Научная статья на тему 'The specificity of the sociological approach to the analysis of professional identity of civil servants'

The specificity of the sociological approach to the analysis of professional identity of civil servants Текст научной статьи по специальности «Науки об образовании»

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Ключевые слова
civil servants / professional identity / professionalism / motivation and competence / державні службовці / професійна ідентичність / професіо- налізм / мотивація / компетенція

Аннотация научной статьи по наукам об образовании, автор научной работы — Diegtiar Oleg Andreevych, Nepomniashchyi Oleksandr Mykhailovych

The article investigates the specificity of sociological approach to the analysis of professional identity of civil servants. Defines the role of continuous education in the professional identity of public servants and the main indications of their competence.

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СПЕЦИФІКА СОЦІОЛОГІЧНОГО ПІДХОДУ ДО АНАЛІЗУ ПРОФЕСІЙНОЇ ІДЕНТИЧНОСТІ ДЕРЖАВНИХ СЛУЖБОВЦІВ

Досліджено специфіку соціологічного підходу до аналізу професійної ідентичності державних службовців. З’ясовано роль безперервної освіти у професійній ідентичності державних службовців та визначено головні ознаки їх компетенції.

Текст научной работы на тему «The specificity of the sociological approach to the analysis of professional identity of civil servants»

UDC: 364.2

Diegtiar Oleg Andreevych,

Doctor of Science in Public Administration, associate professor of the Department of Management and Administration, O.M.Beketov National University of Urban Economy in Kharkiv, Ukraine, 61002, Kharkiv, 17, Str. Marshal Bazhanov, tel.: (095) 772 19 57, e-mail: ODegtyar@i.ua

ORCID: 0000-0002-2051-3298

Дегтяр Олег Андршович,

доктор наук з державного управлтня, доцент кафедри менеджменту та ад-мтгстрування, Харк1вський национальный ун1верситет м1ського господарства ím. О. М. Бекетова, Украгна, 61002, м. Харкв, вул. Маршала Бажанова, 17, тел.: (095) 772 19 57, e-mail: ODegtyar@i.ua ORCID: 0000-0002-2051-3298

Дегтяр Олег Андреевич,

доктор наук по государственному управлению, доцент кафедры менеджмента и администрирования, Харьковский национальный университет городского хозяйства им. А. Н. Бекетова, Украина, 61002, г. Харьков, ул. Маршала Бажанова, 17, тел.: (095) 772 19 57, e-mail: ODegtyar@i.ua ORCID: 0000-0002-2051-3298

Nepomniashchyi Oleksandr Mykhailovych,

Doctor of science in Public Administration, Academician of Academy of building of Ukraine, Professor of the Department of Public Administration, Interregional Academy of Personnel Management, 03039, Kyiv, Str. Frometovskaya, 2, tel.: (044) 490 95 00, e-mail: n_a_m@ukr.net

ORCID: 0000-0002-5766-3150

Непомнящий Олександр Михайлович,

доктор наук з державного управлтня, академж Академи буЫвництва Украгни, профе-сор кафедри публгчного адм1н1стрування, М1жрег1ональна Академы управлтня персоналом, 03039, м. Кигв, вул. Фромет1вська, 2, тел.: (044) 490 95 00, e-mail: n_a_m@ukr.net

ORCID: 0000-0002-5766-3150

Непомнящий Александр Михайлович,

доктор наук по государственному управлению, академик Академии строительства Украины, профессор кафедры публичного администрирования, Межрегиональная Акаде-

мия управления персоналом, 03039, г. Киев, ул. Фрометовская, 2, тел.: (044) 490 95 00, e-mail: n_a_m@ukr.net

ORCID: 0000-0002-5766-3150

THE SPECIFICITY OF THE SOCIOLOGICAL APPROACH TO THE ANALYSIS OF PROFESSIONAL IDENTITY OF CIVIL SERVANTS

Abstract. The article investigates the specificity of sociological approach to the analysis of professional identity of civil servants. Defines the role of continuous education in the professional identity of public servants and the main indications of their competence.

Keywords: civil servants, professional identity, professionalism, motivation and competence.

СПЕЦИФ1КА СОЩОЛОПЧНОГО П1ДХОДУ ДО АНАЛ1ЗУ

ПРОФЕСШНО! 1ДЕНТИЧНОСТ1 ДЕРЖАВНИХ СЛУЖБОВЦ1В

Анотащя. Дослвджено специфшу сощолопчного тдходу до аналiзу про-фесшно!' щентичносл державних службовщв. З'ясовано роль безперервно!' освли у професшнш щентичносл державних службовщв та визначено головы ознаки ïx компетенци.

