Научная статья на тему 'The problem of phonetic and phonological mistakes in intercultural communication'

The problem of phonetic and phonological mistakes in intercultural communication Текст научной статьи по специальности «Языкознание и литературоведение»

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Ключевые слова
МЕЖКУЛЬТУРНАЯ КОММУНИКАЦИЯ / ФОНЕТИЧЕСКИЕ И ФОНОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ ОШИБКИ / ИНТЕРФЕРЕНЦИЯ / РОДНОЙ ЯЗЫК / ИНОСТРАННЫЙ ЯЗЫК / CROSS CULTURAL COMMUNICATION / PHONETIC AND PHONOLOGICAL MISTAKES / INTERFERENCE / NATIVE LANGUAGE / FOREIGN LANGUAGE

Аннотация научной статьи по языкознанию и литературоведению, автор научной работы — Voloshina T.G., Zuieva E.A., Nerubenko N.V., Melnik P.V.

The article deals with the peculiarities of phonetic and phonological mistakes based on the process of intercultural communication. The authors reveal the most common mistakes, analyze the reasons of making mistakes and conclude the interconnection of linguistic and cultural features of cross-cultural phonetic and phonological spheres of different countries.

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ПРОБЛЕМА ФОНЕТИЧЕСКИХ И ФОНОЛОГИЧЕСКИХ ОШИБОК В МЕЖКУЛЬТУРНОЙ КОММУНИКАЦИИ

В статье рассматриваются особенности фонетических и фонологических ошибок, возникающих в процессе межкультурной коммуникации. Авторы выявляют наиболее распространенные ошибки, анализируют причины их возникновения и делают вывод о взаимосвязи лингвокульутрологических особенностей родного языка и отражения такой специфики на фонетическом строе изучаемого языка.

Текст научной работы на тему «The problem of phonetic and phonological mistakes in intercultural communication»

_PHONETICS. PHONOLOGY (UDC 8134)_

DOI: https://doi.Org/10.18454/RULB.2020.21.1.2

ПРОБЛЕМА ФОНЕТИЧЕСКИХ И ФОНОЛОГИЧЕСКИХ ОШИБОК В МЕЖКУЛЬТУРНОЙ

КОММУНИКАЦИИ

Научная статья

Волошина Т.Г.1 *, Зуева Е.А.2, Нерубенко Н.В.3, Мельник П.В.4

1 2, 3 4 Белгородский государственный национальный исследовательский университет, Белгород, Россия

* Корреспондирующий автор (tatianavoloshina[at]rambler.ru)

Аннотация

В статье рассматриваются особенности фонетических и фонологических ошибок, возникающих в процессе межкультурной коммуникации. Авторы выявляют наиболее распространенные ошибки, анализируют причины их возникновения и делают вывод о взаимосвязи лингвокульутрологических особенностей родного языка и отражения такой специфики на фонетическом строе изучаемого языка.

Ключевые слова: межкультурная коммуникация, фонетические и фонологические ошибки, интерференция, родной язык, иностранный язык.

THE PROBLEM OF PHONETIC AND PHONOLOGICAL MISTAKES IN INTERCULTURAL

COMMUNICATION

Research article

Voloshina T.G.1 *, Zuieva E.A.2, Nerubenko N.V.3, Melnik P.V.4

1 2 3 4 Belgorod State University, Belgorod, Russia

* Corresponding author (tatianavoloshina[at]rambler.ru)

Abstract

The article deals with the peculiarities of phonetic and phonological mistakes based on the process of intercultural communication. The authors reveal the most common mistakes, analyze the reasons of making mistakes and conclude the interconnection of linguistic and cultural features of cross-cultural phonetic and phonological spheres of different countries.

Keywords: cross cultural communication, phonetic and phonological mistakes, interference, native language, foreign language.

Phonetic and phonological mistakes are the criteria that linguists, teachers of foreign languages and translators often pay attention to. These errors interfere with the perception of speech and come to misunderstanding. This is especially true for intercultural communication, when two languages collide and there is a need for high-quality translation, considering the intercultural specificity of a certain linguistic culture.

In our study, special attention is paid to the identification and analysis of phonetic and phonological mistakes in the process of intercultural communication and ways to overcome such mistakes.

In order to determine the impact of phonetic and phonological mistakes, it is necessary to consider their characteristics and determine the nature of their occurrence.

The most common and most general definition of Phonetics is given by the domestic researcher Skripnik Y. N., according to which Phonetics is the science of "the sound side of language, studying the ways of formation of speech sounds, their distinctive features, their change in the speech flow, their role in the functioning of language as a means of communication of people" [1].

