sheets 2-8.

235 See: Istoria leyb-gvardii Ulanskogo Eya Velichestva Gosudaryni Imperatritsy Alexandry Feodorovny polka, Comp. by Senator Infantry General P.O. Bobrovsky, Annex to Volume II, St. Petersburg, 1903, p. 325.

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236 RGVIA, rec. gr. 407, inv. 1, f. 948, sheets 161rev.-162.

THE CAUCASUS & GLOBALIZATION

printed list of majors in 1840, "Prince Kerim Jevandzhir" served in the cavalry in the rank of major since 23 June, 1831.237

According to the table of ranks, the rank of second captain of cavalry corresponded to the rank of major in the army. It seems that in 1833 Kerim Agha Jevanshir was enlisted in military service in the rank of major and was attached to the cavalry of the Separate Caucasian Corps.

On the recommendation of Commander of the Separate Caucasian Corps Infantry General E. Golovin, Major Prince Kerim Jevanshir was sent into retirement for health reasons by an imperial order of 8 February, 1840, "but remained registered in the cavalry and was not discharged from service because this retirement would have insulted his father . very much respected by the Muslims who would have interpreted this as disgrace."238

According to information related to July 1840, he was "on leave abroad until complete recovery."239

His name was mentioned for the last time in the archival List of Generals and Field Officers from among the Asians of 1 January, 1852, in which his name was crossed out.240

After 1852 his name was not mentioned in the printed lists of majors by seniority,241 which probably means that he died around 1852. He had no children.

> 52/44. Hidayat Agha (I) (c. 1823-died between 1886 and 1888).

Son of Jafar Quli Agha Jevanshir, heir to the Karabakh Khanate, by Eter Khanum.242 The financial list of beks of the city of Shusha compiled in 1848 shows his age as 25.243 The list of Shusha beks of 1860 shows his age as 36.244

The list of Hidayat Agha Jevanshir's family submitted in April 1870 to the Shusha Bek Commission shows his age as 48.245

The list of the privileged social group of Shusha compiled in 1886 shows his age as 63.246 His father died in 1866 (his two elder brothers died earlier with no heirs) leaving Hidayat Agha Jevanshir the eldest member among the descendants of the khans of Karabakh and a de facto head of the House of the Khans of Karabakh. This is indirectly confirmed by the Total Family List of All Members of the Khan Family of the Karabakh Khanate247 based on family lists presented by members of the family to the Shusha Bek Commission in 1870.248

In the Total Family List the family of Hidayat, Agha Jevanshir is entered under No. 2 after the name of Khurshid Banu Begum, the only daughter of the last khan of Karabakh. Other members of different lines of the descendants of the khans of Karabakh are classified according

237 See: List of Majors by Seniority, Corrected by 26 July, 1840, St. Petersburg, 1840, p. 304.

238 RGVIA, rec. gr. 395, inv. 148, f. 248, sheets 4-5, 16-16rev.

239 List of Majors., p. 304.

240 RGVIA, rec. gr. 407, inv. 1, f. 948, sheets 161rev.-162.

241 See, for example: List of Majors by Seniority, Corrected by 6 July, 1852, St. Petersburg, 1852.

242 GIAAR, rec. gr. 290, inv. 2, f. 1046.

243 GIAAR, rec. gr. 10, inv. 1, f. 9.

244 GIAAR, rec. gr. 10, inv. 1, f. 77, sheet 1.

245 GIAAR, rec. gr. 69, inv. 1, f. 6, sheets 42.

246 GIAAR, rec. gr. 43, inv. 2, f. 7344, sheets 159rev.-160.

247 GIAAR, rec. gr. 69, inv. 1, f. 6, sheets 32-36rev.

248 A concise description of the bek commissions, their tasks and activities can be found in: E.E. Ismailov, "The Khans of Karabakh: The Roots, Subordination to the Russian Empire, and Liquidation of the Khanate," pp. 127-154 (for more details, see: E.E. Ismailov, "Bekskie komissii i proekt polozheniia o pravakh vysshego musulmanskogo sosloviia Zakavkazia," in: Genealogichesky vetsnik, Issue 9, St. Petersburg, 2002, pp. 47-51; S.A. Akhmedov, "Materials of the Shusha and Baku Bek Commissions in the State Historical Archives of the Azerbaijan Republic," (in Russian), in: Az3rbaycan Tarixi §зсзгз CsmiyystininХзЬзгІзгі. 6-ci buraxiliy, Baki, 2007. S. 118-124; R.M. Abramian, "Materials of the Erivan Bek Commission as a Genealogical Source," (in Russian), in: Az3rbaycan Tarixi §зсзгз C3miyy3tininХзЬзгІзгі. 6-ci buraxiliy, Baki, 2007. S. 125-133.

