Научная статья на тему 'Transformation of media education in the digital age: to the issue of training specialists in the field of communications'

Transformation of media education in the digital age: to the issue of training specialists in the field of communications Текст научной статьи по специальности «СМИ (медиа) и массовые коммуникации»

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DIGITAL MEDIA COMMUNICATION / MEDIA / MEDIA EDUCATION / MEDIA PHILOSOPHY / HERMENEUTIC ANALYSIS OF MEDIA TEXT

Аннотация научной статьи по СМИ (медиа) и массовым коммуникациям, автор научной работы — Vinogradova S., Melnik G., Pantserev K.

The purpose of this article is to identify the relationship of trends in the development of the digital economy, digital journalism and media education. The transition to a new technological system has caused major changes in the life of Russian society, which are reflected in numerous discussions. This applies primarily to the digital economy. The development of the digital economy is very contradictory and changes the map of the modern labor market, in particular, the segment of this market, which is associated with the functioning of the mass media. Monitoring of the labor market has shown that the requirements for the journalistic profession are changing. This causes contradictory assessments of the expert community. One can meet the conclusions about the disappearance of the journalistic profession, which is undergoing changes today, which cannot but affect the tasks of media education, since today the model of the journalist profession is being transformed. An important characteristic of the profession is not only the ability to prepare texts for mass media, but also to work in a multimedia environment. A professional in the field of mass media should have knowledge of the digital media market; skills of using digital technologies, as well as communication strategies in digital media; skills of project activities for the production of complex digital products, promotion and management of digital media projects, the use of computer technology at all stages from text creation to analysis and management of editorial content; the knowledge about the network culture. In modern conditions, media education should be aimed equally at developing students' skills in working with modern technology and at preserving the "human" content of the journalistic profession.

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Текст научной работы на тему «Transformation of media education in the digital age: to the issue of training specialists in the field of communications»

Media literacy education

Transformation of media education in the digital age: to the issue of training specialists in the field of communications

Prof. Dr. Svetlana Vinogradova

St. Petersburg State University, University emb. 7/9, St. Petersburg, 199164 vinogradovasm@inbox. ru

Prof. Dr. Galina Melnik

St. Petersburg State University, University emb. 7/9, St. Petersburg, 199164 melnik.gs@gmail com

Prof. Dr. Konstantin Pantserev

St. Petersburg State University, University emb. 7/9, St. Petersburg, 199164 pantserev@yandex. ru

Abstract. The purpose of this article is to identify the relationship of trends in the development of the digital economy, digital journalism and media education. The transition to a new technological system has caused major changes in the life of Russian society, which are reflected in numerous discussions. This applies primarily to the digital economy. The development of the digital economy is very contradictory and changes the map of the modern labor market, in particular, the segment of this market, which is associated with the functioning of the mass media. Monitoring of the labor market has shown that the requirements for the journalistic profession are changing. This causes contradictory assessments of the expert community. One can meet the conclusions about the disappearance of the journalistic profession, which is undergoing changes today, which cannot but affect the tasks of media education, since today the model of the journalist profession is being transformed. An important characteristic of the profession is not only the ability to prepare texts for mass media, but also to work in a multimedia environment. A professional in the field of mass media should have knowledge of the digital media market; skills of using digital technologies, as well as communication strategies in digital media; skills of project activities for the production of complex digital products, promotion and management of digital media projects, the use of computer technology at all stages from text creation to analysis and management of editorial content; the knowledge about the network culture. In modern conditions, media education should be aimed equally at developing students' skills in working with modern technology and at preserving the "human" content of the journalistic profession.

Keywords: digital media communication, media, media education, media philosophy, hermeneutic analysis of media text.

Introduction

Information and communication have always been essential components of public life. As it is known, journalism began to evolve when because of the growing complexity of social organization there was a need for a rapid information exchange. Primarily, it concerned economic and political news. However, it took a while before newspapers turned from a largely unprofitable enterprise focused on a highly educated elite into a profitable business. The first communication revolution, which happened in the most developed western countries at the end

of the XlXth century and in the beginning of the XXth century, in our opinion, should be linked with this fact.

Then, in 1920s -1930s, the second communication revolution occurred. As a result, the radio appeared and became a new competitor of newspapers and magazines. Finally, in the 1950s -1960s, the third communication revolution happened. It was marked with the emergence of television. The possibilities of that new sophisticated media outlet seemed limitless at that time.

