Научная статья на тему 'A note on the “Saint Petersburg school” and its contribution to Sasanian numismatics: past and present'

A note on the “Saint Petersburg school” and its contribution to Sasanian numismatics: past and present Текст научной статьи по специальности «История и археология»

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Ключевые слова
SASANIAN NUMISMATICS / THE "SAINT PETERSBURG SCHOOL" / THE STATE HERMITAGE MUSEUM / JEAN DE BARTHOLOMAEI / BERNHARD DORN / ALEXIS DE MARKOFF / VLADIMIR G. LUKONIN

Аннотация научной статьи по истории и археологии, автор научной работы — Shavarebi Ehsan

This essay presents a bibliographical outline of the contribution of Saint Petersburger scholars to the study of Sasanian numismatics, from the mid-19th century up to today. The “Saint Petersburg School” of Sasanian numismatics seems to have passed two substantial periods during the past two centuries: a period of “collector-cataloguer collaboration” in the 19th century and a period of “historical-archaeological numismatics” during the Soviet and post-Soviet time. In the following, the characteristic and highlights of the “Saint Petersburg School” are surveyed and the representatives of each period are briefy introduced.

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Текст научной работы на тему «A note on the “Saint Petersburg school” and its contribution to Sasanian numismatics: past and present»

ИНТЕЛЛЕКТУАЛЬНАЯ ИСТОРИЯ

УДК 930(091):930(092)

Shavarebi Е.

A NOTE ON THE "SAINT PETERSBURG SCHOOL" AND ITS CONTRIBUTION TO SASANIAN NUMISMATICS: PAST AND PRESENT1

This essay presents a bibliographical outline of the contribution of Saint Petersburger scholars to the study of Sasanian numismatics, from the mid-19th century up to today. The "Saint Petersburg School" of Sasanian numismatics seems to have passed two substantial periods during the past two centuries: a period of "collector-cataloguer collaboration" in the 19th century and a period of "historical-archaeological numismatics" during the Soviet and post-Soviet time. In the following, the characteristic and highlights of the "Saint Petersburg School" are surveyed and the representatives of each period are briefly introduced.

Key words: Sasanian Numismatics, the "Saint Petersburg School", The State Hermitage Museum, Jean de Bartholomaei, Bernhard Dorn, Alexis de Markoff, Vladimir G. Lukonin.

Dedicated to Academician Dr. Aliy Ivanovich Kolesnikov

I. The "Saint Petersburg School" in the 19th Century: Collector-Cataloguer Collaboration

The very first studies on Sasanian epigraphic and numismatic documents were done in the late 18th century by the French orientalist Antoine-Isaac Silvestre de Sacy2. Although he has correctly been called "le fondateur de l'épigraphie sassanide" by

1 This paper is read at the International Conference of Iranian Studies in Eurasia: Past, Present and Future, held at the Russian State University for the Humanities (RSUH) in Moscow on the 22 September 2016.

2 Silvestre de Sacy A.-I. Mémoires sur diverses antiquités de la Perse et sur les médailles des rois de la dynastie des Sassanides, suivis de l'histoire de cette dynastie trad, du persan de Mirchond. P., 1793.

9

Edmond Drouin, he did not succeed to found a school of Sasanian numismatics, thus a long gap began in these studies after him for nearly half a century.

In spite of the scanty publications of Sir William Ouseley of London, Thomas Christian Tychsen of Gôttingen, Christian Martin Frâhn of Saint Petersburg, Adrien Prévost de Longpérier of Paris, Justus Olshausen of Kiel, Albrecht Krafft of Vienna, and Frédéric Soret of Geneva in the first half of the 19th century3, it was not until the mid-19th century that the first school of Sasanian numismatics was established in Saint Petersburg. The coin collectors seem to have always been one step ahead of the academics in that era. The earliest publications of the Saint Petersburg school on Sasanian coinage belongs to two originally non-Russian numismatists: Lieutenant-Général Jean de Bartholomaei [Иван Алексеевич Бартоломей] (1813-1870) (fig. 1) and Academician Johannes Albrecht Bernhard Dorn [Борис Андреевич Дорн] (1805-1881) (fig. 2),

Fig 1. Lieutenant-Général Jean de Bartholomaei (Portrait by Ivan S. Ksenofontov. Military Historical Museum of Artillery, Engineers and Signal Corps. Saint Petersburg. Russia)

3 For a list of publications on Sasanian numismatics until two decades ago, see: Malek H. M. A Survey of Research on Sasanian Numismatics / / NC. 1993. Vol. 153. P. 252-269'

Bartholomaei spent a part of his life in military and diplomatic missions in the Caucasus and Persia, studied oriental languages, and collected ancient oriental coins from the Lime of Alexander the Macedonian until the rise of Islam, i. e„ Greco-BacLrian, Arsacid and Sasanian coins. He was a founding-member and secretary of the Société d'Archéologie et de Numismatique de St.-Pétersbourg as well as a full-member of the Russian Geographical Society. His first works on Sasanian numismatics are two brief treatises published in 1847; one dated 14 April 1947 on the coinage of the successors of the Sasanian king Përôz4 and the other dated 13 May 1947 on the classification of Georgian medals of Sasanian type5.