Ключовi слова: державш службовцi, професiйна iдентичнiсть, професю-налiзм, мотивацiя, компетенцiя.

СПЕЦИФИКА СОЦИОЛОГИЧЕСКОГО ПОДХОДА К АНАЛИЗУ ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОЙ ИДЕНТИЧНОСТИ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫХ

СЛУЖАЩИХ

Аннотация. Исследовано специфику социологического подхода к анализу профессиональной идентичности государственных служащих. Выяснена роль непрерывного образования в профессиональной идентичности государственных служащих и определены главные признаки их компетенции.

Ключевые слова: государственные служащие, профессиональная идентичность, профессионализм, мотивация, компетенция.

Target setting. To date, professional norms and values of civil servants are in a state of transformation, which entails the formation of conditions for chang-

ing the professional identity of actors. Awareness of the need to serve society requires a profound reorganization of the outlook and psychology of an offi-

cial. In the conditions of changing the model of social development, the formation of new economic, political and social relations, the public service makes a variety of requirements to the person of the civil servant and his professional development depending on the position occupied, the nature and content of the work performed by him.

The appointment of a civil service in a transforming modern society can be realized only if the civil servants accept the process of updating the professional identity, oriented on innovative ways of employees' activity. In this case, the result of professional identity should be a professional who has an innovative — thinking, capable of adequate and timely solution of complex tasks of social and innovative public administration. In this context, an appropriate reorientation of the content of continuing vocational education of civil servants, on the formation of the professional identity of civil servants of a modern, developed society is necessary.

Analysis of recent research and publications. The problems of the professional identity of civil servants, as well as various approaches to its analysis, are covered in the writings of many well-known Ukrainian and foreign scholars, in particular V. Arbenin [10], O. Bobrov [1], Zh. Virna [2], A. Gor-batiy [7], O. Gumenuk [3], G. Zinchen-ko [5], O. Ermolayeva [4], N. Lipovska [6], M. Malanchiy [6], A Mudrik [2], N. Nichta [7], N. Roslyakova [8], V. Sinyavskiy [9], L. Sokuryanska [11] and the others. Despite its significance and urgency, the problem of the professional identity of civil servants remains theoretically poorly developed. There are different approaches to analysing

the professional identity of civil servants, but to date, there is no definite categorical apparatus; there is no single classification of factors and indicators that affect this process.

The purpose of this article is to study the specifics of the sociological approach to the analysis of the professional identity of civil servants and to provide suggestions for improving this process.

The statement of basic materials.

Integrative indicator of the studied so-cio-professional group of civil servants is a professional identity — a sense of belonging to a socio-professional community.

The category "professional identity", represents an integrative indicator of the studied socio-professional group of civil servants. Professional identity is a kind of social identity, while possessing all its features and characteristics necessary for its formation. At the same time, many scientists associate a professional identity with forms of self-perception, "I am". At the heart of this point of view is the idea of individuality of the individual as a member of the community of people interacting in a single professional environment, possessing similar competencies [3, p. 147].

This kind of interpretation of professional identity is inherent in psychological, philosophical and sociological schools. Russian psychologist O. Bo-brova gives a definition of professional identity through the understanding of the subject of belonging to a certain historical time with the help of a profession [1, p. 21]. E. Erickson considers professional identity as a mechanism of socialization of the individual, calling it the last stage of professional

self-determination, which occurs in the period of formation and is expressed in the acceptance of a model of behaviour based on the diffractive choice of values [11, p. 14].

Professional identity as an integral part of personal identity is interpreted by modern foreign psychologists F. Mirvis, D. Houl, [12, p. 31]. In their view, professional identity contributes to the successful adaptation of the individual to the outside world, including the professional environment. Professional identity is a dominant factor in a successful career. The formation of identity is achievable subject to the following requirements: mastering professional competencies, achieving professional competence, having a healthy interest in work, balance with the outside environment, etc. The level of its formation determines the unique way of professional formation of the subject as a professional.

In the model of professional identity N. Lipovska, which is based on the principles of a systematic approach, also takes place the correlation of the concept under study with multidimensional complex formations, which has a systemic structure and consists of a communicative, cognitive and regulatory subsystem [6, p. 55].