THE CAUCASUS & GLOBALIZATION

to the degree of their kinship with Hidayat Agha Jevanshir. They are listed as cousins, second, or third cousins of Hidayat Agha or cousins and second cousins once removed, etc.

The document of the Shusha Bek Commission pointed out that "Hidayat Agha and all other male members of the family are registered under No. 1 as members of the Khan family in the lists of Shusha beks compiled in 1860." The reference is to the List of Meliks, Agalars, Officials, Beks, and the Muslim Clergy of the City of Shusha compiled in 1860, in which Hidayat Agha is listed as a member of the family of his father Major General Jafar Quli Agha. It should be said that in the last list of this sort compiled in 1886, the family of Hidayat Agha was entered under number 1 among other members who also belonged to the khan social group.

Hidayat Agha Jevanshir was an elected member of the Shusha Bek Commission. (There were 24 elected members in each commission, who represented the upper social crust of each gubernia. The Shusha Bek Commission began functioning in 1870 in Shusha with the aim of identifying the personal rights of the upper social group of the Shusha and Zangezur districts. It was then moved to the city of Nukha (Sheki) where it established the personal rights of an upper social group of the Nukha and Aresh Districts. It was closed in 1874.) In April 1870, Hidayat Agha entrusted his elder son Javad Agha Jevanshir with the task of placing a request to the Shusha Bek Commission to register his family name Jevanshir as "his family name which belonged to my ancestors who distinguished themselves in battles at the time of the khanate. The word itself means a 'young lion'." The request was supplied with a family list of 73 villages in the Shusha, Elisavetpol, and Zangezur districts of the Elisavetpol Gubernia, which belonged to Hidayat Agha Jevanshir.249

This means that Hidayat Agha Jevanshir was the biggest landowner of the Elisavetpol Gubernia. According to the document On the Villages and Nomad Lands of the Shusha Uezd which belong to Princess Khurshid Banu Begum Utsmieva compiled in the early 1870s, the only daughter of the last Karabakh khan inherited the lands of 53 villages from her father and the lands of nine more villages from her mother.250

On 24 September, 1871, Hidayat Agha Jevanshir was awarded an Order of St. Stanislav Second Class to mark the presence of Emperor Alexander II in Transcaucasia.251 He was probably awarded the Order of St. Stanislav Third Class and St. Anne Third Class, but this has not been established.

According to the data for 1886, Hidayat Agha Jevanshir lived in Shusha in his own two-

story house.252

He was married to Sharaf Jahan Begum (c. 1836-?), his father's cousin, daughter of Abra Khan Khoysky253 by Azad Begum of Karabakh (see 36/8).254

On 5 October, 1888, when traveling in the Caucasus, Emperor Alexander III "Most Graciously presented ... widow of Hidayat Agha Jevanshirsky Sharaf Jagan Begum Jevanshir a gold bracelet incrusted with 3 emeralds and 12 diamonds" on the recommendation of the Chief Civilian Administrator of the Caucasus.255

This means that Hidayat Agha (I) Jevanshir died between 1886, when his name was still on the list of the privileged social group of Shusha, and October 1888, when his wife was a widow. So far, I have not established a more exact date of his death.

249 GIAAR, rec. gr. 69, inv. 1, f. 6, sheets 41-44rev., 49-49rev., 82-84rev.

250 See: E.E. Ismailov, "Princes Utsmievs in Azerbaijan," pp. 7-42.

251 See: Kavkaz, No. 119, 10 October, 1871.

252 GIAAR, rec. gr. 43, inv. 2, f. 7344, sheets 159rev.-160.

253 GIAAR, rec. gr. 290, inv. 2, f. 1046.

254 GIAAR, rec. gr. 77, inv. 1, f. 14 (Reports.), sheet 37.

255 GIAAR, rec. gr. 62, inv. 1, f. 25, sheets 5-6.

Volume 8 Issue 3-4 2014 HHlEBAffBAEffS^HLOBABrBATrON 155

IX Generation

> 53/50. Segra Begum (Seray Begum) (born prior to 1847-?).

