Научная статья на тему 'CHILDREN’S NOVEL WITH DIDACTIC-TEACHING COLORATION'

CHILDREN’S NOVEL WITH DIDACTIC-TEACHING COLORATION Текст научной статьи по специальности «Языкознание и литературоведение»

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Ключевые слова
CHILDREN'S LITERATURE / IN KOSOVO / NOVELS / "THE YEAR OF PERSECUTION" / "FORBIDDEN YEAR" / "THE YEAR OF ESCAPE" / BY AVDI SHALA / KOSOVO / TOPIC OF DIDACTIC NOVEL FOR CHILDREN / THE CHARACTERS OF THE DIDACTIC CHILDREN'S NOVEL / THE WRITERS OF THE CHILDREN'S NOVEL / ДЕТСКАЯ ЛИТЕРАТУРА / В КОСОВО / РОМАНЫ / "ГОД ГОНЕНИЙ" / "ЗАПРЕТНЫЙ ГОД" / "ГОД ПОБЕГА" / АВДИ ШАЛА / КОСОВО / ТЕМАТИКА ДИДАКТИЧЕСКОГО РОМАНА ДЛЯ ДЕТЕЙ / ПЕРСОНАЖИ ДИДАКТИЧЕСКОГО ДЕТСКОГО РОМАНА / ПИСАТЕЛИ ДЕТСКИХ РОМАНОВ

Аннотация научной статьи по языкознанию и литературоведению, автор научной работы — Islami V.

Our interest is focused on the research of the children's novel in Kosovo, with special emphasis on the type of novel that deals with topics from the didactic-teaching field, together with the characters. Our aim was to focus specifically on the didactic novel for children, which is rich in diverse themes, despite the circumstances through which our people have traveled over the centuries. Considering this sphere of life to be important, the writers of children's literature have addressed events of great importance in this field, as well as enriched the cultivation of this genre in order to bring to the young readers a pronounced thematic variety. In addition to articulating topics of didactic-teaching nature in the field of children's literature novels, special attention has been paid to the characters. The treatment of didactic themes with the characters that complement the characters of this nature is directly related to the level of the reader and exert a positive influence on the psychological and intellectual world of the level of the readers to whom this literature is dedicated. Many of our writers in the country have written the type of novel in question, which undoubtedly complements a large part in terms of the theme of the novel genre for children. These writers have filled it with new themes, motives, ideas, and characters that have been lacking in this literary field thus far, as unfortunately children's literature has not been given enough attention by scholars and literary critics in our country.

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Текст научной работы на тему «CHILDREN’S NOVEL WITH DIDACTIC-TEACHING COLORATION»

_LITERATURES OF INDIVIDUAL LANGUAGES AND LANGUAGE FAMILIES (UDC 821)_

DOI: https://doi.org/10.18454/RULB.2020.23.3.1

РОМАНЫ ДЛЯ ДЕТЕЙ С ДИДАКТИЧЕСКОЙ ОКРАСКОЙ

Научная статья

Ислами В. *

Приштинский университет, Приштина, Республика Косово * Корреспондирующий автор (veselislami[at]hotmail.com)

Аннотация

Наше исследование сосредоточено на изучении романов для детей в Косово, а также персонажей этих произведений. Мы уделяем с особое внимание жанру романов дидактической направленности.

Цель исследования состоит в том, чтобы сосредоточиться именно на дидактических романах для детей, тематика которых довольно разнообразна, вопреки всем трудным обстоятельствам, через которые наш народ прошел на протяжении веков. Писатели детской литературы обращаются к событиям, имеющим большое значение в области дидактики, а также способствуют дальнейшей популяризации этого жанра, чтобы предоставить юным читателям ярко выраженное тематическое разнообразие.

Помимо формулировки тем нравоучительного характера в сфере детских литературных романов, особое внимание было уделено персонажам. Трактовка дидактических тем с такими персонажами напрямую связана с уровнем читателя и оказывает положительное влияние на психологическое и интеллектуальное развитие тех, для кого предназначена данная литература.

В Косово многие из писателей занимались написанием данного вида романов, который, несомненно, привносит большой вклад в тематику такого жанра, как романы для детей. Эти писатели обогатили данный жанр новыми темами, мотивами, идеями и персонажами, которых до сих пор не хватало в этой литературной области, так как, к сожалению, детская литература не получила достаточного внимания со стороны ученых и литературоведов в Косово.