In the mid 1980s, the fourth communication revolution began. Its occurrence was caused by the emergence of new phenomena such as the Internet and network technologies, which marked the onset of a new digital era. The result of this revolution, on the one hand, was the digitalization of the traditional mass media content onto a digital platform, and on the other hand, the emergence of totally new network media that lacked limitations typical for the media of the industrial era. This led to a significant change of the communication worldview and caused many political, economic and civilizational problems.

In 2017, this revolution reached its final stage, when, according to the assessment of McKinsey's Global Institute, almost every second human being had an access to information technologies. "Digitalization changes economy of entire regions and countries. Some professions disappear, while others emerge. The purchasing power of the people increases; goods and services become more accessible. Intra-industry competition grows, markets expand and competitiveness of industries of some countries in world markets increases. As a result, national economies grow. Those who actively master digital opportunities (companies and citizens who use new methods and tools on everyday basis) achieve a lot and get significant economic benefits" [Digital Russia: New Reality, 2017, p. 7-8].

Consequently, the term digital became a trend in various areas of human life, including media education. People are no longer confused by the phrases like digital medicine, digital diplomacy and digital journalism. According to the conception of western experts, digital journalism or digital report preparation, denoted by the term backpack journalism, is "a rapidly developing professional sphere in which a new category of specialists has a number of important and necessary competences. Such specialists must simultaneously be proficient in writing and producing, as well as have competences of a director, cameraman, sound engineer, editor and dispatcher" [Belousova, 2012, p. 4].

The development of digital journalism is inseparable from the development of digital economy. Digital economy was discussed at the recently held international Gaidar Forum. The implementation of digital economy into different spheres is set as a political goal of the state development. The program Digital Economy of the Russian Federation, adopted by the government of the Russian Federation on July 28, 2017, assumes some changes in the structure of education in general and media education in particular.

The program is aimed to create an effective interaction of business, scientific and educational community, authorities and citizens. The digital economy is represented by the following three levels "which interact actively and affect the lives of citizens and society as a whole: markets and economic sectors (areas of activity), where certain subjects, such as suppliers and consumers of goods and services, can interact; platforms and technologies (competencies for the development of markets and industries are being reformed); environment that creates conditions for the development of platforms and technologies as well as effective interaction of market entities and economic sectors. Environment also covers statutory regulation, information infrastructure, personnel and information security" [Program "Digital Economy of Russian Federation", 2017, p. 2]. It is noted in the program that it is already being implemented on the territory of the member states of the Eurasian Economic Union.

The main goals concerning education development are also noted in this document. They are as follows: firstly, creating conditions for the training of personnel in the digital economy;

secondly, formation of an education system which would provide the digital economy with highly qualified personnel; thirdly, changing the labor market according to the requirements of the digital economy; finally, creation of a motivation system which would encourage people to learn new skills necessary for life and work in the digital age.

To achieve these goals, the Ministry of Education has promised to create in three years a web resource with 3,500 online courses. According to experts, in five years, 10-11 million people will study online.

The processes in the media education sphere are similar to those that are typical for developed foreign countries. Thus, BUSINESS WIRE - SAE Institute, the world's largest network of training specialists of creative media technologies, has opened the first accredited digital journalism courses in Great Britain, Germany, the USA, Australia and the Middle East. But it is worth mentioning that despite the increase in the use of digital technologies in the education system, the number of training staff and compliance of educational programs with the needs of the digital economy are insufficient. There is also a lack of qualified personnel in mass communication.

Materials and methods

The study uses a systematic approach and monitoring. Consideration of the research subject in terms of the system's functions makes it possible to identify such features of the media education system as its ability to adapt to the outside world and to change it at the same time, set goals and find ways to achieve them.

In Russia and outside it, new opportunities in the theory and practice of media education are actively studied, prospects for development of media culture and media literacy are defined on the basis of the latest communication technologies, and sustainable methodological paradigms are proposed [Asmolov, 2016; Vertugo, Fierro, 2014; 2015; Tiede, Grafe, Hobbs, 2015; Chubarov, Ryabova, 2015; Chelysheva, 2016; Stobaugh, Tassell, 2011; Fedorov, 2015].

