Научная статья на тему 'THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF 1-PROPANOL AND DIESEL FUEL BLENDS. I. VISCOSITY OVER WIDE RANGE OF TEMPERATURE'

THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF 1-PROPANOL AND DIESEL FUEL BLENDS. I. VISCOSITY OVER WIDE RANGE OF TEMPERATURE Текст научной статьи по специальности «Химические технологии»

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1-PROPANOL / DIESEL FUEL / VISCOSITY / EXCESS VISCOSITY / HIGH TEMPERATURE

Аннотация научной статьи по химическим технологиям, автор научной работы — Ashurova U., Safarov J.

Viscosity, mPa·s, of 1-propanol and diesel fuel blends at temperatures from 273,15 to 373,15 K are reported with an estimated average deviation of ±0,35 % in dynamic viscosity. Measurements were carried out using the Anton Paar SVM 3000 Stabinger viscometer. The viscosity values of 1-propanol are compared with data available in open access. Authors have obtained the positive dependence of the excess viscosity, mPa·s, for studied fuel blends. This dependence is discussed.

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Текст научной работы на тему «THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF 1-PROPANOL AND DIESEL FUEL BLENDS. I. VISCOSITY OVER WIDE RANGE OF TEMPERATURE»

UDC 532.137.4:543.318.3:544.313:665.753.4

Thermophysical properties of 1-propanol

and diesel fuel blends.

I. Viscosity over wide range of temperature

U. Ashurova1, J. Safarov2*

1 Department of Energetics, Mingachevir State University, Bld. 21, Dilara Aliyev street, Mingachevir, AZ4500, Azerbaijan

2 Institute of Technical Thermodynamics, University of Rostock, Bld. 2, Albert-Einstein street, Rostock, D-18059, Germany

* E-mail: javid.safarov@uni-rostok.de

Abstract. Viscosity, mPa-s, of 1-propanol and diesel fuel blends at temperatures from 273,15 to 373,15 K are reported with an estimated average deviation of ±0,35 % in dynamic viscosity. Measurements were carried out using the Anton Paar SVM 3000 Stabinger viscometer. The viscosity values of 1-propanol are compared with data available in open access. Authors have obtained the positive dependence of the excess viscosity, mPa-s, for studied fuel blends. This dependence is discussed.

The diesel engine, which converts traditional hydrocarbon fuel into mechanical energy, is currently the most used widely type of engine. In comparison with gasoline engines, diesel engines have low CO2 emissions, high power output, and a reliable functionality. Stringent emissions standards require that advanced diesel engine technology must have improved primary injection and combustion processes within the engine combustion chamber. Independent of the fuel properties, the injection rate and the combustion process for burning alternative fuels in diesel engines must be properly adjusted [1].

One important novelty for meeting the diesel engine emissions requirements is the use of alternative fuels together with diesel fuel as binary fuel blend. Alcohols have been used as alternative fuels (or in blends) in internal combustion engines for a long time. Typically, alcohol decreases internal combustion engine emissions [2]. Alcohol fuels have a higher octane number than traditional fossil fuels and can be used as an octane booster for fuels. The short chain alcohols, like methanol (CH3OH) and ethanol (C2H5OH), do not have full solubility in diesel fuel over a wide range of temperatures, and in fact show a higher affinity for water [3]. Other alcohols, for example 1-propanol (C3H7OH) and 1-butanol (C4H10OH), have a lower affinity for water due to their longer carbon chain. They demonstrate better blend stability and have full solubility in diesel fuel in the all concentration ranges, when compared with methanol and ethanol (due to their low polarity).

