Научная статья на тему 'Weapons and armament on the miniatures of Tabriz miniature school of the XV - XVI centuries'

Weapons and armament on the miniatures of Tabriz miniature school of the XV - XVI centuries Текст научной статьи по специальности «Искусствоведение»

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TABRIZ MINIATURE SCHOOL / MEDIEVAL WEAPONS / BATTLE MINIATURES OF THE MUSLIM EAST

Аннотация научной статьи по искусствоведению, автор научной работы — Ahmadov Sabuhi Ahmad Oglu

Tabriz miniature school is an important part of the art of the Middle East. The article discusses battle miniatures in which medieval artists reliably and historical accuracy depicted various weapons and armament. These miniatures can serve as an important historical source for the study of weapons of the XV XVI centuries. The main purpose of this article is to give the proof of these miniatures of art school which can be considered as a source for the study of arms and armament of the XV XVI centuries in Azerbaijan.

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Текст научной работы на тему «Weapons and armament on the miniatures of Tabriz miniature school of the XV - XVI centuries»

Section 4. History and archaeology

Ahmadov Sabuhi Ahmad oglu, National Museum of history of Azerbaijan, PhD in history, head of the Department for external relations

and exhibition activity E-mail: chokan28@yahoo.com

Weapons and armament on the miniatures of Tabriz miniature school of the XV — XVI centuries

Abstract: Tabriz miniature school is an important part of the art of the Middle East. The article discusses battle miniatures in which medieval artists reliably and historical accuracy depicted various weapons and armament. These miniatures can serve as an important historical source for the study of weapons of the XV — XVI centuries. The main purpose of this article is to give the proof of these miniatures of art school which can be considered as a source for the study of arms and armament of the XV — XVI centuries in Azerbaijan.

Keywords: Tabriz miniature school, medieval weapons, battle miniatures of the Muslim East.

Tabriz miniature school is an important part of the arts of nun" (1442), "Khosrov and Shirin" (1481), painting on fab-

Middle Eastern peoples. Much research has been done on foundation and development of the school as specific direction of Eastern miniature arts. Upon investigation turns out miniatures can be credible sources to explore the way of life, customs and traditions, lifestyle through the illustrated characters and societies. The main purpose of this article is to give the proof of these miniatures of art school which can be considered as a source for the study of arms and armament of the 15 th -century.

After heavy wars of the early 15th century, the region was experiencing a period of relative stability. In 1410 was created by the state of the Kara Koyunlu, with its capital in the city of Tabriz. When the ruler Jahanshah (1435-1467), there is a rise of art, including miniature painting. In 1467 on the same property was created by the state of Aq Qoyunlu, also with its capital in the city of Tabriz. When the ruler Uzun Hasan (1468-1478) and then Sultan Yaqub (1478-1490) were created a number of outstanding works of Tabriz miniature painting [6, 165-166].

15th century — the little investigated period in the history of Tabriz miniature school [1, 67]. It is proved that in this period were created by separate miniature sheets that have been collected in albums — muraka. The most famous of all the album miniatures — "Album Fateh" was so named because it features a portrait of the Ottoman Sultan Mehmet Fateh (1444-1481 years), however, it is proved that some of the miniatures created in the late XIV century and the other in the fifteenth century by order of the Governor of the state of Aq Qoyunlu Sultan Yaqub (1478-1490). Experts identify the miniatures of this period in a separate style [7, 215]. In the miniatures of the weapons depicted very accurately.

Miniatures "Album Fateh", the miniatures to poems of Nizami Ganjavi "Iskander-nameh" (1418), "Leyli and Maj-

ric "A Feast in a spring garden" (1430), individual miniature "Padishah Yaqub from a court" (70-80-ies ofthe XV century), "Hunting scene" (1460-1470-ies) provide insight into the development of weapons [2, 193-198, 206]. Among them the most remarkable miniatures "Battle of the reserve with the Bahram Chubin", "Iskander and dying Darius", "Iskander in battle", "Majnun is watching the battle". Here, in addition to conal helmets depicted so-called "turbaned type", ringed, and plate-and-ring armor. Compared with previous periods, a lot more images bracers and greaves. Horse armor can be divided into several different types.

