Научная статья на тему 'The terminology denoting political organisation and common descent in the Däftär-i čingiz-nāmä'

The terminology denoting political organisation and common descent in the Däftär-i čingiz-nāmä Текст научной статьи по специальности «Языкознание»

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COMPOUNDING / HISTORICAL SEMANTICS / ETHNOS / CHINGGIS-NAME / СЛОЖНОСОСТАВНОСТЬ / ИСТОРИЧЕСКАЯ СЕМАНТИКА / ЭТНОС / ЧИНГИЗ-НАМЕ

Аннотация научной статьи по языкознанию, автор научной работы — Danka Balázs

Цель и материалы исследования: в статье рассматриваются избранные перечни терминов, определяющие некоторые особенности (общее происхождение и политическая организация) этнической идентичности в «Дефтер-и Чингиз-наме». Эти слова часто встречаются в координированных сложносоставных словах в этом тексте. Сложносоставность недостаточно изучена в тюркской лингвистике, не говоря уже о филологических исследованиях тюркских исторических текстов. Автор определяет проблему идентификации подобных сложносоставных слов в тексте и предлагает морфо-синтаксический критерий, который может быть использован в качестве инструмента идентификации. Новизна и результаты исследования: основываясь на семантическом отношении между компонентами сложносоставного слова, автор выделяет два типа: 1. Те сложносоставные слова, значения компонентов которых являются идентичными: они, вероятно, использовались в сложной речи. 2. Те сложносоставные слова, значения компонентов которых не являются идентичными: в них улавливается новое понятие, отличающееся от значений компонентов. Здесь было идентифицировано три подобных сложносоставных слова, в которые в большей или меньшей степени улавливается понятие, аналогичное этносу. Наконец, автор сравнивает значение этих сложносоставных слов с древнетюркскими «бодун» (народ) и «эль» (держава).Research objective and materials : The paper examines selected lists of terminologies which define certain features (common descent and political organisation) of ethnic identity in the Däftär-i Čingiz-nāmä. These words often occur in coordinate compounds in the text. Compounding is not very well researched in Turkic linguistics, nor was it being considered in earlier philological works on Turkic historical texts. The author defines the problem of identification of such compounds in the text, and offers a morpho-syntactic criterion which can be used as a tool for identification. Novelty and results of the research : Based on the semantic relation between the compound’s components, the author distinguishes two types: 1. Those compounds, the components of which have identical meaning: These were probably used for elaborate speech. 2. Those compounds, the components of which do not have identical meaning: These arrived at a new, different concept from the components’ meaning. Three such compounds have been identified, which more or less arrive at a similar concept to ethnos. Finally, the author compares the meaning of these compounds to that of Old Turkic bodun ‘people’, and el ‘realm’.

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Текст научной работы на тему «The terminology denoting political organisation and common descent in the Däftär-i čingiz-nāmä»

УДК 94(47).031(093)+81:39 DOI: 10.22378/2313-6197.2017-5-4.801-810

THE TERMINOLOGY DENOTING POLITICAL ORGANISATION AND COMMON DESCENT IN THE DAFTAR-ICINGIZ-NAMA

Balazs Danka

Turkological Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and University of Szeged Szeged, Hungary dankab.szte@gmail.com

Research objective and materials: The paper examines selected lists of terminologies which define certain features (common descent and political organisation) of ethnic identity in the Daftar-i Cingiz-nama. These words often occur in coordinate compounds in the text. Compounding is not very well researched in Turkic linguistics, nor was it being considered in earlier philological works on Turkic historical texts. The author defines the problem of identification of such compounds in the text, and offers a morpho-syntactic criterion which can be used as a tool for identification.

Novelty and results of the research: Based on the semantic relation between the compound's components, the author distinguishes two types:

1. Those compounds, the components of which have identical meaning: These were probably used for elaborate speech.

2. Those compounds, the components of which do not have identical meaning: These arrived at a new, different concept from the components' meaning.

Three such compounds have been identified, which more or less arrive at a similar concept to ethnos. Finally, the author compares the meaning of these compounds to that of Old Turkic bodun - 'people', and el - 'realm'.