Daughter of Abdulla Pasha by Gyulli Begum.256

> 54/50. Telli Begum (born prior to 1847-?).

Daughter of Abdulla Pasha by Gyulli Begum.257

> 55/50. Begum Jan Begum (Begum Jan Begum Abdulla Pasha Kuzy Jevanshir) (c. 1840-?).

Daughter of Abdulla Pasha by Gyulli Begum.258

She was married to her father's cousin Colonel of Life Guards Cossack Regiment (promoted in 1879) Gashim Khan Jevanshir (c. 1830-21 December, 1889), son of Beyuk Khan (see No. 48/17). They had three sons and one daughter: Panah Khan (c. 1865-?), Hasan Khan (c. 1869-?), Ibrahim Khan and Pusta Begum (c. 1867-?) Jevanshirs.259

> 56/50. Fatma Begum.

Daughter of Abdulla Pasha.260

> 57/50. Tubu Begum.

Daughter of Abdulla Pasha.261

> 58/52. Javad Agha (5 August, 1851, Shusha-December 1930, Shemakha).

Eldest son of Hidayat Agha Jevanshir by Sharaf Jahan Begum Khoysky; according to the birth certificate issued by the Transcaucasian Shi'a Spiritual Administration, he was born on 5 August, 1851.262

On the 1860 list of Shusha beks, he is registered as 8 years old.263 On the list of family members his father Hidayat Agha Jevanshir presented to the Shusha Bek Commission in April 1870, he was registered as 18 years old.264

On the list of members of the privileged social group of Shusha for 1886, he was registered as 35 years old.265

According to the service list compiled on 1 January, 1868, he was 19 (in fact, in January 1868, he was 16 years old). "From the khan clan, grandson of late Major General Jafar Quliagha (as written.—E.I.), Muslim, literate, single."

On 19 May, 1867, he joined the military service as an armor bearer in the 4th (Muslim) Unit of Life Guards Caucasian Squadron of His Majesty Escort; on 30 October, 1867 was promoted to cadet.

256 GIAAR, rec. gr. 69, inv. 1, f. 6, sheet 32; RGIA, rec. gr. 1268, inv. 2, f. 731b, sheets 107rev.-108rev.

257 Ibidem.

258 Ibidem.

259 GIAAR, rec. gr. 69, inv. 1, f. 6, sheet 51; RGVIA, rec. gr. 400 (Service Records of Officers of the Russian Army), inv. 12, f. 18348, sheets 2-6, 18-20.

260 GIAAR, rec. gr. 69, inv. 1, f. 6, sheet 32.

261 Ibidem.

262 GIAAR, rec. gr. 290, inv. 2, f. 1046.

263 GIAAR, rec. gr. 10, inv. 1, f. 77, sheet 1.

264 GIAAR, rec. gr. 69, inv. 1, f. 6, sheet 42.

265 GIAAR, rec. gr. 43, inv. 2, f. 7344, sheets 159rev.-160.

THE CAUCASUS & GLOBALIZATION

According to the information, as of 1 January, 1868, he had no fines, had been never brought to court, had never taken part in military expeditions or fighting, and had no orders or

insignia.266

The Life Guards Caucasian Squadron of His Majesty Escort set up in November 1856 comprised four units. The 4th (Muslim) Unit was staffed by members "of the most noble families of khans and beks of Transcaucasia," that is, by Azeris. It was intended as a "vehicle of peaceful ideas of culture and civilization among the members of their people and of respect and obedience to the Russian throne." Many members of the noble Caucasian families served in it. It was a source of able administrators who, after serving the obligatory four years in the escort, were promoted to cadets of cavalry. Since 1869, after two years of service in the escort, the cadets could pass officer exams; those who failed were discharged from service in the rank of ensign of militia.267

I could not find the name of Javad Agha Jevanshir either on the list of those who had been promoted to cadets or ensigns of militia. In April 1870, he was in Shusha where, under a letter of attorney issued by his father and in his name, he applied to the Shusha Bek Commission.268 It seems that for some reason he was discharged from service without promotion to an officer rank; on the 1886 list of members of the privileged social group of Shusha, he was registered among the members of his father Hidayat Agha Jevanshir family without military or civilian ranks.269 He should not be confused with his namesakes—two other great grandsons of Ibrahim Khalil Khan.270

There is a photograph of Javad Agha Jevanshir made when he was still in the army wearing the uniform of a cadet of the 4th (Muslim) Unit, now kept at the Institute of Manuscripts of the National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan.271

There is no other information about his military service.