Speaking of Phonology, we can note its functional relationship with Phonetics. Phonology is "a branch of linguistics that studies the structural and functional laws of the sound system" [2].

Nevertheless, it is necessary to indicate its difference with Phonetics, which is since Phonology studies phonemes, but not the phonemes and sounds as a physical given, but their functional definition and characteristics. In other words, Phonology considers the functions that sounds perform as part of words, syllables, etc.

Phonetics is usually considered as a more objective reality, which is a more objective concept and is transmitted in the form of auditory sensations, while it does not depend on the object to which speech is directed. Canadian linguist Henriette Gesundai defines Phonetics as a branch of language that studies the sounds of spoken words, which we call phonemes. [4] When considering a phoneme (the main phonological unit), the primary task is to consider its meaning-distinguishing function. Thus, the sounds that are the subject of Phonetics research have a large number of acoustic and articulatory characteristics. But for the phonologists, most of the signs are completely irrelevant, since they do not function as distinguishing features of words. The phonologists must consider only the fact that it is in the composition of sound that it performs a certain function in the system of language. Since sounds have the function of distinction and have significance, they should be considered as an organized system, which in the ordering of the structure can be compared with the grammatical system.

Phonetic mistakes include incorrect articulation of sounds such as insufficient closeness, openness of sound, vowel lengthening, which leads to a change in the meaning of the word, for example, in French, very often mistakes are made in the words: jaune - "yellow" and jeune — "young". In this example, the lack of closeness of the sound leads to a change in the meaning of the word. In turn, in Spanish, the lexeme caro — "dear" and cara — "face" due to incorrect articulation of the final vowel changes the meaning of the word.

Phonological mistakes include sound substitutions both within one sound system and between systems. Erroneous stress transfer in a word also refers to phonological mistakes. Thus, phonological mistakes can be sound and accent.

When teaching any foreign language, it is very important to understand the nature of phonetic and phonological mistakes, namely what psychological characteristics precede their appearance.

Phonetic mistakes show that there were some violations in the pronunciation of sounds, words, phrases. Among phonetic mistakes, the most productive type of making mistakes is mispronouncing a particular letter.

An important factor leading to the commission of phonetic mistakes in the process of communication, are recognize by many scientists as the specific accent of the communicant, arising as an unconscious transfer of pronouncing skills of native speech or is based on previous experience. The concept of accent absorbs various components, negative effects of accent can be observed both in grammar and in word formation.

The complex nature of sound units causes the emergence of contradictions accompanying the process of contacting different phonetic systems in the study of a foreign language, which undoubtedly provokes the appearance of phonetic mistakes in the speech of communicants.

At the present stage of development of linguistics, there are the following groups of factors that provoke phonetic mistakes in speech:

1) insufficient activity of thinking, i.e. the choice of the spoken construction occurs without considering the relevant rules or features of the designation by letters of the sounds entering this word. This case is observed when the speaker studied the rule of writing a particular word and the rule of reading it, but the relationship between the sound of the word and its letter designation is not automated and is necessarily controlled by consciousness;

2) the speaker thinks of the native language models. "When a Russian student makes a mistake in a foreign language "by analogy" with his native language, he does it for the most part not because he consciously creates an analogy with the Russian language or follows a language habit, but because he thinks in the system of the Russian language»;

3) the summing up of a linguistic phenomenon under a previously learned rule or its erroneous use with a previously learned rule. Sometimes these mistakes are explained by ignorance of the language meaning of the word or misunderstanding of the semantic content of the phrase. Most often these mistakes occur at the initial stage of training. Moreover, when reading, there is a mechanical substitution of an unfamiliar word for another word known to the student;

4) failure to apply language-specific rules;

5) reading excess letters, their omission or permutation. [3]

For interlingual communication, such type of mistakes as substitutions associated with the desire to simplify a difficult or incomprehensible word are also characteristic. It is important to stress, in this case it is possible to distort the meaning of the phrase. Mistakes such as substitution, in short, at this stage are very rare. Sometimes there are errors of omission and addition of a letter, which once again indicates the careful self-control of students for their own perception of the text. [3]

If we consider the phonological side, the following mistakes can be found in this area.