Keywords: compounding, historical semantics, ethnos, Chinggis-name

For citation: Danka B. The Terminology Denoting Political Organisation and Common Descent in the Daftar-i Cingiz-nama. Zolotoordynskoe obozrenie=Golden Horde Review. 2017. Vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 801-810. DOI: 10.22378/2313-6197.2017-5-4.801-810

"The historical identity of Turkic-speaking groups" is the working title of a broader project of which the initial steps are being made at the Szeged University, by the Turkological Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and the University of Szeged.

As a narrower field of research within this project, the author chose to assemble a terminological list which was used to characterise ethnic identity in Turkic historical texts, based on the general criteria defined by Andras Rona-Tas [5, p. 515], on a selected corpus of texts. According to Rona-Tas, the required characteristics of the ethnos are the following: Ethnos is a historically evolved group of people which has a) common semiotic system, b) self-distinction from other groups, c) permanent self-designation. There are formative elements, which are important, but not necessary characteristics of ethnos. These are: d) consciousness of common descent, e) common land, f) common political organisation, and g) common religion. In the present paper, I will examine the terminology of three formative elements d), and e), with a short detour on f), in the Daftar-i Cingiz-nama [3], which

© Danka B., 2017

is an important literary source written in the 1680's by an unknown author. The reason of the choice is that it contains rich information about the folklore concerning identity of the historical Turkic-speaking groups of the former Golden Horde (13th—16th centuries), probably based on oral tradition. As a working hypothesis, I assumed that the intuitive translations given in the Dictionary (Wörterbuch) part of [3, p. 97-203] are correct. As the lexicon of the Däftär-i Cingiz-namä is translated to German, I must have found an English equivalent for the German translations.

In the selected corpus, we find enough terminological material which denote a group of people, which is the basic requirement for the definition of the concept ethnos. These are the following: (T)1 awi'l, 'Aul village', (T+M) el kün 'friendly people', (M) ulus 'people', (A) halq 'people, humanity', (A) halayiq 'creatures, people', (A) qawim 'people, stem'. I symbolized the concept a group of people with a triangle, which represent hierarchically more or less organized society. We see that almost all the words have a meaning 'people'.

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Figure 1. A group of people

There is also a list of words which express a concept which is related to descent: (T) tohum, 'seed, progeny', (T) tub 'foundation, base, root, origin', (T) urug/ruw2 '(seed), lineage, progeny, clan', (T) tamur 'root, clan', (T) tos tol 'the masculine seed', (M) duyin 'offspring, dregs, seed', (A) asil 'root, lineage, valuable, genuine, noble', (A) nasi 'origin, progeny, seed, lineage'. All the words are given with at least one of the following meanings by [3]: 'seed, progeny, root, origin, clan'. I gave the symbol for the concept descent of a root branching off

Figure 2. Common descent

1 The capital letter in parenthesis before each given data refers to the origin of the word, see the abbreviations.

2 This word occurs in two forms in the text and the glossary: urug [3, p. 122] and ruw [3, p. 176]. The meaning 'seed' is given only at the entry of the latter, which is the reason I put it in parenthesis. The Old Turkic etymon of the word is urug 'seed, pip, kernel' with the metaphorical meaning 'progeny, descendants, clan' [2, p. 214].

I found only two words which are related to political organisation, (T) el/il 'people, (land), (state)' and (T) hanlïq 'authority or power of the khan'. The first two meanings of el/il occur at a terminological list of different concepts, namely descent (see above) and land (see below). The symbol I gave for political organisation is supposed to represent a ruler above a group of people

^^^^^ Figure 3. Political organisation

There is also a list for the concept 'land or territory'. The list consists of the following members (T) orun, 'place, throne' (T)yurt 'land, homeland', (A) maqâm 'place, land' and (A) sahar 'town, land'. All the members of the list have a meaning 'place' or 'land'. The concept land is symbolized by a laid down hexagon.

Figure 4. Common land

We saw that the individual members of terminological list have overlapping meanings. In the case of el, we saw that it is given a meaning which is found in other lists. We must ask the following: can be the members of the lists used synonymously? If not, what concept do they really denote?