Fig. 2. Bernhard Dorn

The German-born orientalist Dorn, who moved to Saint Petersburg in 1935, was since 1939 a member of the Russian Imperial Academy of Sciences, since 1942 director of the Asian Museum of Saint Petersburg and head of the oriental section of the Imperial Public Library, and since 1952 academician of the

4 Bnrtholomaei /., de. Conjectures sur quelques médailles sassanides, postérieures au roi Firouz. SPb., 1847.

5 Bartholomaei}., de. Classement de médailles géorgiennes au type sas-sanide, du point de vue de l'art. SPb., 1847.

Imperial Academy of Sciences6. He had a great contribution to the development of the study of oriental manuscripts and coins in Saint Petersburg. His first writings on Sasanian numismatics were published in 1840s in Bulletin de la classe des sciences historiques, philologiques et politiques de l'Académie Impériale des sciences de Saint-Pétersbourg7. From 1950s, his numismatic articles were published in Mélanges Asiatique tirés du Bulletin historico-philologique et du Bulletin de l'Académie Impérial des sciences de Saint-Pétersbourg8. The major focus of his articles is on the new coins acquired by the Asian

6 Luzhetskaya N. L. Dorn, Johannes Albrecht Bernhard / / EIr. N. Y., 1995. Vol. VII. Fasc. 5. P. 511-513. [Electronic resource]: URL: http:// www.iranicaonline.org/articles/dorn

7 Dorn B. Versuch einer Erklärung von drei Münzen mit Sasaniden-Gepräge // BCSHPP. 1944. T. I. № 3. Col. 33-43; Dorn B. Die neueste Bereicherung des asiatischen Münzcabinettes der Kaiserl. Akademie der Wissenschaften // BCSHPP. 1944. T. I. № 7. Col. 105-110 (II. Sasaniden: Col. 107-110); Dorn B. Die letze Schenkung von morgenländischen Münzen an das asiatische Museum // BCSHPP. 1944. T. I. № 17. Col. 268272 (II. Nicht-muhammedanische, d. i. Parsen-Münzen: Col. 270-272); Dorn B. Ueber einige bisher ungekannte Münzen des dritten Sassaniden-Königes Hormisdas I. // BCSHPP. 1944. T. I. № 18-19. Col. 273-294; Dorn B. Bemerkungen zur Sasaniden-Münzkunde / / BCSHPP. 1948. T. V. № 15. Col. 225-234.

8 Dorn B. Die Pehlewy-Münzen des asiatischen Museums der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. III. Die Münzen der Ispehbede, Cha-lifen und deren Statthalter // MA. 1854. T. II. 3e livr. P. 249-263; Dorn B. Noch einige Nachweisungen über Pehlewy-Münzen / / MA. 1855. T. II. 4e livr. P. 387-398; Dorn B. Ueber die letzten dem Asiatischen Museum zugekommenen Pehlewy-Münzen // MA. 1856. T. II. 5e livr. P. 608-611; Dorn B. Noch einige Worte über ein auf Pehlewy-Münzen vorkommendes sogenanntes Münzzeichen oder Monogramm / / MA. 1858. T. III. 3e livr. P. 286-315; Dorn B. Neue Ansichten in der Pehlewy-Münzkunde // MA.

1859. T. III. 4e livr. P. 426-459; Dorn B. Nachträge zu den neuen Ansichten in der Pehlewy-Münzkunde // MA. 1859. T. III. 4e livr. P. 460-475; Dorn B. Forschungen in der Pehlewy-Münzkunde I // MA. 1859. T. III. 6e livr. P. 613-630; Dorn B. Forschungen in der Pehlewy-Münzkunde II / / MA.

