Научная статья на тему 'Adaptogens: past, today and future'

Adaptogens: past, today and future Текст научной статьи по специальности «Фундаментальная медицина»

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Текст научной работы на тему «Adaptogens: past, today and future»

Abstracts. PHYTOPHARM 2017

ADAPTOGENS: PAST, TODAY AND FUTURE

© Shikov A.N., Pozharitskaya O.N., Makarov V.G.

Saint-Petersburg Institute of Pharmacy, Leningrad region, Kuzmolovo, Russia

In the recent decades adaptogens have gained dramatically popularity all over the world. The number of references for the term "adaptogen" has increased in Google search engine tenfold since 2009.

The era of adaptogens has begun in the middle of the XX century. On March 4, 1943, J. Stalin signed Order No 4654-p of the People's Commissars Council of the USSR concerning research work "with the purpose of finding tonic ... substances" for both soldiers and persons working in the USSR defense industry during the Second World War. As a result of intensive work, the concept of herbal substances that would increase "the state of non-specific resistance" under stress conditions was developed, and the term "adaptogen" was introduced in 1947 by N.V. Lazarev. Later, I.I. Brekhman and I.V. Dardymov have claimed that an adaptogen must produce a nonspecific response against multiple stressors; have a normalizing effect, irrespective of the nature of the pathology; and be nontoxic, innocuous and not influence normal body functions more than required. According to modern definition adaptogens are metabolic regulators which increase the ability of an organism to adapt to environmental stressors and prevent damage to the organism by such stressors. Since 1997, the term "adaptogen" has been used as a functional term by Russian health-regulatory authorities, in 1998 this term was allowed by the FDA, and in 2008 was approved by EMEA.

Aralia elata var. mandshurica (Rupr. & Maxim.) J.Wen, Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim., Leuzea carthamoides Willd., Oplopanax elatus (Nakai) Nakai, Panax ginseng C. A. Mey., Schisandra chinensis (Turkz.) Baill., and Sedum roseum (L.) Scop. were considered as classical adaptogens in result of intensive studies.

The main active compounds of adaptogens as such as tetracyclic triterpenes, polyphenols, unsaturated tri- and polyhydroxi fatty acids, etc. are close related to the unique regulatory molecules existing in the human body.

Number of important pharmacological activities (stress protective, increase of concentration, performance and endurance during fatigue, improves some aspects of mental health and social functioning, antihypoxant, antioxidant, treatment of impotence, normalization of sleep, improving of appetite, improving of night vision, geroprotective, improving of quality of life) are documented for adaptogens. The most effects have been proved in the clinical trials.

The normal paradigm "one drug for one disease" is not ap propriate for adaptogens as they can have numerous pharmacological effects and mechanisms. The activity of adaptogens is associated with the regulation of homeostasis on both the system level via several mechanisms of action that are linked to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the cellular level via activation of molecular chaperones, mainly hsp70 proteins; regulation of key mediators of the stress response, including neuropeptide Y, cortisol, nitric oxide, stress-activated protein kinase JNK, and forkhead-box transcription factor DAF-16; and the biosynthesis of ATP, which changes the energy source

Originally, the category of adaptogens was invented not for the purpose of enriching the herb sellers' vocabulary, but as a novel term to describe the next generations of medicines. The future medicines will no longer be anti-this, anti-that, but something-protectants: hepatoprotectants, radioprotectants, neuroprotectants etc. They will not only protect the existing state of the body, but will strengthen it as required by our duties at the moment.

ISOLATION OF BERGAMOTTIN AND RARE LUCIDAFURANOCOUMARIN A FROM PEUCEDANUM ALSATICUM FRUITS USING HIGH PERFORMANCE COUNTER CURRENT CHROMATOGRAPHY

© Koziot E.1, Marcourt L.2, Wolfender J.L.2, Skalicka-Wozniak K.1

1 Department of Pharmacognosy with Medicinal Plant Unit of Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland;

2 School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Geneva, University of Lausanne, Geneva, Switzerland

Peucedanum alsaticum L. is a perennial plant belonging to the Apiaceae family, known for secondary metabolites as chromones and furanocoumarins [1]. Previous studies have shown the presence of divaricatol, notoptol, ledebouriellol, alsaticol and alsaticocoumarin [2]. Traditional application of P. alsaticum includes expectorant, diaphoretic, diuretic, stomachic, sedative, and antimicrobial effects [3].

The aim of this study was to develop an efficient strategy for pure compound isolation and led to the identification of two major constituents from dichloromethane extract of the fruits of P. alsaticum. For this High Performance Counter Current Chromatography was applied. The solvent system composed of heptane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (3:1:3:1) was successfully used in the reverse phase mode - first in

Obzory po kliniceskoj farmacologii i lekarstvennoj terapii [Reviews of clinical pharmacology and drug therapy]

vol. 15/2017/suppLement 1

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