Sociological theories of identity research, based on the psychological definitions of the phenomenon under study, such as personality traits, spheres of self-awareness, the concepts of professional "I am", etc., extend this concept on the basis of the application of socio-cultural characteristics (ideas, norms, values, stereotypes of group and personality behaviour, social roles and statuses) and argue that the formation of a

professional identity takes place in the process of influence of the surrounding society. So, according to J. Winslet, this process depends on the circumstances and conditions of interaction with members of the professional community, in other words, "the external is refracted through the internal" [13, p. 132].

The idea of forming a professional identity on the basis of the relationship between the psychological characteristics of the subject and the social environment finds continuation in the theoretical positions of N. Lipovska, which argues, that professional identity or some kind of personality as a subject of social relations is formed under the influence of dual reality [6, p. 55]. Equally important is the social status obtained by the individual in the case of his inclusion in a particular professional activity, as well as the individual-psychological nature of the individual (personality orientation). Thus, the influence of the acquired status determines the nature of the powers acquired in the process of inclusion in the profession occupied by the level of the service hierarchy, the prestige of the profession, and the essence of the individual determines the motives for inclusion in this professional field, expectations from the profession and the possibility of their achievement, values benchmarks, norms and standards professional action, satisfaction with work. Depending on the quality of ownership, these elements form a certain type of professional identity.

As a result of the study of J. Virna, devoted to the social and professional identity of municipal servants, the following characteristics of the phenome-

non studied are the professional status, professional values, professional and personal qualities, the assessment of the content of work, self-identification, socio-professional status and prestige, socio-demographic features [2, p. 210].

The professional identity according to V. Sinyavsky, represents the cognitive-emotional and active unity of the members of the labour group. Professional identity is formed not only on the basis of analogy with the professional sphere in which the group is occupied, but also on the proximity of organizational goals realized by each member of this community, their value orientations, norms of professional behaviour, expressed in the domination of a certain collective role atmosphere [9, p. 71].

There are a number of researchers who adhere to the idea that a professional identity is formed only with the absolute mastering of the profession. For example, E. Ermolaeva believes that the content of professional identity is the consistent harmonization of the basic elements of the professional process [4, p. 157]. In our opinion, it is not entirely correct to talk about professional identity solely in the context of full professional mastery. The development of knowledge, the adoption of norms and values, the awareness of oneself in a professional environment, the recognition of the society of the personality belonging to a particular professional community — a long process of phased professional identification, the result of which is the formation of professionalism. Standards, values, rules and traditions of a professional group act as a regulator of human behaviour in the process of professional identification. Thus, it should be emphasized that

in the process of identity formation, not only the level of human experience in the profession is important, but its internal awareness that it is a "civil servant", "teacher", "doctor", "police officer", etc.

Professional identity of civil servants is a multidimensional integrative socio-psychological phenomenon, capable of providing the subject of the studied socio-professional group the integrity, identity, unity and determinism. Professional identity can be transformed in the process of professional training based on the mechanisms of self-awareness, self-determination, in-dividualization, self-organization and provided by reflection. Professional identity is the process of integration of different types of identity of professional reality, with the main role played by personal and social identity [11, p. 141].

The evolution of the professional identity of civil servants is a continuous process. The development of professional identity contributes to the growth of professionalism, in the formation of which a special place takes the process of updating existing knowledge and obtaining new ones. Thus, continuous education plays a huge role in the process of forming the professional identity of civil servants.

The study of the practice of continuous education of civil servants and the prospects for its development is based on the methodological principles of a competent approach in education characterized by the transition from an educational paradigm based on the transfer of knowledge to creating conditions for the formation of the totality of competencies necessary for professional development.

The peculiarities of the professional competencies of civil servants are explained by the specifics of public administration, with its inherent high level of responsibility for the management decisions made on the scale of the state, their social significance. The main features of the civil servant's competencies are personal and professional skills, abilities and knowledge in various spheres: from general legal competence to the knowledge of the specialized field of activity, value systems and orientation.

The reflection of the essential meaning of the civil service as a professional activity is the principle of professionalism. Definition of professionalism in the context of civil service is provided by Zh. Virna — the highest level of psycho-physiological, psychic and personality changes that occur in the process of long-term human performance of official duties, providing a qualitatively new, more effective level of solving complex professional problems in special conditions [2, p. 101].