1860. T. IV. Ie livr. P 22-24; Dorn B. Zwei dem asiatischen Museum zugekommen« Münzen Erwerbungen // MA. 1869. T. VI. Ie livr. P. 141-150 (cf.: P. 141-144); Dorn B. Seiben aus dem Nachlass des Gen.-Lieut, v. Bartholo-maei dem Asiatischen Museum zugekommene Münzen / / MA. 1873. T. VI. [5e livr.]. P. 678-680; Dorn B. Einige Bemerkungen zur Sasaniden-Münzkun-de // MA. [1877]. T. VIII. 2e livr. P. 197-201; Dorn B. Sechsundachtzig Silbermünzen mit Pehlewy-Inschriften // MA. [1877]. T. VIII. 2e livr. P. 269-280.

Museum as well as reading and interpreting the Middle Persian coin legends. A great part of his numismatic studies were inspired by the coins collected by Bartholomaei. During the late 1850s, when Bartholomaei was serving in military missions in the Caucasus, he was in regular communication with Dorn in Saint Petersburg. A number of the letters he sent to Dorn from Lankaran and Tbilisi, containing his archaeological and numismatic observations in the Caucasus, are published in Mélanges Asiatiques9. The collaboration between Bartholomaei and Dorn is one of the first examples of collector-cataloguer cooperation in oriental numismatics. A complete catalogue of the Sasanian coins of the Bartholomaei collection was published by Dorn in 1973, i.e., three years after the death of Bartholomaei10. The collection belongs to the State Hermitage Museum now.

Another important collection of oriental coins in the 19th century was belonging to the Institute of Oriental Languages of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Saint Petersburg, which was founded in 1826 by the German born director of the Institute and president of the Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences, Friedrich von Adelung [Фёдор Павлович Аделунг] (1762-1843) (fig. 3), tremendously supported by Count Karl Robert von Nesselrode [Карл Васильевич Нессельроде] (1780-1862) (fig. 4), foreign minister of the Russian Empire. Adelung acquired and collected a great number of ancient and mediaeval oriental coins from different provenances for the Médaillier of the Institute during the two decades of his administration—the Médaillier was possessing 5424 oriental coins when he died. To develop the study of numismatics at the

9 Bartholomaei}., de. Extrait d'une letter de M. Bartholomaei à M. Dorn, datée de Lenkoran, 12 mai 1857, contenant des observations numisma-tiques concernant les règnes de Kovad et de Khosrou I // MA. 1858. T. III. 2e livr. P. 138-148; Bartholomaei }., de. Extraits des lettres de M. Bartholomaei à M. Dorn; datées de Lenkoran, 30 juin et 6 juillet et de Tiflis, 11 août

1857, de même d'une lettre de M. Khanykov, datée de Tébriz, 5 (17) juin 1857 // MA. 1858. T. III. 2e livr. P. 149-165; Bartholomaei}., de. Extraits des lettres de M. Bartholomaei à M. Dorn datées de Tiflis 5, 9,12,16 et 26 mai

1858, contenant des observations sur la numismatique sassanide, avec des remarques de M. Dorn // MA. 1859. T. III. 4e livr. P. 349-372; see also: Bartholomaei ]., de. Lettres numismatiques et archéologiques, relatives à la Transcaucasie. St.-Pétersbourg, 1859.

10 Dorn B. Collection de monnaies Sassanides de feu le Lieutenant-Général J. de Bartholomaei, représentée d'après les pièces les plus remarquables. SPb, 1873 (2e éd.: 1875).

Institute, Adelung established a chair for oriental numismatics in 1834. The first occupant of this chair, until 1843, i.e., the death of Adelung, was Bernhard Dorn. After Adelung's death at the age of 81, Baron lean lacques Pierre Desmaisons [Пётр Иванович Де-мезон] (1807-1873), French born diplomat and orientalist, became his successor. His appointment propelled the Institute's course in a new direction. As a lexicographer, he abandoned the Institute's acquisition of oriental coins and focussed on the study of oriental languages.

Fig. 3. Friedrich von Adelung

Except for the Arsacid and Sasanian coins, the rest of the collection was catalogued by Dorn and Christian Martin Frahn [Христиан Данилович Френ] (1782-1851) (fig. 5) under the administration of Adelung. Some minor studies were also done on certain Sasanian coins of the Médaillier by the both academicians11, but a catalogue of the whole Sasanian collection was not available until the end of the 1880s, i. е., under the administration of Matvej Avelevich Gamazof [Матвей Авешвич Гамазов] (1812-1893), when Markoff's Catalogue des monnaies arsacides, subarsacides, sassanides, dabweihides [etc.] was published in the publication series

11 Cf. e.g.: ViiiliH Chr. M. Über eine Münze des sasaniden Närsös / / St. Petersburger Zeitung. 1829. № 6.

of the Collections scientifiques de l'Institut des langues orientales du Ministère des affaires étrangères12. Alexis de Markoff [Алексей Константинович Марков] (1858-1920) was a Russian archaeologist and numismatist with a specific interest in Arsacid numismatics. Since 1888, he was director of the department of oriental coins at the Imperial Hermitage (later: the State Hermitage). Apart from his catalogue, he has another significant monograph on Sasanian numismatics concerning the topography of Sasanian and early Islamic hoards, which provides a full list of the hoards known at that time13.

