Научная статья на тему 'Blue as a heavenly colour in biblical expressions'

Blue as a heavenly colour in biblical expressions Текст научной статьи по специальности «Языкознание и литературоведение»

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Ключевые слова
colour / blue / phraseological units / biblical expressions / semantics / comparative analysis / цвет / голубой (синий) / фразеологизмы / Библейские выражения / семантика / сравнительный анализ

Аннотация научной статьи по языкознанию и литературоведению, автор научной работы — Adamia Zoia, Marghania Maia

Complex studying of phraseological units as object of linguistic research is actual from the point of semantics and linguoculturology. They play a considerable role perceiving national cultural features of a language picture of the world nation. The Biblical expressions inspire and give wise advice to us to prosper. In all the languages under study there are numerous expressions in which colour plays an important role. Through the ages, many of the colours found in the Bible have had meanings attached to them. There is a significant relationship between language and colour meaning. The colour of the sky and the ocean, blue is one of the most popular colours. Blue can mean heaven or represent the Holy Spirit, and in general it should be viewed as a heavenly colour. The present research makes an attempt to investigate the usage and perception of blue considered as a Christian colour concept in English, Russian and Georgian biblical expressions. It is noteworthy to state that descriptive and comparative analysis is a necessary precondition of profound studies of lexical units and the essence of languages

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ГОЛУБОЙ (СИНИЙ) КАК НЕБЕСНЫЙ ЦВЕТ В БИБЛЕЙСКИХ ВЫРАЖЕНИЯХ

Комплексное изучение фразеологизмов как объект лингвистического исследования, является актуальным с точки зрения семантики и лингвокультурологии. Они играют значительную роль, в восприятии национально-культурных особенностей языковой картины мира. В данной работе мы рассматриваем Библейские выражения с цветовым компонентом голубой (синий). Библейские выражения вдохновляют нас и дают нам мудрые советы, с целью достижения духовного благосостояния. Во всех языках встречаются многочисленные Библейские выражения, в которых цвет играет важную роль. На протяжении веков, многим цветам, найденных в Библии, давались разные толкования. Значительные отношения существует между языком и семантикой цвета. Цвет неба и океана голубой (синий), являются одним из самых популярных цветов. Голубой (синий) цвет может означать небеса или представлять Святой Дух. В настоящем исследовании была предпринята попытка исследовать использование и восприятие голубого (синего) цвета, который рассматривают как христианское понятие цвета в английских, русских и грузинских Библейских выражениях. Следует отметить, что описательный и сравнительный анализ, является важным предварительным условием исследования лексических единиц в разных языках.

Текст научной работы на тему «Blue as a heavenly colour in biblical expressions»

Литература и культурология: история и современность

Adamia Zoia, Doctor of Philology, Professor, Ekvtime Takaishvili University, Rustavi, Georgia Marghania Maia, Doctor of Philology, Professor, Sokhumi State University, Tbilisi, Georgia

BLUE AS A HEAVENLY COLOUR IN BIBLICAL EXPRESSIONS

ГОЛУБОЙ (СИНИЙ) КАК НЕБЕСНЫЙ ЦВЕТ В БИБЛЕЙСКИХ

ВЫРАЖЕНИЯХ

Abstract

Complex studying ofphraseological units as object of linguistic research is actual from the point of semantics and linguoculturology. They play a considerable role perceiving national -cultural features of a language picture of the world nation.

The Biblical expressions inspire and give wise advice to us to prosper. In all the languages under study there are numerous expressions in which colour plays an important role. Through the ages, many of the colours found in the Bible have had meanings attached to them. There is a significant relationship between language and colour meaning. The colour of the sky and the ocean, blue is one of the most popular colours. Blue can mean heaven or represent the Holy Spirit, and in general it should be viewed as a heavenly colour.

The present research makes an attempt to investigate the usage and perception of blue considered as a Christian colour concept in English, Russian and Georgian biblical expressions.

It is noteworthy to state that descriptive and comparative analysis is a necessary precondition of profound studies of lexical units and the essence of languages.

Keywords: colour, blue, phraseological units, biblical expressions, semantics, comparative analysis

Аннотация

Комплексное изучение фразеологизмов как объект лингвистического исследования, является актуальным с точки зрения семантики и лингвокультурологии. Они играют значительную роль, в восприятии национально-культурных особенностей языковой картины

мира. В данной работе мы рассматриваем Библейские выражения с цветовым компонентом голубой (синий).

Библейские выражения вдохновляют нас и дают нам мудрые советы, с целью достижения духовного благосостояния. Во всех языках встречаются многочисленные Библейские выражения, в которых цвет играет важную роль. На протяжении веков, многим цветам, найденных в Библии, давались разные толкования. Значительные отношения существует между языком и семантикой цвета. Цвет неба и океана - голубой (синий), являются одним из самых популярных цветов. Голубой (синий) цвет может означать небеса или представлять Святой Дух.