The most important feature of professionalism is the socio-professional identity, which is the complete identification of a person with a professional community, the adoption of its value-role guidelines and rules of conduct, development and transfer of knowledge, skills and abilities in the chosen social environment.

In order to develop the professionalism of a civil servant, a continuous qualitative updating of his knowledge, skills and abilities (i.e, professional competences), which is intended to provide continuous vocational education [6, p. 54].

The essence of continuous education is the permanent process of human

development throughout its active life. The basis of the continuity of education is the continuous development of knowledge, skills and abilities of the individual, giving each person the opportunity to build an individual program of education [10, p. 21]. The system of continuous education represents an integrated structure of means, ways, methods of development of personality, activity, professional competences of a civil servant in a network of educational institutions and in the process of self-education.

Based on opinion of N. Roslyakova [8], we believe that the continuing vocational education of civil servants is an organizational learning process based on the principles of systematicity, integrity, which accompanies all professional activities of employees, enabling everyone to find, update and deepen the cognitive component of professional identity, invaluable for qualitative realization of the assigned powers and responsibilities. In this case, the economic entity is given the right to choose one or another educational trajectory, which helps to meet its needs for development, including reflects the educational needs of today's society and guarantees the uniform development of socio-professional identity. In this formulation of continuous education, its essence is revealed as a mechanism for the professional identification of civil servants.

The current stage of development of society is characterized by a change in the professional identity of civil servants. This fact is due to the condition, that civil servants must meet the new requirements of the modern society, to perform the regulatory function, using

innovative methods of management in their activities. To carry out their professional activity at a new level, civil servants should continuously improve their professionalism by including in the process of continuous professional education. The application of the received knowledge in practice contributes to the formation of a positive professional identity of civil servants.

Positive professional identity is characterized by subordination of the individual's life to a common good, and, ultimately, contributes to the development of social processes. Thus, the positive professional identity of the civil servant will be achieved in the case of assimilation and realization of the basic social value of the profession of a civil servant — service to the population in the interests of social development [7, p. 266].

The negative professional identity of civil servants, in contrast to the positive, has negative consequences for society. In the first place, this type of identity is characterized by professional deformation and anomaly.

The study of professional anomalies deals with the work of G. Zinchenko [5], which defines them as dysfunction and deviation of behaviour in the civil service. The researcher identifies such anomalies in the civil service: focus on material well-being (thirst for profit), irresponsible attitude to own professional work, disunity of professional actions and needs of the population, corruption, discretion of administrative-legal norms, duplication of functions and, as a consequence, insulting staffing, bureaucracy, etc.

Classifications of professional anomalies are also devoted to the work of

N. Nichta, A. Gorbatiy, which characterizes them in groups depending on the level of social interactions in the civil service. On this basis, they determine the following types of anomalies characteristic of the civil service of Ukraine today:

• metasystem anomalies — deviations found in the process of relations between civil servants and civil society, resulting in a low level of social self-organization;

• systemic anomalies that manifest themselves in the mixing of the purposes of the civil service, in the division of the structure and functions of the service, in the disagreement of the models of subordination and coordination of structural elements of the civil service system, in social violations, etc.;

• Local, or in other words, behavioural abnormalities are based on deviations in the behaviour of the employee and their small informal groups from the norms and rules permissible in official activities [7, p. 266].

Signs of this kind are social indifference, conservatism, formalism, procrastination, low zeal, conformism or conflict, abuse of office in personal selfish ends, betrayal of service interests, etc.

The mentioned types of professional anomalies are interdependent, which is explained by the fact that the consequences of local anomalies lead to general disturbance in social and managerial relations, and, in turn, the consequences of metasystem anomalies lead to dysfunction of the civil service and deviant behaviour of state civil servants.

Thus, anomalies and deformations of the civil service lead to the formation of a negative professional identity of an

official who loses the main purpose of professional activity-service to society.

As part of our study, the professional identity of civil servants is understood as a complex combination of identification processes, the main of which are: self-identification of a person as a civil servant, identification with a professional group, as well as the process of external identification of a civil servant by the public, expressed in public opinion.

Social-professional identity includes external and internal components. Internal identity (self-identification) is the result of an employee's awareness of belonging to his social-professional group, self-identification with it, the adoption of norms and rules of corporate culture and the desire (reluctance) of them to follow. Also, the internal social-professional identity should include the idea of a civil servant on how his socio-professional group is perceived by the population and what status it occupies in the socio-profes-sional social structure. The external social-professional identity reflects the public opinion about the profession and its carriers and is based not only on the objective characteristics of the social-professional group of civil servants (number, gender-age, educational and qualification structure, income, etc.), but also on their sub- various assessments from different groups of the population.