Fig. 4. Count Karl Robert von Nesselrode (Portrait by Franz Krüger. Pavlovsk Palace Museum. Saint Petersburg, Russia)

12 Markoff A., de. Catalogue des monnaies arsacides, subarsacides, sas-sanides, dabweihides, ainsi que des pièces frappées par les Ispehbeds arabes du Tabaristan et les gouverneurs de la Perse et du Maverannahr au nom des Khalifes. SPb., 1889.

13 Марков A. К. Тоцография кладов восточных монет (сасанидских и куфических). СПб., 1910.

Fig. 5. Christian Martin Frähn

After Markoff's death, his position at the State Hermitage was occupied by Richard Wilhelm Georg Vasmer [Рихард Рихардович Фасмер] (1888-1938) (fig. 6), a German-born orientalist and numismatist. Ten years later, in 1930, he became head of the Oriental numismatics division. Although the major field of Vasmer's studies was Islamic numismatics and Kufic epigraphy, he also studied some issues of pre-Islamic numismatics and published a few articles on Sasanian coinage, including an important article in The Numismatic Chronicle of London, presenting a detailed typological survey of early Sasanian coinage and introducing 82 rare coins of the third and fourth centuries, from the Lime of Ardashir I until Shapur II14.

14 Vasmer R. Die Sasanidenmünzen der Gelehrten Estnischen Gesellschaft // SbGEG. 1927. P. 276-286; Vasmer R. Sassanian Coins in the Ermitage // NC. 1928. Series 5, Vol. 8. P. 249-334; Vasmer R. Zur Goldmünze Sapors II von Persien // BMB. 1930. N. F. Bd. 10. Jg. 50. P. 9; Vasmer R. Zur Münzkunde der Sasaniden / / Numismatik: Internationale Monatsschrift. 1933. P. 109-115.

Multilingualism was a significant aspect of the Saint Petersburg school of oriental studies in die 19th century. A great number of the Saint Petersburger scholars in that century were coming from western and central Europe and were in regular contact with the academic communities in Germany, Austria, France and other European countries. Like the other European numismatists of the 19th century, the Saint Petersburgers were also mostly concentrating on reading and interpreting the legends of Sasanian coins. The first serious studies of the iconography of Sasanian coins, particularly the crown types, were carried out by German archaeologist Ernst Herzfeld (1879-1948) and German art historian Kurt Erdmann (1901-1964) in the second quarter of the 20th century15. The school of Saint Petersburg, however, did not apply this approach before 1960s.

Fig. 6. Richard Vasmer

II. The "Leningrad School" in the 20th Century: Historical-Archaeological Numismatics

After the October Revolution of 1917, researches on Sasanian

15 Cf. Herzfeld E. Khusrau Parwez und der Täq i Vastän / / AMI. 1938. Band 9. S. 102; Erdmann K. Wie sind die Kronen der säsänidischen Münzen zu lesen? // ZDMG. 1945-49. Bd. 99/2. S. 206-211; Erdmann K Die Entwicklung der säsänidischen Krone / / Ars Islamica» 1951. Vol. 15/16. P. 87-123.

17

numismatics were abandoned in Russia for nearly half a century until the early 1960s, when the "Saint Petersburg School" — or the "Leningrad School" — was re-established in a completely different manner. It was nothing but the genuine effort of Vladimir G. Lukonin [Владимир Григорьевич Луконин] (1932-1984) (fig. 7) that revived the study of Sasanian history, art and numismatics in Leningrad. Lukonin was director of the Oriental Department of the State Hermitage from 1965 until his death. In addition to his profound studies on Sasanian seals, bullae and silverwares of the Hermitage collection, Lukonin played a remarkable role in the progress of the Sasanian numismatics as well.

Fig. 7. Vladimir G. Lukonin

He published a catalogue of the coins of Ardashir I in the Hermitage collection as a supplement to one of his first monographs

on early Sasanian Iran16, as well as some typological observations on Ardashlr I's coinage in a 1968 article17. In another important article on the coinage of Wahram II and Narseh, published in 1964, he introduced a new obverse legend on a unique coin of Wahram II, bearing the name of Queen Sabuhrduxtag18.