After the death of his father, Javad Agha Jevanshir became the de facto head of the House of the Karabakh Khans.

Javad Agha Jevanshir was married to Persian Princess Saray el Malik Khanum Qajar (20 October, 1868-August 1942), daughter of Major General (promoted in 1883) Prince Riza Quli Mirza (1837-1894), who between 1862 and 1873 was Commander of the 4th (Muslim) Unit of the Life Guard Caucasian Squadron of His Majesty's Escort.272

When Soviet power was established in Azerbaijan in 1920, Javad Agha Jevanshir and his descendants acquired the family name of Jevanshirovs or Javanshirovs (Cavan^irov in Azeri).

266 RGVIA, rec. gr. 970, inv. 1, f. 999, sheets 51-52; rec. gr. 330, inv. 55, f. 1568, sheets 52-53.

267 See: S. Petin, Sobstvenny Ego Imperatorskogo Velichestva Konvoy: Istoricheskiy ocherk, St. Petersburg, 1899, pp. 241-242.

268 GIAAR, rec. gr. 69, inv. 1, f. 6, sheet 41rev.

269 GIAAR, rec. gr. 43, inv. 2, f. 7344, sheets 159rev.-160.

270 The elder of them was Javad Agha born about 1846 (date of his death unknown). He was son of Pasha Agha, who was son of Muhammad Kasum Agha (see No. 21); the younger of them was Javad Ahga born about 1862 (date of his death is unknown). He was son of Mustafa Agha, son of Sefi Quli Agha (see No. 24). It seems that the elder was senior official for special errands under the Elisavetpol governor; according to information for 1878, he was collegiate registrar (Kavkazskiy kalendar na 1878god, p. 42); in 1879-1889 he was ensign of militia (Kavkazskiy kalendar na 1879god, p. 35; for 1880, p. 40; for 1881, p. 39; for 1882, p. 52; for 1883, p. 46; for 1884, p. 45; for 1885, p. 50; for 1886, p. 45; for 1887, p. 41; for 1889, p. 144). On 6 October, 1888, during the Caucasian tour of Emperor Alexander III, ensign of militia Javad Agha Jevanshir was promoted to second lieutenant of militia (GIAAR, rec. gr. 62, inv. 1, f. 25, sheet 35); as a senior official for special errands and second lieutenant of militia his name reappeared in the Kavkazskiy kalendar till 1894 (Kavkazskiy kalendar na 1890 god, p. 146; for 1891, p. 168; for 1892, p. 113; for 1894, p. 133).

271 The photograph was found, identified as that of Javad Agha by Prof. Adalet Tagirzade, who kindly gave me a copy, for which I am grateful.

272 See: E.E. Ismailov, Persidskie printsy iz doma Kadzharov v Rossiiskoy imperii, Moscow, 2009, pp. 135-145, 275.

THE CAUCASUS & GLOBALIZATION

> 59/52. Hussein Agha (8 March, 1854, Shusha-?).

Second son of Hidayat Agha Jevanshir by Sharaf Jahan Begum Khoysky; according to the birth certificate issued by the Transcaucasian Shi'a Spiritual Administration, he was born on 8 March, 1854.213

On the 1860 list of the Shusha beks, he was registered as 6 years old.274 On the family list which his father Hidayat Agha Jevanshir presented to the Shusha Bek Commission in April 1870, he was shown as 15 years old.275

On the list of the members of the privileged social group of Shusha for 1886, he was registered as 33 years old.276

He had two sons and one daughter: Mamed Hasan Agha (c. 1885-?), Firuz Agha111 (12 November, 1886-November 1925) and Sudaba Begum (22 January, 1893, Jebrail-15 May, 1969, Baku) Jevanshirovs278 (not shown in the present genealogical table).