Ключевые слова: детская литература, в Косово, романы: "Год гонений", "Запретный год", "Год побега", Авди Шала, Косово, тематика дидактического романа для детей, в Косово, персонажи дидактического детского романа, в Косово, писатели детских романов, в Косово.

CHILDREN'S NOVEL WITH DIDACTIC-TEACHING COLORATION

Research article

Islami V. *

University of Prishtina, Prishtina, Kosovo

* Corresponding author (veselislami[at]hotmail.com)

Abstract

Our interest is focused on the research of the children's novel in Kosovo, with special emphasis on the type of novel that deals with topics from the didactic-teaching field, together with the characters. Our aim was to focus specifically on the didactic novel for children, which is rich in diverse themes, despite the circumstances through which our people have traveled over the centuries.

Considering this sphere of life to be important, the writers of children's literature have addressed events of great importance in this field, as well as enriched the cultivation of this genre in order to bring to the young readers a pronounced thematic variety.

In addition to articulating topics of didactic-teaching nature in the field of children's literature novels, special attention has been paid to the characters. The treatment of didactic themes with the characters that complement the characters of this nature is directly related to the level of the reader and exert a positive influence on the psychological and intellectual world of the level of the readers to whom this literature is dedicated.

Many of our writers in the country have written the type of novel in question, which undoubtedly complements a large part in terms of the theme of the novel genre for children. These writers have filled it with new themes, motives, ideas, and characters that have been lacking in this literary field thus far, as unfortunately children's literature has not been given enough attention by scholars and literary critics in our country.

Keywords: children's literature, in Kosovo, novels: "The Year of Persecution", "Forbidden Year", "The Year of Escape", by Avdi Shala, Kosovo, topic of didactic novel for children, in Kosovo, the characters of the didactic children's novel, in Kosovo, the writers of the children's novel, in Kosovo.

Introduction

If we refer to the novel as a literary genre, it is undoubtedly a broad concept in terms of what it presents either in the theme, the idea, the motive, or even the characters. However, our research work has focused on the type of didactic-teaching novel in terms of themes and characters.

There is no denying the fact that this type of novel is quite widespread in the field of children's literature. Therefore, the approach to such research is focused on the most critical time of our country. The development of policies to the detriment of our society, in general, has raised the idea that this type of novel, with themes, motives, and characters, should be widely written in the country.

To better argue our research and analysis work, we have selected three novels by Avdi Shala: "The Year of Persecution", "Forbidden Year", "The Year of Escape". These novels are related to each other in the thematic context, and they best fulfill our requirements for analysis.

The object of our research work is based on several points of view, specifying the problem in question that presents the type of didactic-teaching novel. All this is due to the fact that the nature of the type of this novel plays an important role in the intellectual formation of children. Thus, it is very important to consider what didactic literature offers when the novel is also part of the school textbooks recommended for reading throughout primary education in our country.

Our aim is to study the important values that this type of children's novel has brought during the research period. However, we have a wide range of time to consider. We also have a large number of novels by many authors, which has made it impossible to research many writers with a universal interpretation.

Despite all this, we think that our efforts, no matter how small, present an important value of the creativity of children's writers, completing and enriching this literary field with diverse themes and different characters.

1.1 The theme of the didactic novel for children

World child literature researcher Stefan Metz analyzes the didactic aspect of children's literature. He specifically talks about "the didactic novel as one of the main genres or sub-genres of children's literature." [13]. We see such a presence in the didactic novel in our children's literature in Kosovo.

If we refer to the level of the novel on which we have posed the problem of the study of our research work, then we notice that the type of novel that reflects or presents didactic-educational layers is very present. It is literature that represents the level of children who are in the stage of formation of their human and intellectual personality. Thus, it is necessary that the topic that revolves around pedagogical and didactic motives be present to a large extent in front of readers. Undoubtedly, "pedagogy and pedagogical norms, in general, are within the very essence of children's literary work." [16].

Fortunately, there are many writers of children's literature in Kosovo who, through the novel, have managed to enrich this thematic sphere of literature in general, but also through other literary forms and genres, as well. Such types of novels aim at a general point of view, bringing important motives based on didactic-teaching principles, which, for the level to which the texts in question refer for reading, are extremely influential in the formation.

The totality of such topics is wide, but the author always tries to center around education, i.e., "by reading literary works the reader is introduced to a number of personalities, with their characters, ideals, and actions, so the reader not only expands the circle of his knowledge but also experiences the fate of the brave, accepts their worldviews and behaviors, honors his thoughts and views, becomes not only educated but also alienated in his human self in relation to people and events in society — in a word, he is educated by a book." [20].