In his both substantial monographs on the history of the early Sasanian period, published in 1969 and 197919, Lukonin put the coins in the same category with the rock reliefs amongst the sources for Sasanian history and used the iconographic features shared by coins and reliefs to interpret them together. This approach, which was very well received by Lukonin's contemporary scholars in Europe, is also dominant in his more general monographs20.

In his book published in 1969, he tried to establish a standard typology for the Sasanian coins of the 3rd century on the basis of the numismatic collections of the State Hermitage and the State Historical Museum in Moscow, but his typological coding has never been used by other scholars, because a standard typology of the whole Sasanian period was proposed by the prominent Viennese numismatist Robert Gobi (1919-1997) at the same time21. Also, his attempt to solve the problem of the chronology of the Kushans, which was based on a dating of certain Kushano-Sasanian coins to the late 4th century22, received serious criticism and remained abortive.

Nevertheless, he had a great contribution to Sasanian numismatics and started a new period in the "Saint Petersburg school". Although the period of "collector-cataloguer collaboration" was terminated at the beginning of the 20th century, Lukonin

16 Луконин В. Г. Иран в эпоху первых Сасанидов: Очерки по истории культуры. Л., 1961.

17 Loukonin V. G. Monnaies d'Ardachir I et Г art officiel sassanide / / IrAnt. 1968. Vol. 8. P. 106-117.

18 Луконин В. Г. Варахран и Нарсе // ВДИ. 1964. № 1. С. 48-63. See also: Луконин В. Г. Культура Сасанидского Ирана. М., 1969. С. 174.

19 Луконин В. Г. Культура Сасанидского Ирана; Луконин В. Г. Иран в III веке: Новые материалы и опыт исторической реконструкции. М., 1979.

20 Cf. e.g.: Lukonin V. G. Persia II: From the Seleucids to the Sassanids. Geneva, 1967; Луконин В. Г. Искусство Древнего Ирана. М., 1977.

21 Gobi R. Sasanidische Numismatik. Braunschweig, 1968.

22 Луконин В. Г. Завоевания Сасанидов на Востоке и проблема ку-шанской абсолютной хронологии / / ВДИ. 1969. № 2. С. 20-44.

was the first scholar in Russia to consider the historiographical importance of Sasanian coins to evaluate historical sources in the light of numismatic evidence.

While Lukonin was studying the history of the early Sasanian period by this method, another scholar of his generation applied the same method to reconstruct the economic, social, and political history of the late Sasanian period. Aliy I. Kolesnikov [Алий Иванович Колесников], to whom the present essay is dedicated, has already published several monographs and articles of great significance on various aspects of the late Sasanian and early Islamic history of Iran23.

The other important aspect of the period begun by Lukonin is the effective role of excavated coins and hoards. From 1951 to 1963, Lukonin himself was participating in the archaeological expeditions to Sarkel, Panjikant and Kara-tepe every year24. In collaboration with E. V. Zeimal, he published a brief report on the coins finds from the archaeological excavations of Kara-tepe, near Termez, from 1961 until 197125. He also catalogued a hoard of 159 coins from Chohur-kabala, in collaboration with A. Rajabli26.

The archaeological expeditions conducted by Soviet archaeologists in Central Asia, besides shedding light on many dark aspects of the history and culture of ancient and mediaeval Central Asia, fostered the development of numismatic studies in Russia. The catalogues and analytical works by Mikhail E. Masson [Михаил Евгеньевич Массон], Olga I. Smirnova [Ольга Ивановна Смирнова], Evgeny V. Zeimal [Евгений Владиславович Зеймаль], Alexandr В. Nikitin [Александр Борисович Ники-

23 Especially his four monographs: Колесников А. И. Иран в начале VII века. Л., 1970; Колесников А. И. Денежное хозяйство в Иране в VII веке. М., 1998; Kolesnikov А. I. The Quantity of Silver Coinage and Levels of Revenues in Late Sasanian Iran. P., 1999; Колесников А. И. Ca-санидский Иран: история и культура. СПб., 2012. For an updated list of his publications on the late Sasanian history and numismatics, see the bibliography of the latter book at pages 482-483.

24 Dandamayev M., Medvedskaya I. Lukonin, Vladimir Grigor'evich / / EIr. 2009. [Electronic resource]: URL: http://www.iranicaonline.org/ar-ticles / lukonin-v-g.

25 Луконин В. Г., Зеймаль Е. В. Монеты из раскопок Кара-тепе 19611971 гг. // Будийский культовый центр Кара-тепе в Старом Термезе. М., 1972. С. 101-103.