> 60/52. Najaf Quli Agha (19 July, 1858, Shusha-?).

Third son of Hidayat Agha Jevanshir by Sharaf Jahan Begum Khoysky; according to the birth certificate issued by the Transcaucasian Shi'a Spiritual Administration, he was born on 19 July, 1858.219

He was registered as one year old on the list of Shusha beks for 1860.280 On the family list which his father Hidayat Agha Jevanshir presented to the Shusha Bek Commission in April 1870, he was registered as 10 years old.281

On the list of the members of the privileged social group of Shusha for 1886, he was registered as 28 years old.282

He was married to Malik Jakhan Khanum Nurieva (1870, Shusha-1927, Shemakha), daughter of Second Lieutenant of Militia Beyuk-bek Nuri-bek Ogly by Persian Princess Rah-shanda Sultan Khanum Qajar. He had five sons and one daughter: Abulfat Agha (c. 1879-?)283; Allhyar Agha, Takhmaz Agha, Shukyur Agha, Abbas Quli Agha (?-1942, Evlakh) and Dovlet Begum (16 November, 1905, Shusha-1 April, 1957, Baku) Jevanshirovs (not shown in the present genealogical table).

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> 61/52. Begum Khanum (c. 1858-20 December, 1910).

On the family list which his father Hidayat Agha Jevanshir presented to the Shusha Bek Commission in April 1870, she was registered as 12 years old.284

She is buried in the cemetery of a religious complex Imamzade in the city of Barda. According to the tombstone, she died on 16 zi-l-Hegira 1328 (20 December, 1910); she was married to her father's second cousin Kelbali Agha Shir Khan Agha Ogly Jevanshir,285 grandson of

213 GIAAR, rec. gr. 290, inv. 2, f. 1046.

214 GIAAR, rec. gr. 10, inv. 1, f. 77, sheet 1.

215 GIAAR, rec. gr. 69, inv. 1, f. 6, sheet 42.

216 GIAAR, rec. gr. 43, inv. 2, f. 7344, sheets 159rev.-160.

277 Ibidem.

278 A notebook with dates of birth and death of family members made by hand by Key Kavus Agha Jevanshirov (see No. 64/58) and continued by his son. Family Archives of Hidayat Agha (III) Javanshirov.

219 GIAAR, rec. gr. 290, inv. 2, f. 1046.

280 GIAAR, rec. gr. 10, inv. 1, f. 77, sheet 1.

281 GIAAR, rec. gr. 69, inv. 1, f. 6, sheet 42.

282 GIAAR, rec. gr. 43, inv. 2, f. 7344, sheets 159rev.-160.

283 Ibidem.

284 GIAAR, rec. gr. 69, inv. 1, f. 6, sheet 42.

285 See: Meshadi Khanum Neymatova, op. cit., pp. 143-145.

THE CAUCASUS & GLOBALIZATION

Suleyman Agha Jevanshir (No. 27/8); according to the available information, he was 12 in 1870, which means that he was born in approximately 1858.286

> 62/52. Agha Begum Agha (c. 1865-?).

On the family list which his father Hidayat Agha Jevanshir presented to the Shusha Bek Commission in April 1870, she was registered as 5 years old.281

X Generation

> 63/58. Hidayat Agha (II) (16 September, 1890, Shusha-1 July, 1916).

Elder son of Javad Agha Jevanshir by Princess Saray el Malik Khanum Qajar. "Killed at the Kivertsi railway station at the Austrian border."288 Today, Kivertsy is an administrative center of the Kivertsy District in the Volhinia Region of Ukraine. Before 1917, it was an important railway hub on the western border of the Russian Empire. It remains unclear how he found himself on the western border where Russian forces, including the Tatar Mounted Regiment of the Caucasian Native Mounted Division, were fighting. He was probably one of the soldiers of the Caucasian Division, but his name has not been found so far on its lists.

> 64/58. Key Kavus Agha (16 June, 1894, Shusha-25 September, 1952, Evlakh).

Son of Javad Agha Jevanshir by Princess Saray el Malik Khanum Qajar. When Azerbaijan became part of the Soviet Union in 1920, Key Kavus Agha Jevanshirov worked in the town of Evlakh where he drove an ambulance.