Different situations, ideas, or characters will be at the center of the development of events and will also present the flow of the theme of the novel, in general. Novels of this type are considered to be novels of the characters, so when the main characters are in the center of attention throughout the fable of the text, we come up with characters with more special features. The characters are distinguished for their intelligence and virtues in educational and upbringing aspects.

The portrayal of these characters within the text is always shown through stylistic paintings and artistic figuration. Thus, the aim is to focus all the reader's attention on the character of this character, to try to become an example or a model for the reader, as well.

The evolution of topics with didactic-teaching characteristics from the ranks of writers is presented from different perspectives.

Initially, we encountered the motive of this topic early in the creativity of our children's novel by well-known writer Ibrahim Kadriu in the novel, "Time of Harvest". Given through metaphorical discourse, harvests are not used in the sense of grain harvesting. It is interpreted as harvesting the success of young people in the intellectual and educational world. Metaphor and comparison as stylistic figures occupy an important place in the text of this novel. They aim to summarize the idea in the form of a message for the main character in this case and to serve as an obverse to the readers of the text. In regards to this novel and the writer in question, we encounter such a motive more directly. However, we cannot say that such an idea is missing in other children's novels from the same author.

In general, the treatment of these topics with pedagogical and didactic-teaching characteristics has been tried to be affected by most writers of children's literature. As stated, "moral education is achieved through the use of emotional and ideological influence." [20].

The enthusiasm of writers for dealing with topics with didactic motives is great. Those motives are given through various situations, and we often notice autobiographical signs of the authors themselves within the text. In these cases, the authors always act as advisors to the main characters. They encourage and motivate the successes that the educational sphere brings and can become an example and model for intellectual success. However, even the main characters, who are part of these topics, seem to be intellectually formed as characters who appreciate the didactic side and express their increasingly dedicated interest in the field of knowledge. In this context, we emphasize the fact that "education is an organized activity, conscious of influencing people" [10].

Perhaps due to the objective circumstances created by discriminatory policies in our country, the internal national motivation of certain writers to address topics from the field of education and knowledge has been fostered. In this context, we can mention the novel, "Forbidden Year", by writer Avdi Shala, where the right to education of our children is openly denied. Such topics have arisen from the actuality of time. Political circumstances have produced unacceptable situations for most of our society in general, which has affected even the most innocent layer — children — denying them their free education. Such topics also produce sensitive effects throughout reading. The dream of the main characters is not allowed to be realized, and free education is not allowed. This creates difficulties and dangers that appear from time to time even during the development of the events of the novel. What should be added is the fact that children's literature, in terms of its presentation to young

readers, shows signs of interconnectedness with pedagogy as a discipline in almost all literary genres. This is true not only through prose or the novel in this case, although "The path of development over time is a path of liberation from excessive pedagogy. Literature has always fought for its independence, to be freed from the chains of subjugation and captivity, its liberation from pedagogical-didactic moralizations" [2].

In any case, literature and pedagogy are disciplines that intersect in their social context, and the function in this respect is approximate.

1.2. Characters of the didactic children's novel

Didactic novels undoubtedly contain characters that have an advisory and emancipatory character. Therefore, in order to write such a didactic novel, the author of the text is required "to know well the pedagogical methods and to have methodical invention and pedagogical affinities." [15].

The treatment of topics that aim at the didactic-teaching reflection in our children by writers is done to exert the most positive impact on the reader. This is done so that, through such topics, love, respect, and commitment to education are created. Even the characters that have been created to be the main carriers of events are mostly children in order to better complement the idea of the text. Also, "by carefully looking at the family and social structure in other novels, it is not difficult to conclude that children's lives in most works take place mainly in three environments: 1. in the family; 2. in school and 3. in society." [6].

The motive that has pushed our children's writers to deal with topics with pedagogical-didactic stratification has also arisen from the creation of difficult political circumstances of the time.

Frequently, in the novels with didactic stratifications, we also encounter characters that appear from the position of the grandfather. Metaphorically, it is the author himself who narrates through the character. As such, he, through counseling from the position he holds in the text, tries to exert influence on education and upbringing on his grandchildren. To identify the authorial identity is not so difficult for the fact that autobiographical signs are clearly visible. They are related to the author's life, passion for writing, and the reflection of his work in life. From this position, the author appears with the primacy of a counselor, a pedagogue, who encourages and motivates young people for various educational activities.