26 Луконин В. Г., Раджабли А. Клад из Чохур-кабала // Луконин В. Г. Иран в III веке. М., 1979. С. 74-85. Табл. 6-19.

тин], etc. played and still play a key role in studying the economic history of Central Asia. Particularly, the catalogue series of the Sasanian coins of Marv by Sergej D. Loginov and A. B. Nikitin provided fresh evidence on the presence of Sasanians in Marv and their coinage and monetary circulation in that region27.

III. The "Saint Petersburg School" Today and Tomorrow

After passing two periods of "collector-cataloguer collaboration" in the 19th century and "historical-archaeological numismatics" in the 20th century, the Saint Petersburg School of Sasanian numismatics needs to start a new period today.

In spite of this long and fecund past and all the researches done so far, we do not have yet a complete, photographed catalogue of the Sasanian coins preserved in the two major collections in Russia, i.e., the State Hermitage Museum in Saint Petersburg and the State Historical Museum in Moscow, published and available to scholars. These two collections are home to a total number of more than 11,000 Sasanian coins, which, taken as a whole, might be considered as the largest collection of Sasanian coins in the world. A number of these coins have been registered in the Numismatische Zentralkartei (NZK) in Vienna. Also, the Sasanian coins of the Hermitage collection are recorded in the photographic archive of the British Museum's Department of Coins and Medals since 199428. Nonetheless, the establishment of the European project of Sylloge Nummorum Sasanidarum (SNS), under the direction of Michael Alram and Rika Gyselen, and its new typological and stylistic standards, which are to a great extent impressed by the Viennese School of numismatics, corroborates the necessity of re-studying the Sasanian coins of the Hermitage and the Moscow Historical Museum and preparing a complete sylloge of them—of course in addition to a historical scrutiny of the coin's provenance

27 Loginov S. D., Nikitin A. B. Sasanian Coins of the Third Century from Merv // Mesopotamia. 1993. Vol. 28. P. 225-246; Loginov S. D., Nikitin A. B. Coins of Shapur II from Merv // Mesopotamia. 1993. Vol. 28. P. 247-269; Loginov S. D., Nikitin A. B. Sasanian Coins of the Late 4th-7th Centuries from Merv // Mesopotamia. 1993. Vol. 28. P. 271-312; Loginov S. D., Nikitin A. B. Post-Sasanian Coins from Merv / / Mesopotamia. 1993. Vol. 28. P. 313-317.

28 C£: Sarkhosh Curtis V. Some Observations on Coins of Peroz and Kavad I / / Coins, Art and Chronology: Essays on the pre-Islamic History of the Indo-Iranian Borderlands / Hrsg. von M. Alram, D. Klimburg-Salter. Wien, 1999. S. 303.

and the process of their entrance to the Museums, which can help to achieve an SNS-based method adapted to the Russian collections and the principles of "the Saint Petersburg School".

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postérieures au roi Firouz. SPb., 1847. Bartholomaei ]., de. Qassement de médailles géorgiennes au type

sassanide, du point de vue de l'art. SPb., 1847. Bartholomaei ]., de. Extrait d'une letter de M. Bartholomaei à M. Dorn, datée de Lenkoran, 12 mai 1857, contenant des observations numismatiques concernant les règnes de Kovad et de Khosrou I // MA. 1858. T. III. 2e livr. P. 138-148. Bartholomaei]., de. Extraits des lettres de M. Bartholomaei à M. Dorn; datées de Lenkoran, 30 juin et 6 juillet et de Tiflis, 11 août 1857, de même d'une lettre de M. Khanykov, datée de Tébriz, 5 (17) juin 1857 // MA. 1858. T. III. 2e livr. P. 149-165. Bartholomaei ]., de. Extraits des lettres de M. Bartholom al à M. Dorn datées de Tiflis 5, 9,12,16 et 26 mai 1858, contenant des observations sur la numismatique sassanide, avec des remarques de M. Dorn // MA. 1859. T. III. 4e livr. P. 349-372. Bartholomaei ]., de. Lettres numismatiques et archéologiques, relatives à la Transcaucasie. SPb., 1859. Dandamayev M., Medvedskaya I. Lukonin, Vladimir Grigor'evich / / Elr. 2009. [Electronic resource]: URL: http://www.iranicaon-hne.org/articles/lukonin-v-g Dorn B. Versuch einer Erklärung von drei Münzen mit Sasaniden-

Gepräge // BCSHPP. 1944. T. I. № 3. Col. 33-43. Dorn B. Die neueste Bereicherung des asiatischen Münzcabinettes der Kaiserl. Akademie der Wissenschaften / / BCSHPP. 1944. T. I. № 7. Col. 105-110 (II. Sasaniden: Col. 107-110). Dorn B. Die letze Schenkung von morgenländischen Münzen an das asiatische Museum // BCSHPP. 1944. T. I. № 17. Col. 268272 (II. Nicht-muhamme danische, d. i. Parsen-Münzen: Col. 270-272).