There are two possibilities when using alcohols as a blend in diesel engines [4]: 1) diesel is injected with an injection nozzle into the combustion chamber and a carburettor alcohol (from a separate tank) is added to the air flow; 2) alcohol and diesel fuel blends are injected simultaneously by the injection nozzle. The latter is simpler, because the injection system hardware does not require alteration. This means that no engine hardware modifications are needed but does require, however, that the engine management system compensates for the changed fuel properties. This is because of, upon injection of the fuel in a cylinder, large depressurization of the fuel results in a significant change of the thermophysical properties of the fluid [1]. The optimal design for diesel engine combustion and high pressure fuel injection (with fuel mixtures) requires modelling and optimizing spray formation, vaporization, combustion, and pollutant formation, as well as an accurate knowledge of basic fuel thermophysical properties (e.g., density, vapor pressure, viscosity, speed of sound, surface tension, heat capacity, heat conductivity, and bulk modulus) as a function of pressure, temperature, and composition [4-9]. At the results of a series of research investigations [4-9], authors studied the thermophysical properties of ethanol, 1-propanol, or 1-butanol and diesel B0 fuel blends. In this work, the thermophysical

Keywords:

1-propanol, diesel fuel, viscosity, excess viscosity, high temperature.

properties of 1-propanol and diesel B0 fuel blends were the topics of interest.

1-Propanol can be a biomass-based renewable fuel, produced by alcoholic fermentation of the biomass feedstock used for alcohol production. It is one of the constituents of fusel oil. It is industrially manufactured from propion-aldehyde propane and is used in many industries, such as cosmetic, pharmaceutical, printing, paint, textile, etc. [10]. 1-Propanol has a higher latent heat of vaporization than diesel fuel; as a result, lower NO^ emissions are possible. Its self-ignition temperature is also lower than methanol and ethanol, but very close to that of diesel fuel (which may be helpful in shortening the ignition delay) [10]. It also has a higher flash point and higher energy density than methanol and ethanol.

There is very little literature related to the use of 1-propanol diesel blends as fuel in diesel engines. Yoshimoto et al. [11] studied the performance of a diesel engine using rape seed oil blended with 1-propanol/1-butanol, finding that the addition of up to 40 % alcohol produced stable combustion similar to diesel fuel operation. Sivalakshmi et al. [12] used fuel blends of 5.. .20 % 1-propanol in neem oil and obtained improvements in engine performance and emission parameters. Muthaiyan and Gomathinayagam [10] used 1-propanol diesel blends as an alternative fuel in a single cylinder diesel engine. Four different 1-propanol diesel blends containing 10, 15, 20, and 25 % 1-propanol in diesel by volume were used as fuels. During the experiments, the diesel engine performance and the combustion parameters (e.g., cylinder gas pressure, ignition delay, rate of heat release, and rate of pressure rise) were studied. The longer ignition delay, higher rates of heat release, pressure rise, lower thermal efficiency, CO, NO^ and smoke emissions of the engine were obtained. Thillainayagam et al. [13] used 1-propanol in 10, 20, and 30 % volume with fossil diesel in powering stationary diesel engines (used for irrigation and rural electrification). The results were compared to baseline diesel, and it was found that smoke density reduced with increasing 1-propanol concentration in the blends. Thillainayagam et al. [13] found that NO^ emissions also increased with increasing 1-propanol concentration in the blends. As a result, they determined that 1-propanol can be used in diesel engines up to 30 % by volume with diesel. In this case, the blends delivered lower soot density, NO^ and CO emissions under exhaust gas recirculation.

This work is a continuation of authors' investigations into the field of alcohol and diesel fuel blends [4-9]. Here, there is the experimental viscosity analysis of 1-propanol and diesel B0 fuel blends over wide range of temperatures and ambient pressure. Following a literature review, authors determined that there were no viscosity values for 1-propanol and diesel B0 fuel blends.