Similar samples of the helmets of the 15th century, used in the territory of Azerbaijan, are in the collections of several major museums: Metropolitan Art Museum (New-York), Furusiyya Collection of Museum of the Isntitute of Arab world (Paris), Askeri Museum (Istambul) [8, 98, 102, fig. 7; 9, 314, fig.309; 10, 50; 11, 10, fig. 9]. In the Askeri Museum (Istanbul) and the Turkish Chamber of the Dresden Museum (Dresden) stores multiple samples of similar armor of the 15 th century. Two of them have the names of the rulers of Aq Qoyunlu, Uzun Hasan and Sultan Yaqub [12, 155; 13, 43, fig.3]. In Askeri Museum (Istanbul) a few samples are stored protective feet and hands, made in the 15th century in the Aq Qoyunlu state [12, 156, 158].

In the early sixteenth century in connection with the establishment of the Safavid state (1501-1736) comes the heyday of Tabriz miniature school. Tabriz was the capital of the state. Rulers, Shah Ismail I (1501-1524), Tahmasp I (1524-1576) was a patron of artists. In Tabriz library worked outstanding calligraphers and painters of the era of Sultan Muhammad, his sons Mirza Ali and Muhammedali, Mir Musavvir and his son Mir Seid Ali, Muzaffar Ali, Sadiq

Weapons and armament on the miniatures of Tabriz miniature school of the XV — XVI centuries

Bey Afshar, Shah Mahmud Nishapuri, Doust Mohammed and others [3, 15,19].

Battle miniatures and miniature genre scenes with images ofweapons are found in manuscripts ofthis era. So, by the end of the XV century — 1524 years is illustrated manuscript of the poem "Shahnameh", completed at the time of Shah Ismail I. To 1505-1525 years include miniatures of the manuscripts of the poet Asefi "Gui-and chovgan" and "Dastan-Jamal and Jalal". To 1526-1527 years include the so-called "Houghtons "Shahnameh" — illustrated manuscript of the poem "Shahnameh", completed at the time of Shah Tahmasp I and named after the collector A. Houghton. "Khamsa" of Nizami, dating back to the years 1539-1543, is kept in the library of the British Museum and was illustrated by the best artists of the era.

Arms and weapons are clearly and accurately depicted on the following miniatures from the above manuscripts: "Sleeping Rustam", "Jalal kills divas Samtale", "Jalal kills Pirafghan", "The Battle of Alexander and Darius", "Rustam catches Ra-khsh", "Manouchehr returned from the battlefield", "Rustam kills Sohrab", "Rustam before Keykavus", "Death of Piran", "Fight Faramarz with Bahman", "Rustam kills the witch", "Teimuraz and divs", "Combat of Rustam with the Kamus", "Rustam and the seven knights hunt in Turan", "Rustam picks Shangul the spear", "Rustam forced to flee the warrior of Turan", "Combat of Rustam with the warrior of Turan", "Karan kills the Barman," "Bijan forced to flee Farud run", "Fight Fari-borz with Kavad", "Kay-Khosrow welcomes his grandfather Kay-Kavus", "Isfandiyar kills the bird Simurg", "Bahram Gur kills the wolf", "A night attack on the camp of drunken Iranian soldiers", "Kay-Khosrow captivated div, who seized the castle of Bahman", "Sohrab steal horse", "Kay-Khosrow kills Afrasiab and avenges the Siyavush", "Bahram Gur hunting" [2, 222-224, 227-230, 242-243, 250-267, 276-280, 287-293; 3, fig. 19, 21, 22, 32, 48, 51, 72, 73, 78; 4, 128, fig. 176; 5, 180-181, 184-187, 189, fig. 84, 89-91, 97-98].