The review of some relevant studies has shown that a scientific and theoretical basis has been created for studying media education and media literacy and assessing the level of knowledge of modern information and communication technologies in society and professional occupation [Marta-Lazo, Hergueta-Covacho, Gabelas-Barroso, 2016; Khubetsova, Korkonosenko, Blokhin, 2015; Wilson, Grizzle, Tuason, Akempong, Chung 2011; Carlsson, Hope, 2013; Grafe, Breiter, 2014]. Works dedicated to the study of new digital interaction formats are marked out into a special group [Dudukalov, Rodionova, Sivakova, Cheryomushkina, Popkova, 2016; Sharikov, 2016; Kovaleva, 2015; Gutsche, Hess, 2017; Hobbs 2010, 2011; Ilomaki, Kantosalo, Lakkala, 2011; Schieble, 2010].

Researchers pay particular attention to the term digital economy, which was first applied by N. Negroponte, way back in 1995 [Urmantseva, 2017]. Today, this term is used all over the world; it is commonly used by politicians, entrepreneurs and journalists.

RIA Science gathered the most common ideas about what the digital economy is, based on expert interviews.

R. Meshcheryakov believes that there are two approaches for defining the concept of digital economy. The first "classical" approach defines the digital economy as an economy based on digital technologies, and at the same time it is more correct to characterize only the field of electronic goods and services. Classical examples are telemedicine, distance education and media content sales (movies, TV, books, etc.). According to the second extended approach, digital economy is an economic production which uses digital technologies [Experts called the price of the "digital revolution" in Russia ..., 2017].

A. Engovatova gives the following definition, "The digital economy is an economy based on new methods of generating, processing, storing and transferring data, as well as on digital computer technologies... " [Experts called the price of the "digital revolution" in Russia ..., 2017].

Scientists believe that the virtual part of the world has become a productive power and environment, where new ideas and products are created. The combination of the virtual and real parts helps to create a "based-on-true-events" world that will be an "economy in the economy" [Urmantseva, 2017]. Thus, we can conclude that the digital economy can cover everything that can be formalized, that is, turned into logical schemes.

"People study the procedures of transforming different objects into a digital model (digital economy, digital politics, digital journalism, digital education, digital medicine, digital culture and sport, digital state, digital agriculture, digital transport, digital security, digital energy and digital ecology" [Information-psychological and cognitive security, 2017, p. 111].

Experts in national and information security name the conditions under which it is possible to build such models which are called "reliance on digital information technology; network architecture and digital communication; digitized objects of activity; virtualization of digital technologies for working with objects; orientation to knowledge presented in the digital form; innovative driving force of development; integration and globalization through a standardized form of digital objects; convergence and high dynamics of changes; transformation of all types of activities, etc." [Information-psychological and cognitive security, 2017, p. 111].

However, with plenty of works on the above-mentioned problems, there are almost no works that systematically consider the influence of the digital environment on educational process formation and change of standards and training programs for specialists who work in the information sphere.

Discussion

Regarding the problem of interest to us, it is important to better understand information products, created on a digital basis. Experts at the field of communications often emphasize that a specific mode of media production appears, and a product itself is "the result of a combination of several media formats brought to life by the inevitable diversification and convergence of technological platforms and individual solutions" [Kovaleva, 2017, p. 12].

The necessity for fundamental changes of the process of creating and promoting a media product fits well into the complex of economic development tasks that are formulated in the Digital Economy of the Russian Federation program. Therefore, the discussions about the program seem essential to us.

The attitude to the program is ambiguous. In certain circles, the document raises doubt about its necessity. According to A. Rusin, "one cannot move from a resource-based economy to the digital one as well as one cannot skip the stages of industry, microelectronics, and computing hardware and form a virtual reality and Internet economy, or build an atomic bomb after finishing three years of a parochial school" [Rusin, 2017]. P. Rodkin stated, "In fact, our country offers the neoliberal version of the digital economy, which leads not to a welfare state, but to a digital concentration camp, to the future, described and portrayed in anti-utopias" [Rodkin, 2017].

A more well-considered view of the problem is presented by national security experts. According to them, "the digital economy includes cyberspace, information content and means of working with this content, so the digital economy should be considered not only as an element of the digital society, but also as a part of the unified global information space (infosphere)" [Information-psychological and cognitive security, 2017, p. 117].