Experimental part

The samples of ultra pure (99,995 %) 1-propanol for analysis EMSURE®, CAS no. 71-23-8, art. nr. 1.00997.1000 were purchased from Merck Schuchardt OHG, Germany and were thoroughly degassed in glass flasks with special vacuum leak-proof valves before measurements. The water content in 1-propanol was less than a mass fraction of 20 ppm. The Shell Global Solution DK5037 Diesel B0 sample taken in 2016 was used during the preparation of 1-propanol and diesel B0 binary fuel blends. The fuel blends were prepared in deep vacuum conditions, specific quantities of 1-propanol and diesel B0 fuel were slowly evacuated, degassed in two separate flasks and connected using an adapter [4-5]. The volume concentration was calculated using the density of 1-propanol and diesel B0 fuel in room temperature, in which this process was going.

The dynamic viscosity n( p0,T), mPas, of nine 1-propanol and diesel B0 fuel blends at ambient pressure (p0) were measured using an Anton Paar SVM 3000 Stabinger Viscometer at temperatures T = 273,15.373,15 K [14] (table 1). The accuracy of measured n, mPas, values at p0 = 0,101 MPa according the SVM 3000 Stabinger Viscometer manufacture instructions is An/n = +0,35 %. Figure 1 shows the plot of viscosity values for the 1-propanol + diesel B0 fuel blends versus mass percent of 1-propanol at various temperatures.

Results and discussion

Measured dynamic viscosity

П(Ро,т) of

1-propanol and diesel B0 fuel blends (see table 1) fitted to the following polynomial equation:

Л( p0, T ) = £ T

1=0 J=0

(1)

where atj are the coefficients of eqn. (1) presented in table 2. Eqn. (1) describes the measured viscosity values of 1-propanol and diesel B0 fuel blends within ±3,22 % average relative deviation.

Figure 2 shows the plot of deviation of experimental (nexp) and calculated (ncalc) n

Table 1

Experimental r](p0,T), mPa-s, values of 1-propanol and diesel BO fuel blends at T= 273,15...373,15 K andp0 = 0,101 MPa

Blend 1 Blend 2 Blend 3 Blend 4 Blend 5 Blend 6 Blend 7 Blend 8 Blend 9

c/3 1-Propanol volumetric fraction ), % 0,0000 4,1870 10,2271 22,9360 34,7346 47,9346 65,2102 83,2315 100,0000

ö Irt 1-Propanol mass fraction (w^p), % 0,0000 4,0523 9,9182 22,3387 33,9654 47,0840 64,4324 82,7500 100,0000

a m o & 1-Propanol mole fraction ), irnite fr. 0,0000 0,1313 0,2826 0,5072 0,6479 0,7610 0,8663 0,9449 1,0000

Blend molal mass (A/), kg-mole-1 215,0000 208,7228 199,6363 180,3964 162,3862 142,0650 115,1916 86,8169 60,0959

273,15 6,7244 6,1340 5,6595 5,1266 4,9356 4,7182 4,4168 3,7714 1,8266

274,15 6,5032 5,9343 5,4814 4,9715 4,7883 4,5798 4,2903 3,6692 1,7877

278,15 5,7123 5,2249 4,8553 4,4119 4,2563 4,0786 3,8311 3,2961 1,6421

283,15 4,9007 4,4942 4,2020 3,8286 3,7003 3,5532 3,3475 2,8991 1,4799

293,15 3,7050 3,4166 3,2228 2,9493 2,8589 2,7543 2,6074 2,2822 1,2106

w E-T 303,15 2,8910 2,6782 2,5420 2,3339 2,2672 2,1894 2,0799 1,8344 0,9993

313,15 2,3183 2,1555 2,0545 1,8906 1,8394 1,7789 1,6941 1,5019 0,8321

323,15 1,9039 1,7753 1,6961 1,5632 1,5223 1,4736 1,4054 1,2499 0,6984

333,15 1,5963 1,4911 1,4265 1,3160 1,2822 1,2415 1,1850 1,0553 0,5908

343,15 1,3630 1,2743 1,2196 1,1256 1,0968 1,0618 1,0135 0,9027 0,5033

353,15 1,1825 1,1057 1,0579 0,9763 0,9511 0,9203 0,8781 0,7811 0,4318

363,15 1,0405 0,9724 0,9295 0,8574 0,8349 0,8071 0,7694 0,6829 0,3728

373,15 0,9270 0,8654 0,8261 0,7614 0,7409 0,7154 0,6811 0,6027 0,3239

Comments: Standard uncertainty u(T) = 0,01 K and the combined expanded uncertainty C/c(r|) = 0,001 Pa s (0,95 level of confidence).