After the death of his father in 1930 Key Kavus Agha Jevanshirov became the de facto head of the House of the Karabakh Khans.

He was married to his cousin Sudaba Begum (22 January, 1893, Jebrail—15 May, 1969, Baku), who was the daughter of Hussein Agha Jevanshir (see No. 59/52).289

> 65/58. Valiya Begum (27 April, 1898, Shusha-21 February, 1960, Baku).

Daughter of Javad Agha Jevanshir by Princess Saray el Malik Khanum Qajar, was married to her cousin Firuz Agha Jevanshir, son of Hussein Agha Jevanshir (see No. 59/52); they had one daughter Sharaf Jahan Begim Javanshirova (31 December, 1916, Karyagino (Fizuli)-4 July, 1991, Baku).290

> 66/58. Adylya Begum (17 December, 1900, Shusha-July, 1956, Baku).

Daughter of Javad Agha Jevanshir by Princess Saray el Malik Khanum Qajar; was married to her relative Surkhay Agha Jevanshirov; they had two daughters: LeylaBegum (10 April, 1920, Karyagino (Fizuli)-?) and Sanubyar Begum (21 March, 1924, Karyagino (Fizuli)-?) Javanshi-

286 GIAAR, rec. gr. 69, inv. 1, f. 6, sheet 71.

281 Ibid., sheet 42.

288 A notebook with dates of birth and death of family members made by hand by Key Kavus Agha Jevanshirov.

289 Ibidem.

290 Ibidem.

291 Ibidem.

THE CAUCASUS & GLOBALIZATION

> 67/58. Amina Begum (16 December, 1904, Shusha-March 1973, Baku).

Daughter of Javad Agha Jevanshir by Princess Saray el Malik Khanum Qajar; was married to Asad Mirzoev; they had no children.292

> 68/58. Davud Agha (20 November, 1907, Vladikavkaz-October 1972, Baku).

Son of Javad Agha Jevanshir by Princess Saray el Malik Khanum Qajar; buried in the city of Barda in the cemetery of the Imamzade religious complex. He had no children.293

XI Generation

> 69/64. Ilyas Agha (18 July, 1914, Vank Gorge, Karyagino District-1942?).

Eldest son of Key Kavus Agha Jevanshirov by Sudaba Begum Jevanshirova, fought in the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945; according to information available to the family, he was reported missing during the battle of Stalingrad.294

> 70/64. Idris Agha (Idris Key-Kyausovich Jevanshirov) (29 November, 1916, Karyagino (Fizuli)-21 February, 1975, Baku).

Son of Key Kavus Agha Jevanshirov by Sudaba Begum Jevanshirova. Fought in the Great Patriotic War from 1941 to January 1943, in the 202nd rifle regiment; between January 1943 and June 1943, he served in the 184th battalion of airfield maintenance and supply; between June 1943 and June 1946, he served as driver of the headquarters of the 306th Assault Air Nizhnedneprovskaia Division.295

"For perfect fulfillment of combat tasks on the front of the struggle against German occupants," he was awarded with two medals "For Fighting Merits" No. 897059 on 14 April, 1944296 and No. 2152645 on 3 June, 1945297 by orders of commanders of the 306th Assault Air Nizhnedneprovskaia Division.

He was also awarded medals "For Defense of Stalingrad" (presented on 15 June, 1945),298 "For Capture of Budapest" (presented on 9 November, 1945),299 "For Capture of Vienna" (presented on 31 January, 1946)300 and "Victory over Germany" (presented on 12 January, 1946).301

After demobilization, he worked as driver in Evlakh and Baku, died in a car crash. After the death of his father in 1952, Idris Agha Jevanshirov became the de facto head of the House of the Karabakh Khans.

He was married to Shafiga Meshadi Isa Gyzy Najafova (born on 31 December, 1937).

292 Ibidem.

293 Ibidem.

294 Ibidem.

295 Central Archives of the RF Defense Ministry (hereinafter TsAMO), rec. gr. 33, inv. 686196, f. 5049, sheets 259-260, 265-265rev.; inv. 690155, f. 502, sheets 225, 231-231rev.