The miniatures are clearly visible helmets, armor, shields, spears, swords, and other weapons used in this era. The sword of this period even more curved. Dramatically increased the image of daggers: with a straight blade, with a curved blade on the belt or waistband. The miniatures depict and a combat knife. The artists clearly show several types of horse armor. For the first time are given the image of a battle axe, as well as symbolic axe.

In the middle of the sixteenth century, the tendency to illustrate the arms of local production was widely spread. Noteworthy, that miniatures "Hunting shah" (from the album of 1540s), "The lion hunt" (from the album of 1550s), "Stirrups and horse", "Falconry" (miniature of Sultan Muhammad to the manuscript of Abdurrahman Jami "Silsilat az-Zahab", 1549s) without illustrations of battle scenes, but they depict the use of various weapons. In the miniature "Feast" which was drawn by artist Mirza Ali (to the manuscript ofJami "La-vaech", 1549s) was shown the image of a warrior with a rifle for hunting [2, 180, 300; 3, fig. 72, 73, 78; 4, fig. 176; 5, fig.97, 98].

Similar samples of Safavid helmets of the 16th century are kept in the State Armory Chamber of the Moscow Kremlin (Moscow) and the National Museum of history ofAzerbaijan (Baku) [14, 72, fig.11; 15, 27]. In these museums are demonstrated similar samples of Safavid armor [14, 94, fig.18; 15, 72 74]. In the collection of Furusiya (Institute of the Arab world, Paris) stored samples of horse head protection 15-16th centuries, made in the territory of States Kara Koyunlu, Aq Qoyunlu and Safavids [9, 342, fig.328].

The political peripetias of the era was reflected in Tabriz painting. In connection with removing the capital from Tabriz which was led to the relocation of a number of major artists in Qazvin, Isfahan, and some of them moved farther to India. Some artists had moved or were taken away in Turkey. Some artists moved to Iran. By the beginning of the seventeenth century the quantity and quality of the illustrated miniatures with battle scenes were reduced [3, 29].

Thus, the conducted research shows that the miniatures of Tabriz miniature school of the 15 th — 16th centuries can be used as a credible historical sources for the study of arms and weapons of the reviewed epoch. The army of the States of Kara Koyunlu and Aq Qoyunlu was formed mainly Turkic tribes living on the territory of Azerbaijan and neighbouring territories. Army of the Safavid state until the military reforms of the early 17th century also consisted of kyzylbash tribes of Azerbaijan [17, 5, 40-44]. The majority of artists working in Tabriz in the 15th and 16th centuries were natives of Azerbaijan. Researchers have found even the names of more than 30 such artists [16, 188]. Thus, Tabriz miniatures of the 15th — 16th centuries can be seen as a source for the study of weapons used in the territory of Azerbaijan.

References:

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2. Hasanzade J., Afandiyev A. Four century ofglory: Azerbaijan miniature painting ofXIII - XIV centuries. - Baku, Aspoliqraf, 2011.

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7. Robinson B. W. The Turkman school to 1503. in: The art Book in the Central Asia. Paris - London, 1979. P. 215-247.

8. Alexander D. G. Two aspects of Islamic Arms and Armour.//«Metropolitan Museum Journal», vol.18 (1983). P. 97-109.

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10. Helmut Nickel. Arms and Armour. From the permanent collection.//The Metropolitan Museum ofArt Bulletin, v.49, no.1 (Summer, 1991). - New York. P. 50-54.

11. Stuart W. Pyhrr. Of arms and men. Arms and Armour at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. 1912-2012. - New York, 2012.

12. Bodur F. Türk Maden Sanati. C. 2. - Istanbul, Türk Kültürüne Hizmet Vakfi, 1987 (In Turk.).

13. Holger Schuckelt: Die Türckische Cammer: Sammlung orientalischer Kunst in der kurfürstlich-sächsischen Rüstkammer Dresden. - Dresden, 2010 (in Germ.).

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17. Efendiyev O. A. the Azerbaijani Safavid state in the 16th century. Baku, Elm, 1981.

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