Научная статья на тему 'The orchids of vietnam. Illustrated survey. Part 2. Subfamily Orchidoideae'

The orchids of vietnam. Illustrated survey. Part 2. Subfamily Orchidoideae Текст научной статьи по специальности «Биологические науки»

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ORCHIDACEAE / FLORA OF VIETNAM / KEYS FOR IDENTIFICATION

Аннотация научной статьи по биологическим наукам, автор научной работы — Averyanov Leonid V.

The article continues serial publication of illustrated critical taxonomical survey of orchids in the flora of Vietnam. This part of the monograph includes taxonomical treatment of type subfamily Orchidoideae with 12 genera and 66 species, as well as some novelties that represent additions to first part of monograph. Besides keys for identifications, valid name, necessary synonyms, type material citation, short description, data on ecology and distribution, as well as list of studied voucher specimens for each species are provided. Mentioned species are illustrated with line drawings and color photographs.

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Текст научной работы на тему «The orchids of vietnam. Illustrated survey. Part 2. Subfamily Orchidoideae»

УДК 582.594(597) L. Averyanov

Л.В. Аверьянов

THE ORCHIDS OF VIETNAM ILLUSTRATED SURVEY Part 2 SUBFAMILY ORCHIDOIDEAE

Summary. The article continues serial publication of illustrated critical taxonomical survey of orchids in the flora of Vietnam. This part of the monograph includes taxonomical treatment of type subfamily - Orchidoideae with 12 genera and 66 species, as well as some novelties that represent additions to first part of monograph. Besides keys for identifications, valid name, necessary synonyms, type material citation, short description, data on ecology and distribution, as well as list of studied voucher specimens for each species are provided. Mentioned species are illustrated with line drawings and color photographs.

Key words: Orchidaceae, flora of Vietnam, keys for identification.

Аннотация. Статья продолжает публикацию серийного издания иллюстрированного критического таксономического обзора орхидных (Orchidaceae) во флоре Вьетнама. Вторая часть монографии включает предисловие, стандартную таксономическую обработку подсемейства - Orchidoideae, включающего 12 род и 66 видов. Для всех признаваемых видов приводятся законное название, наиболее важные синонимы, цитирование аутентичного материала, краткое описание, данные по экологии и распространению, а также список изученных образцов. Все виды иллюстрированы черно-белыми рисунками и цветными фотографиями. Для 3 таксонов в работе приняты новые номенклатурные комбинации - Sect. Mecosa (Blume) Aver., Amitostigma bidupense (Aver.) Aver, и Habenaria dentata var. parageniculata (Tang et F.T. Wang) Aver., comb. nov. Два вида - Habenaria calcicola Aver, и Paphiopedilum canhii Aver, et O. Gruss, описаны в качестве новых для науки. Для вида Platan-thera singgalangensis (J.J. Smith) Efimov отобран лектотип (1 VI 1918, Bunnemeijer, N2871).

Ключевые слова: орхидные, флора Вьетнама, ключи определения.

PREFACE

The article continues serial publication of illustrated critical taxonomical survey of orchids in the flora of Vietnam (Averyanov, 2008). The second part of this monograph includes taxonomical treatment of type subfamily - Orchidoideae with 12 genera and 66 species, as well as some novelties that represent additions to first part of monograph. Illustrated survey is presented here in form of standard taxonomic treatment, which includes identification keys for all mentioned taxa and their short characterization. Correct name (with standard taxonomic reference), type, data about volume and distribution is reported for each taxonomic group. Data for each genus also include short description, total number of species and number of species in the flora of Vietnam (figures in brackets), as well as genus distribution.

Presented data for each species include:

- valid name, most significant synonyms and citation of most important recent monographs,

- all available data about type,

- short description,

- available data on ecology, elevation of observed habitats, phenology, frequency of occurrence in the nature with approximate estimation of species status according to IUCN categories for the territory of Vietnam,

- general distribution and distribution in Vietnam (in brackets are mentioned in alphabetical order provinces where species was reported from),

- list of studied verified specimens and index of their host herbaria,

- when necessary short notices on species taxonomy, biology, ecology, phenology or variation are also provided.