The environments through which the educational, didactic-teaching topics are treated have usually been selected in accordance with the idea and the message. The concept of education and upbringing of children is considered important and necessary for their age. They value education and use it to set goals for their future. It is on those ideals that they begin to build dreams for the life they want to have

The characters who are part of these types of novels are masterfully sculpted. They are usually distinguished from the wider circle and their peers, especially with the creation of identity from an early age. They always appear with ambition for achieving certain goals, as they see the successes of life only through the path of education.

Through the treatment of topics in school environments, the characters carrying these topics are presented as real, dedicated, curious people in the field of knowledge.

It is especially noteworthy that "the tendency of our writers to dress the characters of children with virtues, even very often with virtues of our ethnos, is always present." [6].

The character of these characters is stable in all environments — in the family, in society, and in school. They are perceived by the district as successful individuals dedicated to the learning process and especially respected by society. They seem to be good collaborators with others who share the same goals and ambitions about education. Sometimes, perhaps because of their age, there are signs of jealousy in terms of achievement and learning in lessons. Also characteristic is how the dialogue sometimes moves in the direction of sentimental topics when the cooperation is in pairs of characters belonging to different genders. Through this context, they express mutual sympathy.

The difficult political time during the nineties in Kosovo has aroused the interest of writers of children's literature to address educational topics with characters who are often selected by their symbolic names. The names of these characters, in addition to reflecting them in terms of figurative epithets, such as Flamuri, Arber, Vlora, Albani, Kosovari, etc., have maintained their stoic attitudes in creating an intellectual and human identity. Although young in age, older ones look at the concept of attitude and character they portray.

Through the literary creativity of Avdi Shala in the novel genre, we are used to often seeing themes from the reality of the times, especially the difficult reflections of the time of the Serbian-Slavic regime in our country. When a novel talks about the earlier circumstances that society or the individual may have gone through, then we are dealing with the literature of consequence.

We say this because it reveals the human, existential, and social consequences of the common man. This term "consequence literature" usually refers to post-dictatorship literature, which deals with the crimes of a dictatorial system. However, we use it here for our operational purposes, because it can fit the novel, "The Year of the Persecution", by Avdi Shala, in which we see the reflection of the real pictures of the life of the society in the time in which they are placed.

The environment and the time that the author chooses to place the events are typically real, such as a location on the outskirts of our capital Prishtina, namely the neighborhood Vranjevc, already called Kodra e Trimave. Frequently, in the fables of the novels of this author, a spirit prevails that aims to reflect didactic stratifications, but it is always fraught with the difficulties of objective circumstances.

Even in this case, the author focuses on a group of children-students, led by their teacher Rreze, a character of real life even today. To entertain this, we will quote a part of the dialogue:

"The noise poured into the hallway.

Teacher Rreze opened the door. She asked in surprise.

— Valdrini, what is this noise?

"Valdrini told him that this captious, a little while ago, was eavesdropping on the door, what was being said in the classroom." [17].

It is understood that artistic mastery, rich language, and the use of stylistic figures clothe the text with elements that give artistic dimensions and the appearance of a fable detached from real life. Characters from the ranks of children, such as Bukurini and Valdrini, are recurring characters that we find in the other novel of this author, "The Year of Persecution".

Describing it as an important category of prose begins in the first paragraphs of the treatment of events. Initially, the narrative forms reflect the images of the environment, the life of the inhabitants, the difficulties they face, and many other details. Selecting such an environment, with a neighborhood of the capital, brings bad messages about the development of unpleasant events throughout the country.

The selection of characters in an environment such as the school, with the interweaving between students, teachers, and other characters who later unfold their portrait, alludes to the most important intellectual resistance. In this form, the idea of the text reflects the importance of didactic stratification as a kind of message that, even in the most difficult circumstances of the time, education has not been left out.

Particularly noteworthy is the valuable work of the teacher, Rreze, who with all her intellectual and human potential aims to realize the curriculum for students. From such enthusiasm, the editorial-educational activities of Rreze's expectation go beyond the intended parameters.

Through the special tendencies and actions of the main character, special messages are conveyed that complement the ideas and attitudes of the text. Through extracurricular activities, such as the picnic organized in Germia of Prishtina, it is intended to discover values. The goal is to fulfill the curriculum through extracurricular activities, but also with educational and relaxing character.

In such circumstances, the unexpected meeting of the student and the teacher with the unknown student also takes place, which results in the dramatization of the events of the novel. The presentation of the student's goal to the student and the teacher best complements the aspect of educational stratification. Through what they hear, the curiosity for something else increases against the background of their knowledge. However, the object of the conversation that takes place in Germina of Prishtina between the teacher who was with the pupils and the students, without knowing the name and surname, but only his mission, will produce dramatic situations in the course of events in the following chapters.