The authors of the book Information-psychological and cognitive security believe that Russia can achieve competitive advantage and occupy a significant market share. Comparing economic and informational activities, the researchers reveal many common traits between them. The object of economic activity, according to the authors, is benefit, i.e. something valuable that can satisfy people's vital needs and be useful. The object of informational activity in turn is information, i.e. human-created meanings, presented as data in some interaction language. These

meanings are sequences of signs that have physical realization. The digital economy converts (digitizes) the benefit into a digital form, in other words, the benefit becomes information or a meaning" [Information-psychological and cognitive security, 2017, p. 127].

Results

The following issues are of a great importance in the communication sphere: how painful for the Russian printed mass media it is to switch to digital format and whether the personnel are sufficiently trained for work in a professional environment. The future of the printed media seems to be problematic. Experts from the authoritative British industry organization UK Stationers Livery Company prepared a report European Digital Media Landscape to 2020: The Future of Paper and Print 2. It is noted in this report that the penetration of digital technologies in the process of creating and disseminating newspapers and magazines creates significant prospects for the media industry [Pushkina, 2014, p. 411-415]. It should be mentioned that it also creates very serious problems.

It seems certain that "the development, dissemination and continuous improvement of new technological solutions, as well as their rapid implementation into the media industry poses the challenge teachers to look for new educational solutions and use innovative technologies. Methods for teaching students should be adequate to the current media practice. Besides, these methods should take into account the latest trends in the media sphere development and to some extent even be ahead of the processes that are now seen as innovative. This is a serious challenge for the academic community that trains personnel for the industry of the 2020s" [Zamkov, Krasheninnikova, Lukina, Tsynareva, 2016, p. 64].

Therefore, it is essential to consider several related aspects of the issue as well as social demands for the essence of the journalistic profession and media education tasks.

1. Monitoring of the education market

While participating in the course Business Environment of Modern Russia, students of the School of Journalism and Mass Communications of Saint Petersburg State University conducted: 1) monitoring of the current situation in the media education market; 2) monitoring of the labor market of journalists in Saint Petersburg and analysis of the demand for specialists in the area of communications in the period of transition (from printing to digits).

The question of updating study programs has been raised in connection with the tasks set by the government. Technically, many educational institutions responded to the market demands. For example, the Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (NRU MGSU) offers students to master modern business technologies within the framework of the Global Business School master program in just nine months and is committed to help students to become proficient in digital business, digital marketing and e-commerce, digital finance and banking. In addition to the GBSB diploma, students will get a diploma of the University of Alcala.

The study showed that the universities are restructuring their work, focusing on the requirements of time and the audience. A special retraining program for journalists Multimedia Journalism is opened by Plekhanov Russian University of Economics. The program is designed for those who are ready to become journalists oriented to work within the framework of integrated (convergent) editing. The program helps students to acquire competence in information processing and production and also in working with new processing tools and technologies [Additional program of professional retraining "Multimedia Journalism", 2017]. Due to the fact that the production process is now carried out in convergent editing and on several platforms at once, the focus in learning is on developing management skills in all areas: culture, politics, economics and journalism.

The Higher School of Economics is providing a master's program which is aimed on the development of students' creative, technological and entrepreneurial skills necessary for managing media projects in the digital environment. At the end of studies, graduates should be

able not only to cope with production of individual mobile applications, multimedia books, video games, web series, etc., but also to manage complex transmedia multi-platform projects [Master's program "Transmedia production in digital industries", 2017].

An Internet platform Digital Journalism is opening on the basis of the TV channel Russia-1. It offers online courses for people of different ages. This educational program will make it possible for students to master digital tools, create multimedia content and promote it on various information platforms. The training is conducted in the format of workshops and practical trainings, including analysis of TASS cases and other information resources. Besides, students must carry out design works and take part in hackathons. Program participants learn a set of key digital tools and technologies, which enable to create an interactive text, audio and visual content. The training is designed so that it takes into account the current world trends (the basis of infographics and modern design) [Digital journalism. Curriculum, 2017].

The dictionary of journalistic terms is supplemented with new definitions such as digital media industry, digital reporting and digital journalism.