What I am going to present here is a linguistic approach which I recommend using during the translation of historical sources to define a word's or expression's meaning. Many members of the lists occur in combination with another member of the same or a different list, constituting a so-called coordinate compound. I must mention that neither sufficient linguistic research has been made so far on the process compounding in the Turkological literature nor sufficient consideration of compounds were taken during the translations and editions of Turkic historical sources. Generally, in Turkic, coordinate compounds possess the following mor-pho-syntactic structure: A coordinate compound consists of two (or more) juxtaposed nouns: N(oun)1 and N2. For example, Turkish anne 'mother' and baba 'father'. The meaning of the compound anne baba is neither 'mother' or 'father', but the union of them, i.e. 'parents'. Either the second or both elements of the compound may take inflectional suffixes, such as anne-0 baba-si. 'his/her parents' and anne-m baba-m 'my parents' (it is not allowed that the first element takes suffix,

3 See the note on urug/ruw. The meanings 'land, state' are given only at the entry el [3, p. 109]. The Old Turkic correspondent of the word is el: 'a political unit organized and ruled by an independent ruler' [2, p. 121].

4 A. Bisetto and S Scalise [1] gives a concise summary about a possible classification and problems of existing classifications of compounds.

but the second doesn't). Such compound structures have several types on which I will talk below. The elements of a compound help to define each other's meaning. Provided that the members of the above lists occur in coordinate compounds, we must ask an additional question: What concept do these compounds grasp, or in other words, how do they grasp the concept of 'a group of people', 'common descent', 'political organisation' or 'common land'?

The first problem we must overcome with this approach is that the morpho-syntactic structure of a coordinate compound may be identical with the structure of two independent inflected or uninflected nouns which appear in an enumeration, and which do not constitute a compound. The general formula of a coordinate compound in Turkic is the following: [Ni(infl.) + N2](infl.) This means that two different nouns (N1 and N2) constitute a compound which is a new lexeme (they are bracketed together), and both, only the second, or none of the elements may be inflected (see the example above). The formula for two independent nouns which are enumerated after each other can be described as [N1(infl.)] + [N2(infl.)]. This means that there are two different nouns again, which do not constitute a compound (they are bracketed separately). Both or none of the elements may be inflected. For example, Turkish araba 'car' and gocuk 'child' means 'car and child' and araba-m gocugu-m will mean 'my car and my child' but they do not constitute a new lexeme. This means that structurally a coordinate compound may look identical with two enumerated inflected or uninflected nouns (note the differences between the bracketing). Keeping forward that different Turkic languages may behave differently in this respect, let's see the possibilities one by one, demonstrated on the above-mentioned Turkish examples.

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[N1(infl.)+N2](infl.)

vs.

[N1(infl.)+N2](infl.)

1. [N1+N2] vs.

anne baba vs.

'mother+father'='parents' vs.

2. [Niinfl.+N2]infl.

anne-m baba-m 'my parents'

3. [Ni+N2]infl.

anne baba-si 'his/her parents'

vs. vs. vs.

vs. vs. vs.

[Ni] + [N2] araba gocuk 'car and child'

[Ni]infl.+[N2]infl.

araba-m gocug-um 'my car and my child'

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* araba gocug-u *car's child

In the right column of the third possibility, the expression cannot be a coordinate compound (if at all, it will be a subordinate compound, which is a different type and does not concern us here). Thus, if there are two juxtaposed nouns and only the second one if inflected, we have a morpho-syntactic criterion which assures that compound-suspicious structure is really a coordinate compound. Also, if both nouns are inflected or uninflected, but they are subordinated to a single syntactic element, such as a postposition or a verb, we can expect again that the two nouns constitute a compound. Now let us turn to the data found in the Daftar-i

Cingiz-nama. The expressions given below at least one element of the following lists, compounds or not. Surely compounds: [ruw halq]'imiz (18v15)5 [ruw il]ing (20r7) [el ulus]i (27v3) [[el kun] sahar]lar (31r3) [tos tol] bolub (8r7, 11r13) [ruw]i [tamur]i birla (37v10, 37v15) [maqam] [yurt] tut- (8 times) [yurt] [sahar] sal- (36v19)

are those constructions which contain yet we must decide whether they are

Possibly compounds:

[ruw halq] (18v3) [asl]i [tub]i (5r18, 7r16, 30r13) [tub]in [asl]in (9v2) [nasl]i [laskar]i (22v10) [han]ni [halq]ni (40v2) [el]larini [manasir]larini (48r20) [bala]sin [ulus]in (45v16) [orun] [maqam] (22v14) [nasl]inda [ruw]inda (30r14) [tohum]i [nasl]i [ruw]i (22r7)

The meanings of these constructions will be dealt with below. In the right column, we find compounds which has a sure morpho-syntactic criterion, the element assuring it is highlighted with bold. In the left column, we find expression which may be compounds, but we cannot tell if for sure, because of their syntactic structure. Consider for example ruw halq it occurs with only halq inflected, and without any inflectional suffixes. Probably we can consider the uninflected instance also as a compound. Some words which were listed in the above lists do not appear in such a combination (awil, duyin, and hanliq). Further on, I will deal only with the combinations given here.

Now let us see what is the semantic typology of two coordinated nouns. If they constitute a compound, depending on the relation of the components, the meaning of the compound can be the cross-section or the union of the meanings of the components (see Fig.5). If the components individually possess already a similar meaning, we encounter the first case. If the components have different meanings, the meaning of the compound will be the union of them, and the compound will grasp a new concept. Or, if the components do not constitute a compound, we will have two disjunctive meaning with the relation 'and' between them.

1. 2. OD

vs.

Figure 5. Semantic structures of coordinate nominal compounds vs. non-compounds

5 References in the parenthesis show number of the folio and line of the manuscript as they are given in the transcription (Transkription) part of [3, p. 31-93], where the letter r stands for recto (front page), and v stands for verso (back page) of a folio.

Let us see these cases on our list one by one. There is a set of compounds or possibly compounds which do or do not have the morpho-syntactic criterion (highlighted with bold).

[asl]i [tüb]i (5r18, 7r16, 30r13) (A+T)

[tüb]in [asl]in (9v2) (t+a)

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[[tohum]i [näsl]i [ruw]]i (22r7) (T+(A+T))

[näsl]indä [ruw]inda (30r14) (A+T)

[ruw]i [tamur]i birlä (37v10, 37v15) (T+T)

Both the components of the above constructions have the meaning which is connected to the concept 'descent' (Fig. 6). The components are words of different origin. If they are compounds, they still express the same concept, and both the compounds and its components can practically be considered synonymous. They were probably used in the contemporary language by an elaborate style.

Figure 6. Coordinate compounds denoting common descent

The same can be said about the words and compounds meaning connected with the concept 'land' (Fig.7). There are compounds among them with morpho-syntactic criterion, but not necessarily.

[mäqam] [yurt] tut- (8 times) [sähär]lär [yurt]lar al- (27v9) [yurt] [sähär] sal- (36v19) [orun] [mäqam] (22v14)

(A+T) (A+T) (T+A) (A+T)

Figure 7. Coordinate compounds denoting common land

The case is somewhat different if we consider the example el ulus:

[el ulus]i el 'people, (land), (state)' + ulus 'people' (T+M) jingiz han [...] taqi ekinci ogli jadayni el ulus'i anda bolur teb tüman dürlü halq anda bolur ulugyurtdur teb Hindustan orda-singa hanliqga qoydi [3, p. 62]

Chinggis Khan [...] said: 'his (i.e. Chagatay's) people/state (?) is there6, various people are there, it is a great country' and made his second son, Chagatay khan in the Horde of Hindustan.

In the glossary, both are given with the meaning 'people' [3, p. 109, 121], but we know that both words had a meaning referring to a political organisation in earlier sources [2, p. 121, 152]. The context allows both the readings 'people' and 'state'. As 'people' are mentioned also in the sentence, I would prefer the meaning 'state' in which case the compound would be used as an expression for political organisation.