As a result of such meetings and conversations, the teacher will initially be absent, and neither the students nor the school staff knows the reasons.

The action of a character with bad intentions and vision seems clear, through which figures of weak characters who have created difficulties among the majority of society are revealed. For their individual and family benefits, they are put at the service of the regime of the time and complicate the affairs of others. His very rude presence is a reflection of his weak character as an antagonist. His character and sad appearance among children play such a role that it also affects the health of some. Such a delicate role that children play in protecting the privacy and identity of their teacher is also conceived as an important reflection of the younger generation before the installation of that regime. Despite the efforts of the student group, the school staff, the wider circle, and even the teacher herself, it is difficult to maintain secret visions and goals. In these circumstances, the events in the text take place in a direction unwanted for the characters and the reader. After all those demands, that effort to understand more about the teacher and the intentions of the character who plays the negative role is also understood. In reality, we have a high-ranking character in the position of inspector, but not with good intentions. His unusual interest also became known to the reader to reflect the purpose of the installed regime. In this way, the topic of conversation takes place with a focus on understanding what was discussed with the student. These actions and goals are meant to stop the interpretation of the artistic value of the Albanian social identity and dignity.

Thus, we have the roles of the characters who act in two positions. There are those who, through the students and teachers, try to interpret and show the student important cultural values. Meanwhile, the other group, which represents bad intentions, has a goal of isolating those facts and not transmitting this knowledge to young people. The policies of the regime of the time against our society are great preoccupations that appeared in the Albanian intellectual world, where the reflections are given in different dimensions of the social worldview, touching even the most sensitive layer, that of children. We notice this best in the following dialogue, "But today was the culmination of it all. Guess what, mother. I went to the director to get permission. Surprise. He asked me where I was from? Whose father and mother am I?

— This does not worry you at all. He advised.

— How can I not worry, mother? Something big is hiding behind this.

The questions were provocative. But not of his head.

— If not his, whose, my daughter?

— To the one who has no heart. It doesn't hurt. " [17].

However, situations that present the interweaving given through multiple characters as part of a real existing environment for time and real developments unfortunately serve as a warning of fable developments. Characters who each interpret themselves with descriptions of dramatic scenes represent parts of the realism of our children's literature. Although, as topics are sensitive and can create psychological dissatisfaction for young readers, they are dressed in artistic style and figuration. In order to better complement the idea of the text through the fable in addition to the environment, the author also reveals the time of the creation of this work, given as the time of the late eighties and early nineties, the time when political problems in the country begin.

Conclusion

Historically, the children's novel in Kosovo has begun to be written late compared to other literary genres. It began sometime in the late fifties of the twentieth century. It has been hailed by critics as a belated genre, but it still has not been left out by the many generations of writers who belong to this field, and it has been constantly cultivated over the years.

The orientation of the themes has been very different, which means that there is a strong thematic diversity despite the delays in its development as a literary genre. Initially, the ideas for the treatment of this genre were oriented towards a type of fairy tale novel, but over time and depending on the ideas of generations of writers over the years, the orientation of the novel's theme has affected multilayered segments of life and society.

Our focus is on the level of didactic-teaching topics and its characters. This interest is based on the fact that the children's novel is also part of the household lectures for recommended reading. Thus, it is an integral part of curricula and very important in the learning process. Therefore, didactic topics are of great interest to the intellectual development of our children and in the formation of their personality, always connecting them with characters of the level and age of childhood.

Such themes have been articulated by numerous writers across generations, although we have selected the generation of writers who wrote about the last decade of the twentieth century. All this is based on the real facts of the time when our people were faced with policies that have put obstacles in the way of educating our young people in the country.

The development of situations has made the actuality of time bring important axis topics in the didactic field. They are related to the great difficulties that reflect the challenges and confrontations of teachers in their work and students in lessons. We are convinced that, for the time being, such topics have been important to society in general and have undoubtedly aroused our interest in working in this direction.

Конфликт интересов Conflict of Interest

Не указан. None declared.