The first is stress transfer, they are very rare in this area in languages with fixed stress, such as French, in which the stress is always placed on the last syllable. However, when teaching Spanish and English, there are numerous mistakes associated with the location of the stress in the word. This type of mistakes occurs due to the characteristics of the characteristics of the Russian language and the foreign language being studied. For example, in the English word "economy "the stress falls on the second syllable, while in its Russian "economy" the third syllable is stressed. In the process of imposing Russian phonetics on English, mistakes occur. Often, such cases characterize those who learn several languages, in this case, the influence on one language being studied imposes another language being studied. For example, in the process of teaching several languages, the Spanish word permitir and the French permettre must be pronounced differently, which does not always happen in students.

Thus, phonetic and phonological mistakes are a consequence of many psychological processes and require clear and careful proofreading, otherwise they may later manifest themselves in oral or written communication. In order to better understand and identify how phonetic and phonological mistakes manifest themselves in intercultural communication, it is necessary to determine the characteristics of this type of communication and to analyze all manifestations of these mistakes on concrete examples.

If we talk about phonetic mistakes, they are presented: incorrect articulation of sounds, for example, insufficient closeness, openness of sound, vowel lengthening, which leads to a change in the meaning of the word. In this case, it is necessary to separate the General phonetics and the phonetics of a particular language. By general phonetics we mean the phonetic system of any language, in other words, those characteristics that are directly relevant to any language: that is, the component composition, the principles of perception of sounds, etc. The phonetics of a particular language is the phonetics that refers only to one language, has its own characteristics, as well as sounds: the principle of pronunciation of a number of sounds, the position of the speech organs in their pronunciation, the characteristic of syntagmatic separation, etc. [5]. Phonological mistakes include sound substitutions both within one sound system and between systems. Erroneous stress transfer in a word also refers to phonological mistakes.

The occurrence of phonetic and phonological mistakes is influenced by many factors. The reasons for the appearance of phonetic mistakes are rapid pronunciation, indistinctness of the pronunciation skill, insufficient activity of thinking, perception of information in the native language, the replacement of sound in favor of simplification.

If we consider the phonological sphere, then in this area you can find the following mistakes: changing the location of the stress in the word, the transfer of pronunciation from the native language to a foreign language, the transfer of pronunciation from one foreign language to another foreign language.

Конфликт интересов Conflict of Interest

Не указан. None declared.

Список литературы / References

1. Скрипник Я.Н. Фонетика современного русского языка / Я.Н. Скрипник, Т.М. Смоленская // - Ставрополь: СГПИ, 2010. - 152

2. Мартине А. Принцип экономии в фонетических изменениях (Проблемы диахронической фонологии) /А. Мартине // - М., 1960 - 263 с.

3. Проблема ошибочности устной и письменной речи [Электронный ресурс] / - URL: http://www.centraleducation.ru/centrops-508-6.html (дата обращения: 21.10.2019)

4. Henriette Gezundhajt La phonetique et la phonologie [Электронный ресурс] / - URL: http://www.linguistes.com/phonetique/phon.html (дата обращения: 21.10.2019)

5. Кедрова Г.Е. Фонетика как раздел лингвистики [Электронный ресурс] / Кедрова Г.Е., Омельянова Е. Б., Егоров А. Б. / - URL: http://fonetica.philol.msu.ru/nn/n1.htm (дата обращения: 21.10.2019)

Список литературы на английском / References in English

1. Skripnik Ya.N. Fonetika sovremennogo russkogo yazyka [Phonetics of the modern Russian language] / Ya.N. Skripnik, T.M. Smolenskaya// - Stavropol': SGPI, 2010. - P. 152 [in Russian]

2. Martine A. Princip ekonomii v foneticheskih izmeneniyah (Problemy diahronicheskoj fonologii) [The principle of economy in phonetic changes (Problems of diachronic phonology)] /A. Martine // - M., 1960. - P. 263 [in Russian]

3. Problema oshibochnosti ustnoj i pis'mennoj rechi [The problem of the fallibility of spoken and written language] [Electronic resource] / - URL: http://www.centraleducation.ru/centrops-508-6.html (accessed: 21.10.2019) [in Russian]

4. Henriette Gezundhajt La phonetique et la phonologie [Electronic resource]/ - URL: http://www.linguistes.com/phonetique/phon.html (accessed: 21.10.2019) [in Russian]

5. Kedrova G.E. Fonetika kak razdel lingvistiki [Phonetics as a section of linguistics] [Electronic resource] / Kedrova G.E., Omel'yanova E. B., Egorov A. B. / - URL: http://fonetica.philol.msu.ru/nn/n1.htm (accessed: 21.10.2019) [in Russian]

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