296 Temporary certificate A No. 644499, Family Archives of Hidayat Agha (III) Javanshirov.

297 Temporary certificate D No. 298112, Family Archives of Hidayat Agha (III) Javanshirov.

298 Certificate O No. 05660, Family Archives of Hidayat Agha (III) Javanshirov.

299 Certificate A No. 001025, Family Archives of Hidayat Agha (III) Javanshirov.

300 Certificate A No. 009221, Family Archives of Hidayat Agha (III) Javanshirov.

301 Certificate without number, Family Archives of Hidayat Agha (III) Javanshirov.

THE GENEALOGICAL TABLE OF THE KHANS OF KARABAKH Origins, Variants of the First Two Generations, Descendants of the Elder Line

I Generation

The variant of the first two generations according to Mirza Adigezai-bek

162 Volume 8 Issue 3-4 2014

XII Generation

> 71/70. Zemfira Begum (born on 28 September, 1955, Evlakh).

Daughter of Idris Agha Jevanshirov by Shafiga Najafova, was married to Ali Hussein Khanbalaev, they had two children, son Ilham and daughter Aziza Khanbalaevs.

> 72/70. Hidayat Agha (III) (Idayat Idris Ogly Javanshirov) (born on 11 November, 1956, Evlakh).

Son of Idris Agha Jevanshirov by Shafiga Najafova.

Since 1975, he has been the de facto head of the House of the Khans of Karabakh. Graduated from the Department of Biology, State University of Azerbaijan. He is married to Mekhriban Zakhid Gyzy Karalova (born on 22 September, 1961, Dma-nisi, Georgia); she graduated from the State Medical Institute of Azerbaijan, specialized in pediatrics (1984); on 26 December, 2012 was awarded the honorary title of Merited Doctor by an order of the President of the Azerbaijan Republic.

> 73/70. Shakhin Agha (born on 16 June, 1959, Baku).

Son of Idris Agha Jevanshirov by Shafiga Najafova.

He lives and works in Moscow, is married to Tamara Jabbarovna Alieva (born on 18 May, 1956).

XIII Generation

> 74/72. Javid Agha (born on 19 November, 1986, Baku).

Eldest son of Hidayat Agha Javanshirov by Mekhriban Karalova; graduated from the State Economic University of Azerbaijan, Department of International Economic Relations in 2008. He is married to Gyunel Niaz Gyzy Abdullaeva (born on 1 March, 1987).

> 75/72. Jeykhun Agha (born on 31 January, 1989, Baku).

Younger son of Hidayat Agha Javanshirov by Mekhriban Karalova; graduated from the State Economic University of Azerbaijan. Department of Administration; holds a bachelor degree in the Organization of Customs Service (2011).

> 76/73. Narmina Begum (born on 23 April, 1984, Moscow).

The only daughter of Shakhin Agha Javanshirov by Tamara Alieva; graduated from the Dashkova Moscow Humanitarian Institute, lives in Moscow, married with one son.

XIV Generation

> 77/74. Mekhriban Begum (born on 11 November, 2012, Baku).

Daughter of Javid Agha Javanshirov by Gyunel Abdullaeva.

> 78/74. Jamal Agha (born on 17 January, 2015, Baku).

Son of Javid Agha Javanshirov by Gyunel Abdullaeva.

Conclusion

This is a detailed generation-by-generation genealogy of only one of the branches of the numerous descendants of the Jevanshir clan. Representatives of this line of the clan, Muhammad Hasan Agha, the eldest son of Ibrahim Khalil Khan and Jafar Quli Agha, eldest son of Muhammad Hasan Agha, were legal heirs to the khanate until the power of the khans was abolished in Karabakh in 1822.

After the death of Mekhti Quli Khan, former head of Karabakh, in 1845, Jafar Quli Agha and, after him, Hidayat Agha were recognized as the de facto heads of the House of the Karabakh Khans. This was described in detail above, in particular based on the files of the Shusha Bek Commission.

For this reason, I am putting the title of the Head of the House of Karabakh Khans into circulation, which was never accepted de jure. I applied this term to Hidayat Agha Jevanshir, son of the last legal heir of Karabakh, and his direct male descendants up to the present.

The genealogy of the Jevanshirs of the early 17th-early 18th centuries (the first three generations shown in this article), when the members of the Jevanshir clan headed the Karabakh mahal (tribal union) Otuziki and were titled emirs and sultans, calls for further investigation on the basis of new and probably not yet studied sources.

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