Dorn B. Ueber einige bisher ungekannte Münzen des dritten Sas-saniden-Königes Hormisdas I. // BCSHPP. 1944. T. I. № 18-19. Col. 273-294.

Dorn B. Bemerkungen zur Sasaniden-Münzkunde / / BCSHPP. 1948. T. V. № 15. Col. 225-234.

Dorn B. Die Pehlewy-Münzen des asiatischen Museums der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. III. Die Münzen der Ispehbede, Chalifen und deren Statthalter // MA. 1854. T. II. 3e livr. P. 249-263.

Dorn B. Noch einige Nachweisungen über Pehlewy-Münzen // MA. 1855. T. II. 4e livr. P. 387-398.

Dorn B. Ueber die letzten dem Asiatischen Museum zugekommenen Pehlewy-Münzen // MA. 1856. T. II. 5elivr. P. 608-611.

Dorn B. Noch einige Worte über ein auf Pehlewy-Münzen vorkommendes sogenanntes Münzzeichen oder Monogramm / / MA. 1858. T. III. 3e livr. P. 286-315.

Dorn B. Neue Ansichten in der Pehlewy-Münzkunde / / MA. 1859. T. III. 4e livr. P. 426-459.

Dorn B. Nachträge zu den neuen Ansichten in der Pehlewy-Münz-kunde // MA. 1859. T. III. 4e livr. P. 460-475.

Dorn B. Forschungen in der Pehlewy-Münzkunde I // MA. 1859. T. III. 6e livr. P. 613-630.

Dorn B. Forschungen in der Pehlewy-Münzkunde II // MA. 1860. Tome IV. Ie livr. P 22-24.

Dorn B. Zwei dem asiatischen Museum zugekommeme Münzen Erwerbungen // MA. 1869. T. VI. Ie livr. P. 141-150.

Dorn B. Seiben aus dem Nachlass des Gen.-Lieut. v. Bartholomaei dem Asiatischen Museum zugekommene Münzen / / MA. 1873. T. VI. [5e livr.]. P. 678-680.

Dorn B. Collection de monnaies Sassanides de feu le Lieutenant-Général J. de Bartholomaei, représentée d'après les pièces les plus remarquables. SPb., 1873 (2e éd.: 1875).

Dorn B. Einige Bemerkungen zur Sasaniden-Münzkunde // MA. 1877. T. VIII. 2e livr. P. 197-201.

Dorn B. Sechsundachtzig Silbermünzen mit Pehlewy-Inschriften / / MA. 1877. T. VIII. 2e livr. P. 269-280.

Erdmann K. Wie sind die Kronen der säsänidischen Münzen zu lesen? // ZDMG. 1945-49. Bd. 99/2. S. 206-211.

Erdmann K. Die Entwicklung der säsänidischen Krone / / Ars Islamica. 1951. Vol. 15/16. P. 87-123.

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Frähn Chr. M. Über eine Münze des Sassaniden Narses / / St. Petersburger Zeitung. 1829. № 6.

Göhl R. Sasanidische Numismatik. Braunschweig, 1968.

Herzfeld E. Khusrau Parwëz und der Täq i Vastän / / AMI. 1938. Bd. 9. S. 91-158.

Kolesnikov A. I. The Quantity of Silver Coinage and Levels of Revenues in Late Sasanian Iran. P., 1999.

Loginov S. D., Nikitin A. B. Sasanian Coins of the Third Century from Merv // Mesopotamia. 1993. Vol. 28. P. 225-246.

Loginov S. D., Nikitin A. B. Coins of Shapur II from Merv // Mesopotamia. 1993. Vol. 28. P. 247-269.

Loginov S. D., Nikitin A. B. Sasanian Coins of the Late 4th-7th Centuries from Merv // Mesopotamia. 1993. Vol. 28. P. 271-312.

Loginov S. D., Nikitin A. B. Post-Sasanian Coins from Merv // Mesopotamia. 1993. Vol. 28. P. 313-317.

Lukonin V. G. Persia II: From the Seleucids to the Sassanids. Geneva, 1967.