В настоящем исследовании была предпринята попытка исследовать использование и восприятие голубого (синего) цвета, который рассматривают как христианское понятие цвета в английских, русских и грузинских Библейских выражениях.

Следует отметить, что описательный и сравнительный анализ, является важным предварительным условием исследования лексических единиц в разных языках.

Ключевые слова: цвет, голубой (синий), фразеологизмы, Библейские выражения, семантика, сравнительный анализ

Language is the divine and special gift of the god to people that is a vital tool for communication. Roger Bacon, an English philosopher and scientist stated: "Knowledge of languages is the doorway to wisdom". He also paid a considerable attention to necessity of learning several foreign languages.

According to the Georgian linguist, Arnnold Chikobava, language is an important part of culture that is closely related to the history, culture, and traditions of a country. The language serves the society as a weapon of communication, exchange of ideas and understanding [2, 10].

'Language of the Bible has a huge impact on formation of the literary languages of many peoples since ancient times acquainted with Christian culture. The translations of the Holy Writ into national languages became a basis of book languages of Europe, including Slavic [5, 144].

This paper proposes the lexical analysis of the Biblical expressions with a colour component of blue in three languages: English Russian and Georgian considering cultural aspects of perception and also symbolism and revealing the problem of translation equivalents, as some of them create difficulties for interpretation and comparison. Comparative studies of phraseological units related to colour terms will give the chance of understanding the Russian, English, and Georgian peoples' mentality and culture specifics. Differences of lexical units in figurative use largely depend on language traditions, attitudes and translation peculiarities.

It is worth noticing that phraseology has been in the center of attention of linguists since the beginning of the XX century. "Phraseological units play a very important role in creation of a language world-view. They are "a mirror of the nation's life" [3, 95].

The Bible is a source of enlightenment and inspiration. It instructs us in all areas of life. The

Biblical expressions inspire and give wise advice to us to prosper. We have attempted to present some expressions from the Bible connected with colour components. In all the languages under study there are numerous expressions in which colour plays an important role. The Lord often uses symbolism in the form of colours, concepts and numbers to convey a deeper meaning in His messages than what is self-evident. The Bible is rich with imagery and signs interwoven through its pages.

A lot of biblical expressions, especially those of proverbial character, are registered in different peoples' folklore, and have developed a tendency to become universal. Phraseology and colour terminology have been one of the main subjects of interest in linguistics in the last few decades, more attention has been paid to the use of colour terms in phraseological units: proverbs, sayings, metaphorical expressions, idioms, slangs, etc.

Colour is one of the categories of perceiving the world, which is equal with other categories as space, time, movement, and is also one of the main cultural concepts.

Lyons states that the colour spectrum is a physical continuum. It is also a visual continuum, in the sense that any one distinguishable colour shades gradually and, at the limits of visual discrimination, imperceptibly into the neighbours. For example, blue shades gradually and imperceptibly, in this sense, into this sense, into green; green shades into yellow, and so on. [4,312].

In culture and history of different languages, a colour has a special connotative meaning, reflected in phraseological units it provides huge material evoking similar or distinctive associations. Colour as one of the component parts of phraseological units makes speech more colourful, expressive and rich.

Through the ages, many of the colors found in the Bible have had meanings attached to them. The color blue is used quite extensively in the Old Testament to describe the various hangings in the holy. Similarly, languages are selective when deciding which hues are split into different colours on the basis of how light or dark they are.

There is a significant relationship between language and colour meaning. Blue can mean heaven or represent the Holy Spirit, and in general it should be viewed as a heavenly colour. Blue is also associated with the commandments of God, the importance of remembering them, and also the heavenly calling of those who had been chosen by God to be His people. The use of "blue" -the colour of the heavenly realm; prayer; priesthood; authority; revealed God; grace; divinity dates back to the time of David.

In the expressive group of blue lazhvard-I || lazhvardovani is combined. From Christian point of view lazhvard-i and a light blue is considered as John Lazare's colour. [13] It should be noted that the word ^>5335^^0, „^¿^¿ft^rogiBo"- azure, "blue" is also spread in the Indo-European languages. Its root in all European languages is Arabic "azul" - "blue sky" which is reflected in a precious stone. This stone is called "Lazuri" [14].

It is a well-known, and undisputed, fact that languages differ in the number of basic colour-terms that they have. It is also well known that, independently of this fact, word-for-word translation of colour-terms across languages is frequently impossible because no word in the one

corresponds exactly to a word in the other [4, 313].