N] N2 N1 N2

Figure 8. The semantic structure of el ulus: A compound denoting political organisation

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There is a set of word-pairs which do not possess a morpho-syntactic criterion. As the individual components seem to have completely disjunctive meaning, I consider them as different words with the relation 'and' between them.

[eljlarini [manasirjlarini (48r20) 'people and cloisters' (T+A) [balajsin [ulusjin (45v16) 'his son and people' (T+M) [naslji [laskarji (22v10) 'his progeny and army' (A+P) [hanjni [halqjni (40v2) 'ruler and (his) people' (T+A)

N1 N2

Figure 9. Two different words with disjunctive meaning

To the most interesting group belong those compounds which possess a sure morpho-syntactic criterion, yet their components designate different concepts. The data are the following:

6 English translation by me, based on the Hungarian translation of the text, which is recently published by M. Ivanics, where the translation of the sentence in question is "Dzsingisz kan igy szölt: [...] 'Sok nemzetseg, tömenytelen, különfele nep el ott, nagy orszag' - mondta, s azzal masodik fiat, Csagatajt, Hindusztan Hordajaban kanna tette" [4, p. 234]. I think the translation of the part el ulus'i anda bolur 'sok nemzetseg [.] el ott' 'many clans live there' is problematic (personal communication), and ultimately not entirely correct. My interpretation is that el ulus is a coordinate compound, where both the components mean 'state, country' with a first person singular possessive suffix on the second component (morpho-syntactic criterion). The possessive suffix refers to the possessor Chagatay.

1. [ruw halq] (18v3) 'progeny and people' (T+A) 1. [ruw halq]imiz (18v15) 'progeny and people' (T+A)

1. [ruw il]ing (20r7) 'progeny and people' (T+T)

2. [[el kun] sahar]lar (31r3) 'people (belonging to a) land' ((T+M)+A)

On Figure 10, I illustrated the concept grasped by the above expression with the combinations of the 'basic' concepts discussed above.

Ni N2 Ni + N2 N1 + N2

The compounds which belong to the first group are a group of people which possess a common descent. Note that el is among the components, here with the meaning a group of people. This is the expression among our data which grasps a concept which is closest to an ethnos. Based on its components, el kun sahar may mean sedentary people in opposition of nomadic, however, the context does not tell us much about such an opposition.

With this in hand, let us see whether these described concepts correspond to those denoted by bodun and el in the Old Turkic runic inscriptions. The concepts grasped by the term bodun (based on [6] cf. also [2, p. 306] are the following:

Bodun: (primarily) Bodun: (secondarily)

Community with common progeny Subjects of the ruler

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Political community Common people

Tradition community Auxiliary people

Among the primary meanings of bodun, we find 'community with common progeny', which was denoted by ruw halq and ruw il. Another meaning of bodun is 'political community', which may have been denoted by el ulus as we saw above. The secondary meanings of bodun mostly grasp some parts of the whole of the primary meanings.

Figure 10. Coordinate compounds grasping a different meaning from that of their components

Primary

Secondary

Figure 11. The primary and secondary meanings of Old Turkic bodun

El on the other hand, originally meant the political power over one or more tribes or tribal confederations. We did not see such a concept among our data, but el ulus grasped something similar, may be not so complex political organisation. The symbol used here is a combination of political organization over several distinct group of peoples.

As a conclusion, we can draw the following: the concepts originally denoted by bodun and el are designated by new, different expressions from bodun and el. For bodun, these are ruw halq, ruw il, 'people with common descent' and el ulus 'political organisation'. For el, we find one correspondent which, however, does not really cover the original meaning of el: el ulus. The original concept of el seems to be changed. The meaning of the word became vague, but the word itself is present in the language. The word bodun is also present in the language in the form boyun, moyun [3, p. 135, 172]. At the 17th century, it lost its meaning 'people (with a common descent)', started from its original meaning its stem bod 'stature, size' [2, p. 296] it changed to 'neck'.