The external and internal components of the socio-professional identity are interconnected and affect each other, identifying the contradictions of this process.

For a more detailed consideration of the professional identity of civil ser-

vants, it is necessary to analyse the factors of its formation. The factor in the formation of professional identity, in our opinion, is the dynamic force of this process, which promotes the creation of the necessary mental relations and an associative line in the direction "I am a profession" [3, p. 131], by inducing and influencing certain aspects of this perception.

Among the objective factors of the formation of professional identity, which can not be publicly influenced by a public servant, one can distinguish the following: the situation in society and the state as a whole; civil service system as a regulated institution; peculiarities of corporate culture in the professional environment; income level; socio-demographic features of the country and the region, etc. Objective factors of professional identity can be defined as the sphere of professional environment, the activity in which the employee is embedded in the process of identification.

Subjective factors of formation of professional identity of civil servants are characterized as personal perception of professional activity by an employee, internal affection to this professional environment. Subjective factors include: professional qualities of the personality of employees, normative-value orientations, satisfaction with labour activity, prestige, etc.

The social-professional identity of civil servants is the identification of an individual with a socio-professional group of civil servants and the civil service as a whole as a professional activity of this group.

The conducted analysis of the professional identity of civil servants al-

lows the author to distinguish in its structure the following main components:

• cognitive — professional knowledge and knowledge of the profession. The basis of this component is the available professional knowledge of the activities of civil servants, knowledge of the profession of employee, the image of a civil servant, his social status and role in society, the idea of career and labour;

• value-emotional — the presence of a positive or negative attitude to the fact of professional affiliation; the presence or absence of a human meaning of the above elements of the cognitive component, their significance and inclusion in the system of personal values. The most important component of the component is a feeling of pride or shame for their profession, a sense of commitment to a professional community, recognition of its significant value, awareness of the prestige of their profession.

The first two components are inherent in both internal and external socio-professional identity. Self-identification (internal social-professional identity) additionally includes the motivational-behavioural component — the motivation to work, is closely related to the satisfaction of the process and the results of labour. Positive professional identity of a civil servant is impossible without motivation of professional activity. Only satisfaction with its activities and, as a result, the achievement of the main goal of the civil service — service to the population, promotes social development, forms a positive professional identity of this social group. This component can be characterized as a resultant, which includes cognitive and value-emotional.

In our opinion, the most adequate understanding of the professional identity of civil servants as the result of cognitive, value, emotional, and motivational processes of awareness of belonging to their professional community, manifested in a certain type of identification behaviour of subjects of the professional group.

A significant feature of the professional identity of civil servants is its regional component. Responsibility for the development of the region permeates all of the above identity structure. The professional identity of civil servants is formed only if the employee has a wide knowledge of the region, its economic, socio-demographic, ethnic, and the others specificity, positive attitude to him, a sense of pride in the region and his commitment to him, the desire to develop and support it, and, finally, the realization of his professional activities for the benefit of the region.

Conclusions. The evolution of the professional identity of civil servants is a continuous process. The development of professional identity contributes to the growth of professionalism, in the formation of which a special place takes the process of updating existing knowledge and obtaining new ones. Thus, continuous education plays a huge role in the process of forming the professional identity of civil servants.

The peculiarities of the professional competencies of civil servants are explained by the specifics of public administration, with its inherent high level of responsibility for the management decisions made on the scale of the state, their social significance. The main features of the civil servant's competencies are personal and professional

skills, abilities and knowledge in various spheres: from general legal competence to the knowledge of the specialized field of activity, value systems and orientation.

The most important feature of professionalism is the socio-professional identity, which is the complete identification of a person with a professional community, the adoption of its value-role guidelines and rules of conduct, development and transfer of knowledge, skills and abilities in the chosen social environment. As part of our study, the professional identity of civil servants is understood as a complex combination of identification processes, the main of which are: self-identification of a person as a civil servant, identification with a professional group, as well as the process of external identification of a civil servant by the public, expressed in public opinion.

In our opinion, an important component of the structure of the professional identity of civil servants is the motivational-behavioural component. This component is a transition from representations and images to real actions, on the basis of which the assessment of civil servants is carried out both by the social-professional group (internal identity) and by the society (external identity).

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