In Russian and Georgian languages blue is expressed by two colour-terms: Russian "голубой" (goluboi, azure or cyan) and Georgian "@obggtáo" (cisperi) and "синий" (sinii, blue or navy blue), „^^fó^o"(lurji) are not two shades of the same color. As for making distinctions between sinii (синий), lurji and goluboi (голубой), cisperi- (eob^gfto) English

speakers simply call dark and light blue.

The Slavs very responsibly treated a choice of this or that color. For everyday life the Slavs chose certain colors, for religious ceremonies they took others.

Slavonic terms sinii and goluboi emerged in Russian as early as the 11th century. A chronicle suggests that both Russian blue terms have been basic since as early as 1230. Both adjectives emerged as designations of color. Blue color is most often considered as a symbol of all spiritual. It is color of wisdom, infinity, eternity, truth, devotion, belief, purity, chastity, spiritual and intellectual life.

As is known, translation is a process of constant search for choosing the most precise and suitable meaning of a message from the source language into the target language, a translator often comes across many problems and difficulties that may be a result of the differences in languages or differences in the cultures represented by them. Translation, however, must be considered as a proper and characteristic skill in itself and in the learning situation but not isolated from the theoretical linguistic level development. It involves a whole interactive process in the two languages. Within this skill one of the main activities will be that of meaning interrelations and as subsets we could include the different categories of meaning under the lexical, morphological and syntactic identity. A simple word-for-word translation sometimes doesn't help and can be absolutely incomprehensible to the reader. In English, Russian and Georgian expressions we haven't noticed identical translation.

The European countries and peoples, accepting Christianity, relied on the knowledge in the field of classical philology, folklore, myths elements of which in large volume have been met in biblical texts and many times have been specified throughout centuries. For these centuries changed both translators' skills and consumers' tastes of translations, and signs of church translation to the corresponding originals remained in language without changes, than these phraseological units got a thin coating of archaism or actually became archaic in the language relation [1, 62-68].

The problem of translation equivalence is closely connected with the stylistic aspect of translation. Some colour equivalents are difficult for comparison and translation. Therefore, in some cases colour terms cannot be adequately and effectively translated. First of all, a translator is to distinguish between neutral, bookish and colloquial words and word combinations, translating them by relevant units of the target language. In the example of the Russian expression (Numbers 15:38) the word "кисти" is used instead of "бахрома", the same as for the English word "fringes" and Georgian „^roBg&o", they are relevant.

Speak unto the children of Israel, and bid them that they make them fringes in the borders of their garments throughout their generations, and that they put upon the fringe of the borders a ribband of blue (Numbers 15:38).

"объяви сынам Израилевым и скажи им, чтоб они делали себе кисти на краях одежд своих в роды их, и в кисти, которые на краях, вставляли нити из голубой шерсти" (Числа15:38).

фбд^бЗб^бзд °Ь^5д^°ббд&Ь, ^robófto 8¿m: £5°здгогоб gníiQbo b¿8rob^ob з°фдд&Ъд фб ¿Ьд З^гобфдго гобгов°фбб гобговб9°. ^^ft^o 8¿go ^¿^fto^ groBb. (^°^Ьзб°

шбз° 15:38)

The Ark of the Covenant in the Tabernacle was covered with blue cloth, representing its close association with the word of God:

They shall put a fine leather cover over it, spread a cloth of solid blue on top, and then insert the carrying poles. They shall spread a bluer cloth over the table for the bread offered to the Lord and put on it the dishes, the incense bowls, the offering bowls, and the jars for the wine offering. There shall always be bread on the table (Numbers 4: 6, 7). и положат на нее покров из кож синего цвета, и сверх его накинут покрывало все из голубой шерсти, и вложат шесты его; ...и стол хлебов предложения накроют одеждою из голубой шерсти, и поставят на нем блюда, тарелки, чаши и кружки для возлияния, и хлеб его всегдашний должен быть на нем ... (Числа 4: 6, 7).

Ъдф ф^ьддбдб mábódob gó(ftp¿>Qb фб ЪдЭгофбб &5ф55<дб^д&дб

JbngcT^bb ф J¿X¿[J&b. ... фбЬб^б&д&д^ ¿¿5^бЪд &б8^°5б

9¿óy^°b фб фбб^уго&дб б.ЖЪд %ód¿j&b, з^Ъд^, báffapffl&b фб m^üb

^^^д^^ф. 8^ф8°з° 3^ft° ^бфб д^у^ Эб^Ъд... (^°^Ьзб° 4: 6, 7)

Evidently, a simple word-for-word translation sometimes does not help and can be absolutely incomprehensible to the reader. In English, Russian and Georgian expressions (Numbers 4: 6, 7) identical translations are not observed.

The robe of the High Priest was also blue, again symbolising the close association with God and His Word.