Abbreviations:

A - Arabic N - Noun

Infl. - Inflectional suffix P - Persian

M - Mongolian T - Turkic

1. Bisetto A., Scalise S. The Classification of Compounds. 2005. Available at: http://www.morbocomp.sslmit.unibo.it/download/classification_of_compounds.pdf (last access: 15.04.2017)

2. Clauson Sir G. An Etymological Dictionary of Pre-Thirteenth Century Turkish. Oxford, The Clarendon Press, 1972. 989 p.

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3. Ivanics M., Usmanov M.A. Das Buch der Dschingis-Legende (Däftär-i Cingiz-namä) Vol. I. Szeged, Department of Altaic Studies, University of Szeged, 2002. 324 p. (In German)

4. Ivanics M. Hatalomgyakorläs a steppen - A Dzsingisz-name nomäd viläga [Wielding Power on the Steppe - The Nomadic World of the Chinggis-name]. Budapest, MTA Bölcseszettudomanyi Kutatoközpont, Törtenettudomanyi Intezet, 2017. 336 p. (In Hungarian)

5. Rona-Tas A. Hungarians and Europe in the Early Middle Ages. Budapest, Central European University Press, 1999. 566 p.

6. Zimonyi I. Bodun und El im Frühmittelalter. Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae. 2003, No. 56/1, pp. 57-79. (In German)

Figure 12. The original meaning of Old Turkic el

REFERENCES

About the author: Balazs Danka - PhD, Research Fellow, Turkological Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and University of Szeged (Department of Altaic Studies, University of Szeged, 6726 Szeged, Hungary, Egyetem u. 2). E-mail: dankab.szte@gmail.com

Received July 13, 2017 Accepted for publication November 25, 2017

Published December 29, 2017

ТЕРМИНОЛОГИЯ, ОБОЗНАЧАЮЩАЯ ПОЛИТИЧЕСКУЮ ОРГАНИЗАЦИЮ И ОБЩЕЕ ПРОИСХОЖДЕНИЕ В «ДЕФТЕР-И ЧИНГИЗ-НАМЕ»

Балаш Данка

Тюркологическая исследовательская группа Академии наук Венгрии и университета Сегеда Сегед, Венгрия dankab.szte@gmail. com

Цель и материалы исследования: в статье рассматриваются избранные перечни терминов, определяющие некоторые особенности (общее происхождение и политическая организация) этнической идентичности в «Дефтер-и Чингиз-наме». Эти слова часто встречаются в координированных сложносоставных словах в этом тексте. Сложносоставность недостаточно изучена в тюркской лингвистике, не говоря уже о филологических исследованиях тюркских исторических текстов. Автор определяет проблему идентификации подобных сложносоставных слов в тексте и предлагает морфо-синтаксический критерий, который может быть использован в качестве инструмента идентификации.

Новизна и результаты исследования: основываясь на семантическом отношении между компонентами сложносоставного слова, автор выделяет два типа:

1. Те сложносоставные слова, значения компонентов которых являются идентичными: они, вероятно, использовались в сложной речи.

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2. Те сложносоставные слова, значения компонентов которых не являются идентичными: в них улавливается новое понятие, отличающееся от значений компонентов.

Здесь было идентифицировано три подобных сложносоставных слова, в которые в большей или меньшей степени улавливается понятие, аналогичное этносу. Наконец, автор сравнивает значение этих сложносоставных слов с древнетюркскими «бодун» (народ) и «эль» (держава).

Ключевые слова: сложносоставность, историческая семантика, этнос, Чингиз-наме

Для цитирования: Danka B. The Terminology Denoting Political Organisation and Common Descent in the Daftar-i Cingiz-nama // Золотоордынское обозрение. 2017. Т. 5, № 4. С. 801-810. DOI: 10.22378/2313-6197.2017-5-4.801-810

Сведения об авторе: Балаш Данка - PhD, научный сотрудник, тюркологическая исследовательская группа Академии наук Венгрии и университета Сегеда (6726, Egyetem u. 2, отделение алтаистики, университет Сегеда, Сегед, Венгрия). E-mail: dankab.szte@gmail.com

Поступила 13.07.2017 Принята к публикации 25.11.2017

Опубликована 29.12.2017