At the School of Journalism and Mass Communications of Saint Petersburg State University, the educational structure is being adapted to the practical needs. For example, the Department of Periodical Press was renamed as the Department of Digital Media Communications; format and structure of organization of teaching fundamentals of journalism professional skills are changing. Modular education system allows students to learn the whole range of things from general ideas to multimedia and assessment of media effects or media effectiveness. But the main focus is on digital technologies for collecting information, preparing an information product and delivering it to consumers. Multimedia technologies become an important factor in improving textual pragmatics. Future journalists learn how to create polycode texts and study the basics of large-scale data visualization in journalism [Contemporary Periodical Press in the Context of Communicative Processes: Multimedia Potential of Journalism, 2016].

A journalist's ability to multitask is manifested in the organization of work in multimedia editorial office where journalists walk the road from universalism to trans-professionalism. The final result is planning and production of a multimedia product.

2. Monitoring of the labor market of journalists

Due to the rapid development of information and communication technology (ICT) and NBIC technology that lead to the automation of almost all spheres of human life, it can be assumed that many specialists of physical and routine intellectual work will be non-demanded within the next 7-10 years, since they will be replaced by software robots. Examples of such specialists are as follows: accountants, legal advisors, notaries, logisticians, travel agents, call center specialists, tour guides, taxi drivers, translators, insurance agents, shop assistants, doctors, system administrators, and many other professions. And journalists are on this list as well. For instance, such point of view can be found in A. Graefe's analytical report in which he discusses the prospects for the emergence of automated journalism when software robots creating information content will replace journalists [Graefe, 2016, p.14]. Undoubtedly, such trends lead to enormous changes in the labor market.

This change is happening due to the fact that "the technosphere began to invade even humanitarian areas, which were traditionally considered to be exclusively human. And one of them is the media sphere. The development of ICT is changing the ways of mass communication, methods of media consumption and the media landscape itself. It seems appropriate to place the following question on the agenda: if the process of searching, processing and disseminating information is being increasingly robotized, will the professional intermediaries, involved in the mass communication process, be needed in future?" [Zorin, 2016].

All these technological transformations will inevitably lead to a quality change in the information environment of society and journalism in general. The Associated Press agency already uses automated systems to generate news. According to official data, in 2015, this system produced 3,000 news per 3 months, but potentially it is capable of producing 2,000 news per second! [Watry, 2016].

Thus, it is quite reasonable to question the future of journalism as a profession. What professional competencies should journalists of the digital era have? Or will they just turn into simple computer operators whose tasks will include monitoring the actions of software robots creating the information field of network media?

In our opinion, in order to remain in demand in the labor market, journalists must be able to adapt to the rapidly changing external environment and have skills that were not taught at journalism faculties before.

Review of various resources (Russian Federal State Statistics Service (Rosstat); Administration of Russian Federal State Statistics Service for St. Petersburg and Leningrad Oblast (Petrostat); Information resources of state information system in St. Petersburg Integrated system of informational and analytical support of the executive bodies of State authority in St. Petersburg; Labor and Employment Committee of St. Petersburg; State Labor Inspection for St. Petersburg) has allowed to make conclusions specified below.

In general, the prospects for the mass media market are very pessimistic, because the economic downturn of the past few years has affected the media market. In the fall of 2017, the St. Petersburg office of Vedomosti newspaper ceased to exist; the staff of the editorial board of REGNUM news agency was reduced, etc. Newspapers and online resources are looking for new ways to monetize content, e.g. the so-called automated journalism is expanding.

"For the past three or four years, we have been witnessing projects in which web crawlers that can recognize and extract press releases and news from the web information flow also learn how to "rewrite", "repack" and spread them in certain sites (e.g. www.narrativescience.com). Some news companies, e.g. Forbes, use these programs because the speed of information dissemination is extremely important for the world financial markets (and people cannot reach the speed of writing simple texts by a bot). There are examples of successful use of such bots in sports news (e.g. http.// www statsheet.com)" [Castells, Parks, Haak, 2016, p. 288].

In addition, the situation is complicated by the new media realities such as switch of the media to network sites, rise of bloggers, and development of so-called citizen journalism. This situation requires thorough analyzing. If this tendency when non-professionals actively participate in news production, commenting, and promotion of certain values becomes more and more popular, people will face an interesting situation, namely, there might be an imbalance between general skills of media amateurs and professional journalism education.

Monitoring of the site HH.ru, which contains information about job offers, showed that in St. Petersburg in just one month (December 2017) 44 job openings were available for journalists.