The robe that goes under the ephod is to be made entirely of blue wool. All around its lower hem put pomegranates of blue, purple, and red wool, alternating with gold bells. (Exodus 28: 31, 33)

И сделай верхнюю ризу к ефоду всю голубого цвета; по подолу ее сделай яблоки из нитей голубого, яхонтового, пурпурового и червленого цвета, вокруг по подолу ее; позвонки золотые между ними кругом: (Exodus 28: 31, 33)

^¿¿здотд д^гоф^ 8rob6bb68o 8го^°бббф ^^ft^o db^3°^°ba¿б. ¿Эго^б^д 8°b з^^год&Ъд dftrnf^j^f^jdo фб 8¿goro фб ro^ftrob

д^3бд&° Вб8гоЗз°фд °ft&3°3 8¿m 9roft°b. ( 28: 31, 33)

In the Russian citation (Exodus 28:31, 33) the word "яблоки" (apples) is used instead of "pomegranates". In both English and Georgian citation the translation is identical. The terms for "blue" is used „яхонтовый''.

According to V. Dahl's Explanatory Dictionary - Яхонт- jakhont means ruby. It is worm-coloured, red, actually ruby. Яхонт- jakhont is blue, dark blue, sapphire. The following colours are not at all: jakhont cherry, amethyst; cherry, amethyst; jakhont yellow, hyacinth. Yakhontovy necklace. [11] Related symbol of the colour blue is supposed sapphire. Sapphire and the color blue tend to be synonymous. Although many sources claim that its name is of Greek derivation, its roots seem most likely to be from ancient Hebrew - which describes it as a deep blue stone. But sapphires are not just available in the blue variety for which they are named. They are also found in a colorless variety (which looks similar to diamond) and in other colors, called "fancy colors" -shades of orange, yellow, white, green, purple and pink. Three terms are used to refer to the color of sapphire:

It is noted in Ezek. 1:26 that the restored throne of David, which will rule supreme in all the earth, being God's throne, is spoken of as sapphire, which is blue. In the English variant of the verse, the translator used the poetic word "firmament":

And above the firmament that was over their heads was the likeness of a throne, as the appearance of a sapphire stone: and upon the likeness of the throne was the likeness as the appearance of a man above upon it. (Ezekiel 1:26).

А над сводом, который над головами их, было подобие престола по виду как бы из камня сапфира; а над подобием престола было как бы подобие человека вверху на нем. (Иезекииль 1:26)

QddyMob ЪдЭгош, 8бш от^зЪд ^«8 оуго ^¿фб^оЭ^^о, ^¿^¿G ^¿b^ob 85^35^0 оф^б, rooro^rob b¿дo^«бob^¿б б¿здroдвo; bro^ro ¿8 ф¿bфob8¿йз¿ftЪg b¿boш ¿ф¿8o¿бob8¿йз¿fto ^¿8 oxФ¿. (g^g3og^ ^oб¿b^¿ft8gфyзg^o ro¿зo 1:26)

It is noteworthy to note that biblical expressions concentrate on wisdom of all nations and cultures. Religion is an important part of culture. In every religion colours are perceived and associated differently.

The use of colors in phraseological units has always been an issue under linguistic investigation.

Although the Georgian language is not considered as a kindrid language of English and Russian, and is not included in the Indo-European language family, we may conduct a comparative analysis and find similar and distinct linguistic phenomena.

In the present research we have tried to make an attempt to investigate the usage and perception of the colour blue considered as one of the Christian colour concepts in English, Russian and Georgian biblical expressions.

From the viewpoint of comparative approach the present research shown has revealed

similarities and distinction of the colour blue in the mentioned languages. It has revealed identical and non-identical translations of English Russian and Georgian expressions as colours in different languages have various meanings. In some expressions the colour blue is replaced with synonymous words.

It is noteworthy that descriptive and comparative analysis is an important precondition of profound studies of lexical units and different languages.

References

1. Adamia, Z. K. 2013. Bibleyskie frazeologizmy v russkom, angliyskom i gruzinskom yazykakh" In Phraseology in Multilingual Society, Vol. II: 62-68. Казань.

2. Fedulenkova, T. 1996. "Frazeologiya yazyka - zerkalo istorii i kultury ego nositelya" In Sovremennye obrazovatelnye strategii i dukhovnoe razvitie lichnosti: Materialy Vserossiyskoy nauchnoy konferentsii, Vol. 2: 95-100. Tomsk: Tomskiy gos. ped. universitet.

3. Chikobava, Arn. Introduction to Linguistics. Publishing House of TSU, 2008.,

4. Lyons, J. Language and Linguistics. An introduction. Cambridge university press, 2002.

5. Mokienko, V. M. 2003. Bibleizmy v Evropeyskoy frazeologii I paremioloii. Moskva.

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