Table 2

Coefficients ay of equation (1)

0 1 2 3

0 426,7089132 -3,629115444 0,01035768585 -9,88993 10-6

1 -682,7384818 5,780859978 -0,016418163 1,55958-10-5

2 3176,903974 -26,3335858 0,073455598 -6,86823-10-5

3 -9772,529498 81,0744404 -0,226399077 0,21195-10-3

4 13246,7924 -110,3734304 0,309433929 -0,29075-10-3

5 -6323,58088 52,90162023 -0,148841463 0,140308-10-3

w, , mass % i-p'

Fig. 1. n(P0,T) and w1-p correlation for 1-propanol and diesel B0 fuel blends at various T values

, mole fr. о 0

□ 0,1313 л 0,2826

о 0,5072 a 0,8663 ♦ 0,6479 • 0,9449 ■ 0,7610 ж 1,0000

£ 11

1 10 -

L I 9 -

о 8 -о

~ 7 ° 6 -5 -4 3

2 t 1 \

0

-1 i о

"2i!

-3 -

-4 --5 --6

-7 °

0,9 1,0 x1-p, mole fr.

Fig. 2. Plot of deviation of experimental and calculated using eqn. (1) values of 1-propanol and diesel B0 fuel blends viscosities versus mole fractions of 1-propanol at temperatures 273,15...373,15 K

х1

о4

11 10

! 9 8

76543

2 Н 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7

273,15

x1-p, mole fr. <

о 0 о 0,5072 A 0,8663

□ 0,1313 ♦ 0,6479 • 0,9449

д 0,2826 ■ 0,7610 + 1,0000 с

293,15

313,15

333,15

353,15

373,15 T, K

Fig. 3. Plot of deviation of experimental and calculated using eqn. (1) values of 1-propanol and diesel B0 fuel blends viscosities versus temperature at 1-propanol mole fractions of 0,00...1,00

values using empirical eqn. (1) viscosity ncal( p0,T) of 1-propanol and Diesel B0 fuel blends versus mole fractions of 1-propanol x1-p at various temperatures T = (273,15 to 373,15) K and Figure 3 - versus temperature at various x1-p mole fractions of 1-propanol.

The excess viscosity nE, mPa s, of binary 1-propanol and diesel fuel blends is calculated using the viscosity of pure components and compositions at various temperatures [4-5]:

^ = ^BL " *l-p^1-p - (1 - *l-p )^d-BO > (2)

where nBL, ni-p and nd-Bo are the viscosities of fuel blend, 1-propanol and diesel B0 fuel, respectively. During the analysis of mixture excess properties, the properties of pure substances must be investigated very carefully. Because, the small uncertainties in the pure component property can change the excess properties of mixture very speedily [4]. During these calculations, the

nd-B0 values were taken from measurements [15]. Since diesel fuel quality varies geographically, it is impossible to measure the properties of diesel fuel with a standard accuracy. However, 1-propanol is a standard chemical product and its viscosity has been carefully investigated over the last century. Authors have also measured the viscosity of 1-propanol and after comparing them with the formerly published values (figure 4) used them for defining the excess viscosity of 1-propanol and diesel B0 fuel blends. Obtained results versus x1-p at various temperatures T = 273,15 to 373,15 K and ambient pressures are shown in figure 5.