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Список литературы на английском / References in English

1. Bishqemi A. Astrit Histori e letersise shqiptare per femije e te rinj, Dy lindje dhe dy perendime [History of Albanian literature for children and young people, Two east two west] / Bishqemi A. - Tirana, 2008. [in Albanian]

2. Bishqemi A. Hyrje ne teorine e letersise per femije, Universiteti "Aleksander Xhuvani" [Introduction to the theory of children's literature, University "Aleksander Xhuvani"] / Bishqemi A. - Elbasan, 2004. [in Albanian]

3. Bishqemi, A. Autore te letersise shqiptare per femije e te rinj 1886-2009, Dy lindje dhe dy perendime [Authors of Albanian literature for children and young people 1886-2009, Two east two west] / Bishqemi A. - Tirana, 2009. [in Albanian]

4. Dado, F. Teoria e vepres letrare- Poetika [Theory of literary work - Poetics], SHB "Libri Universitar" [US "University Book"] / Dado F. - Tirana, 2006. [in Albanian]

5. Demiri-Frangu Q. Letersia per femije, (Gjeneza, fenomene, autore [Literature for children, (Genesis, phenomena, authors)] / Demiri-Frangu Q. - Rozafa, Prishtina, 2011. [in Albanian]

6. Deva A. Romani yne per femije [Our children's novel] / Deva A. - Rilindja, Prishtina, 1977. [in Albanian]

7. Grup autoresh: Qeshtje te romanit [Author's group: Issues of the novel], Rilindja, Prishtina, 1980. [in Albanian]

8. Grup autoresh: Letersia per femije [Author's group: Children's Literature], Naim Frasheri, Tirana, 1973. [in Albanian]

9. Hamiti S. Tematologjia, Akademia e Shkencave dhe e Arteve e Kosoves [Thematology, Kosovo Academy of Sciences and Arts] / Hamiti S. - Special Editions LXVII; Linguistics and Literature Section; Book 28, Prishtina, 2005. [in Albanian]

10. Kraja M. Pedagogjia [Pedagogy] / Kraja M. - University Book, Tirana, 2009. [in Albanian]

11. Krasniqi B. Poetika e romanit historik shqiptar [Poetics of the Albanian historical novel] / Krasniqi B. - Albanological Institute, Prishtina, 1985. [in Albanian]

12. Logan P. M., George O., Hegeman S. The Enciklopedia of a Novel, Blacwell Publishing / Logan P. M., George O., Hegeman S. - Oxford, 2011.

13. Metz S. Children's Literature: Didactic Fiction vs. Fantasy / Metz S. - University of Chicago Press, Chicago (US), 1998.

14. Musai B. Psikologji Edukimi [Educational Psychology] / Musai B. - Pegi, Tirana, 1999. [in Albanian]

15. Rexhepi N. Letersia shqipe ne tekstet shkollore te Kosoves (1945-1990) [Albanian literature in Kosovo textbooks (1945-1990)] / Rexhepi N. - Logos, Prishtina, 2002. [in Albanian]

16. Sopaj N. Letersia per femije, Fakulteti i Filologjise [Children's Literature, Faculty of Philology] / Sopaj N. - Blaze Koneski, Skopje, 2007. [in Albanian]

17. Shala A. Viti i ndjekjeve [The Year of Persecution] / Shala A. - Rozafa, Prishtina, 2004. [in Albanian]

18. Shala A. Viti i ndaluar [Forbidden Year] / Shala A. - SAS, Prishtina, 2008. [in Albanian]

19. Shala A. Viti i ikjeve [The Year of Escape] / Shala A. - Rilindja, Prishtina, 1987. [in Albanian]

20. Pergjegjaj S. Shkendija (gazete letrare) [Spark (literary newspaper)] / Pergjegjaj S. - no. XXXIV, Rilindja, Prishtina, 2006. [in Albanian]

21. Velek R. Teoria e letersise, perktheu Zejnullah Rrahmani, Rilindja [Theory of literature, translated by Zejnullah Rrahmani] / Velek, R., Voren O. - Rilindja, Prishtina, 1982. [in Albanian]

22. Vinca A. Metoda letrare [Literary method] / Vinca A. - Textbook, Prishtina, 2016. [in Albanian]

23. Vinca A. Kurs i teorive letrare [Course of literary theories] / Vinca A. - Toena, Prishtina, 2002. [in Albanian]

24. Zhenet Z. Figura, perktheu Sabri Hamiti [Figure, translated by Sabri Hamiti] / Zhenet Z. - Binak Kelmendi, Prishtina, 1985. [in Albanian]

25. Zhenet Z. Diskursi i ri i rrefimit, perktheu Mirela Shela [The new discourse of confession, translated Mirela Shela] / Zhenet Z. - Two Easts, Two Wests, Tirana, 2014. [in Albanian]

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