Loukonin V. G. Monnaies d'Ardachir I et l'art officiel sassanide / / IrAnt. 1968. Vol. 8. P. 106-117.

Luzhetskaya, N. L. Dorn, Johannes Albrecht Bernhard / / EIr. 1995. Vol. VII. Fasc. 5. P. 511-513. [Electronic resource]: URL: http:// www.iranicaonline.org/ articles/dorn

Malek H. M. A Survey of Research on Sasanian Numismatics / / NC. 1993. Vol. 153. P. 227-269.

Markoff A., de. Catalogue des monnaies arsacides, subarsacides, sassanides, dabweihides, ainsi que des pièces frappées par les Ispehbeds arabes du Tabaristan et les gouverneurs de la Perse et du Maverannahr au nom des Khalifes. SPb., 1889.

Sarkhosh Curtis У. Some Observations on Coins of Peroz and Ka-vad I // Coins, Art and Chronology: Essays on the pre-Islamic History of the Indo-Iranian Borderlands / Hrsg. von M. Alram, D. Klimburg-Salter. Wien, 1999. P. 303-313.

Silvestre de Sacy A.-I. Mémoires sur diverses antiquités de la Perse et sur les médailles des rois de la dynastie des Sassanides, suivis de l'histoire de cette dynastie trad, du persan de Mirchond. P., 1793.

Vasmer R. Die Sasanidenmünzen der Gelehrten Estnischen Gesellschaft // SbGEG. 1927. P. 276-286.

Vasmer R. Sassanian Coins in the Ermitage / / NC. 1928. Series 5. Vol. 8. P. 249-334.

Vasmer R. Zur Goldmünze Sapors II von Persien / / BMB. 1930. N.F. Bd. 10. Jg. 50. P. 9.

Vasmer R. Zur Münzkunde der Sasaniden / / Numismatik: Internationale Monatsschrift. 1933. P. 109-115.

Колесников А. И. Иран в начале VII века. Л., 1970.

Колесников А. И. Денежное хозяйство в Иране в VII веке. М., 1998. Колесников А. И. Сасанидский Иран: история и культура. СПб., 2012.

Луконин В. Г. Иран в эпоху первых Сасанидов: Очерки по истории культуры. Л., 1961. Луконин В. Г. Варахран и Нарсе // ВДИ. 1964. № 1. С. 48-63. Луконин В. Г. Культура Сасанидского Ирана. М., 1969. Луконин В. Г. Завоевания Сасанидов на Востоке и проблема кушанской абсолютной хронологии / / ВДИ. 1969. № 2. С. 20-44.

Луконин В. Т., Зеймалъ Е. В. Монеты из раскопок Кара-тепе 1961-1971 it. // Будийский культовый центр Кара-тепе в Старом Термезе. М„ 1972. С. 101-103. Луконин В. Г. Искусство Древнего Ирана. М, 1977. Луконин В. Г. Иран в III веке: Новые материалы и опыт исторической реконструкции. М., 1979. Луконин В. Т., Раджабли А. Клад из Чохур-кабала // Луконин В. Г. Иран в III веке. М, 1979. С. 74-85. Табл. 6-19. Марков А. К. Топография кладов восточных монет (сасанид-ских и куфических). СПб., 1910.

Ehsan Shavarebi, Research Fellow of the Department of Ancient Iranian Languages and Culture, Faculty of Letters and Humanities (University of Tehran; Tehran, Iran); e-mail: ehsanshavarebi@gmail.com.

Санкт-Петербургская школа и её вклад в изучение сасанидской нумизматики: прошлое и настоящее

Статья представляет собой библиографический очерк, посвященный роли санкт-петербургских учёных в изучении сасанидской нумизматики с середины XIX в. до наших дней. В почти двухсотлетней истории Санкт-Петербургской школы сасанидской нумизматики автор выделяет два основных этапа: «коллекционно-катало-гизаторский» период (XIX в.) и период «историко-археологической нумизматики» (советское и постсоветское время). Отмечается, что в настоящее время Санкт-Петербургская школа вступает в новый период своего развития. В статье рассмотрены основные направления деятельности Санкт-Петербургской нумизматической школы, кратко охарактеризованы представители каяддого из периодов.

Ключевые слова: сасанидская нумизматика, Санкт-Петербургская школа, Государственный Эрмитаж, И. А. Бартоломей, Б. А. Дорн, А. К. Марков, В. Г. Луконин.

Эхсан Шавареби, научный сотрудник отдела древних иранских языков и культуры факультета филологии и гуманитарных наук (Тегеранский университет; Тегеран, Иран); эл. почта: ehsanshavarebi@gmail.com

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