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Positive nE values can be visualized as being due to a closer approach of unlike molecules having significantly different molecular sizes; this indicates strong interactions between similar molecules and can be used to determine the feasibility of having alternative blends in diesel fuel. Due to the presence of nonpolar molecules, like acrylic esters, existing H-bonding in alcohol

^ 4

-2-

-3 -

-4-

-5 -

-6-

263,15

283,15

303,15

323,15

343,15

363,15

383,15 T, K

□ Ling, 1958 (JCED, vol. 3, p. 88)

♦ Pang, 2007 (JML, vol. 136, p. 71)

□ Ashurova, Safarov, 2021

▲ Baylaucq, 2009 (JCED, vol. 54, p. 2715)

♦ Rauf, 1983 (JCED, vol. 28, p. 324)

□ Dizechi (JCED, vol. 27, p. 358)

A Komarenko, 1967 (UkrFizZh, vol. 12, p. 676) O Brunson, 1989 (JCED, vol. 34, p. 46) A Assael, 1994 (IJT, vol. 15, p. 95) O Lee, 1976 (JCED, vol. 21, p. 36)

O Khalilov, 1939 (ZhETF, vol. 9, p. 335)

O Komarenko, 1967 (UFZ, vol. 12, p. 676)

Д Saleh, 2001 (PCL, vol. 39, p. 465)

О Khalilov, 1974 (ZFK, vol. 48, p. 1696)

• Nozdrev, 1975 (ZFK, vol. 49, p. 548) Ж Garcia, 1991 (JCED, vol. 36, p. 269)

▲ Domanska, 2009 (JCED, vol. 54, p. 2113)

♦ Aminabhavi, 1994 (JCED, vol. 39, p. 865) ■ Nikam, 2000 (JCED, vol. 45, p. 214)

+ Iglesias, Silva, 2016 (JCED, vol. 61, p. 2682)

Fig. 4. Plot of deviation of 1-propanol viscosity values obtained by U. Ashurova and J. Safarov (^j,"1) and other researches versus temperature

molecules breaks down and the system shows weak intermolecular interactions.

Conclusion

The experimental n(p0,T) values of 1-propanol and diesel B0 fuel blends over a wide range of temperatures at ambient or saturated pressures are reported. The measured viscosity values of 1-propanol were compared with values taken over the past century, and they are largely

in agreement. The viscosity values for diesel B0 fuel and blends with 1-propanol were not found in literature, making comparisons impossible. The excess viscosity of 1-propanol and diesel B0 fuel blends versus mole fractions of 1-propanol at these state parameters were defined, and the obtained positive excess volumes were analysed.

University of Rostock thanks for the support of research investigations.

E 1,

1,4 -

1,2 -

1,0 -

0,8 -

0,6 -

0,4 -

0,2 -0

0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9

x , mole fr. i-p'

Fig. 5. Plot of excess viscosity of 1-propanol and diesel B0 fuel blends versus mole fractions of 1-propanol at various temperatures between 273,15 to 373,15 K

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Теплофизические свойства растворов пропанола-1 и дизельного топлива. Часть I. Вязкость в широком диапазоне температур

У Ашурова1, Дж. Сафаров2*

1 Мингячевирский государственный университет, Азербайджан, AZ4500, г Мингячевир, ул. Диляра Алиева, д. 21

2 Институт технической термодинамики, Ростокский университет, Германия, D-18059, г Росток, ул. Альберта Эйнштейна, д. 2

* E-mail: javid.safarov@uni-rostok.de

Тезисы. В статье приведены результаты измерений динамической вязкости, мПас, смесей пропанола-1 и дизельного топлива при температурах 273,15...373,15 К. Измерения выполнялись с использованием вискозиметра Штабингера Anton Paar SVM 3000 со средней погрешностью 0,35 %. Полученные значения вязкости пропанола-1 сравниваются с данными, ранее опубликованными другими исследователями. Рассчитана избыточная вязкость смесей, обсуждается ее положительная зависимость.

Ключевые слова: 1-пропанол, дизельное топливо, вязкость, избыточная вязкость, высокая температура.

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