Most employers (23 vacancies) were looking for candidates with one to three years of work experience. This criterion would be suitable for recent graduates who completed an internship or wrote texts for publications as freelancers during their studies. Having three to six years of work experience was required in 18 cases out of 44. Employees with such experience were looked for by companies like Petroelectrosbyt, 47news and Blog Fiesta; however, those job offers were relevant not only to journalism, but also to marketing and PR. Such companies as EFCO, Korabel.ru and Colliers International were ready to hire journalists with no work experience.

In job vacancies for December 2017, the requirements included knowledge of marketing, art, technology, banking, consulting and sales. Based on this list it can be concluded that in addition to writing texts, journalists also need to write advertising strategies or publicities and

sell products. Also, there is demand for journalists who are well versed in new technologies such as mobile banking and blockchain.

On the website of the Employment Service there are only two job offers for journalists. On the website HH.ru it is indicated in some job offers that the work is suitable for disabled people, since it can be done remotely. In the industry report "Russian Broadcasting and the Internet. Current situation, Trends and Prospects for Development", published on the website of Federal Agency on Press and Mass Communications, it is noted that the number of such job offers will increase, as well as the number of telecommuting job offers. The authors of the report point out that one of the trends in the Internet development is working on principles of outsourcing that is when a company gets specialists for a particular project, without enrolling them in staff. This type of hiring employees allows a company to save its financial resources.

To summarize, there is a fairly promising picture of the labor market of journalists on HeadHunter. In the category "journalism", one can see 29 offers for a full-time job, including PR and advertising managers, project managers, community managers, editors of electronic media, columnists, observers, copywriters (55 vacancies), photographers (18 vacancies) and press-secretaries (6 vacancies).

The Internet bulletin board Avito shows several job offers for journalism faculties graduates: film analyst (1), photographers (20), copywriters (7).

It can be concluded that there are vacant jobs in Saint Petersburg. The problem is that many employers, such as the TASS agency, 47news.ru, Petroelectrosbyt, are looking for candidates with three to six years of work experience. Candidates with one year of work experience are in higher demand, but the requirements to them slightly differ from those for specialists with three-year experience.

To understand whether the profession of journalist is in demand, it is necessary to compare the number of vacancies for specialists in related fields: advertising and PR. There are 4,5 times more vacancies in the category PR than those for journalists on the site HH.ru. More than 200 vacancies adverts were posted in December 2017. There are 2 times more vacancies in the category Advertising and PR than those for journalists on the site HH.ru. In December 2017, 112 vacancies adverts were posted. Companies prefer those candidates who are experts in one particular field, for example, banking, real estate and blockchain, but versatile journalists are in demand as well. And this versatility manifests itself not only in the ability to work in different genres, create text and visual content, but also in the knowledge of marketing and promotion.

The demand for the journalist profession happened to be low. An extensive survey was conducted on the site moeobrazovanie.ru. According to it, 40% of site users believe that the journalist profession is not in demand in the market.

In general, the analysis of market demands showed that media companies need people who

have

• knowledge of the digital media market;

• skills in using digital technologies;

• skills in the design of complex digital products;

• skills of promotion and management of digital projects;

• knowledge of communicative strategies in digital media, and not just skills of creating

texts for any channel;

• computer skills: from text creation to analytics and management of editorial content;

• knowledge about the basics of the journalist's network culture.

Conclusion

Thus, today, digital economy invades in the media industry sphere. The media market needs specialists with new communication competencies, creative, technological and

entrepreneurial skills which are necessary for managing media projects in the digital environment and are important for working on different information platforms.

All these major transformations, which affected the work of both editorial teams and individual journalists, as well as "changes in consumption of products they produce, require updating the methods and tools for training future media professionals. Also, this task is essential due to the change of the status of main participants of the educational process, i.e. students, who have become 'digital aborigines' and grew up in multimedia environment. It is, first and foremost, them who needs modernization of educational technologies for effective learning and obtaining skills that educational programs offer" [Zamkov, Krasheninnikova, Lukina, Tsynareva, 2016, p. 64].

The problem of the journalistic labor market requires overcoming the emerging difficulties and developing a media education system that would adapt to the new realities. A promising area for the development of Russian economy is media education, based on digital technologies and retaining its humanistic content. There is a necessity for developing criteria for media education efficiency. Scientific and educational community and experienced journalists should immediately seek necessary tools and resources.

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