- line drawings or (and) color photographs accompany in the book each species reported for the flora; collecting numbers of plants used as a model for illustration are cited on drawings or in notices to photographs.

Text of labels is maximally abbreviated whenever being cited. It usually includes only province name, district name, collectors name and collector

<x*>o<x>c><x><x<><x>c><x>c><x><x<><x>c><x>c><x><x<><x>c><x>c><x><x<><x^

Ботанический институт им. B.J1. Комарова РАН, ул. Проф. Попова, 2; 197376, Санкт-Петербург, Россия, av_leonid@yahoo. сот

Russian Academy of Sciences, Komarov Botanical Institute, Prof. Popova, 2; 197376, St.-Petersburg, Russia.

Поступило в редакцию 10.02.2010 г.

Submitted 10.02.2010

number, or, if necessary date of collection. Largest recent collections are abbreviated and designated as series with following prefixes:

CBL - Cao Bang Limestone - collections on program of U.S.A. National Geographic Society “Limestone Flora of Cao Bang Province of northern Vietnam” (years 1998-1999, # 6300-98) with principal investigator Dr. Nguyen Tien Hiep,

CPNP - collections in Cue Phuong national park (commonly without indication of collectors), DDS - Prof. D.D.Soejarto - collections according to International Cooperative Biodiversity Groups program with this person as principal investigator,

DKH-Dr. D.Harder - collections according to expeditions with this person as a principal investigator,

HAL - Dr. Nguyen Tien Hiep, Prof. Leonid V. Averyanov, Prof. Phan Ke Loc - collections in collaborative explorations of these persons,

HLF - Henry Luce Foundation, collections of different collectors according to Vietnam Botanical Conservation Program supported from Henry Luce Foundation,

LX-VN - collections of Soviet-Vietnamese Expedition (commonly without exact indication of collectors),

NMC - collections of staff member of Cue Phuong national park - Mr. Nguyen Manh Cuong on the territory of the national park,

NTH - Dr. Nguyen Tien Hiep - collections in expeditions with this person as principal investigator, P - Prof. Phan Ke Loc - collections in expeditions with this person as principal investigator,

VA - Vietnam-American Series - collections of international group with Dr. N.T. Hiep as principal investigator.

VH - Vietnamese Highlands - collections on program of U.S.A. National Geographic Society “Flora of Highlands of South Vietnam” (years 1993— 2001, # 5094-93, 5803-96, 6383-98) with principal investigator Prof. Leonid V. Averyanov.

WP - Vietnam-Chinese expedition of 2003 year with Prof. Phan Ke Loc as co-leader from Vietnamese Side.

Modern administrative divisions of Vietnam with names of administrative units have been used in the text, as well as terminology list and terms explanation were presented in the first part of this monograph (Averyanov, 2008).

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Laboratory studies, work with manuscript and illustrations were supported by Swiss Orchid Conservation fund of Zurich Foundation for Orchid Conservation of Swiss Orchid Society. Project -

“Orchids of Vietnam, work on monograph manuscript'”, 2009-2010 and Russian Found of Fundamental Researches (№ 09-04-90722).

We cordially thank authorities of the Center for Plant Conservation of Vietnam Union of Science and Technology Associations, Missouri Botanical Garden Vietnam Conservation program in cooperation with Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources of Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology and Komarov Botanical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences for comprehensive help in organizations of all our investigations.

Field studies in Vietnam, the results of which are presented in this paper, were funded by grants from next organizations:

U.S.A. National Geographic Society - “Flora of Highlands of the South Vietnam” 1993-2001 years (grants # 5094-93, 5803-96, 6383-98); “Limestone Flora of Cao Bang Province of northern Vietnam” 1998-1999 years (grant # 6300-98); “Botanical Inventory of Unexplored Areas in Viet Nam: The North’’ 1999-2001 (grant # 6733-00); “Exploration of rocky limestone flora and vegetation in Bac Kan province, northern Vietnam” 2003-2005 (# 757704); “Exploration of highland flora and vegetation in Lai Chau & Son La Provinces, north-western Vietnam’’ 2006-2007 (#8074-06); “Exploration of primary woods along constructed highway Hanoi -Ho Chi Minh for their sustainable conservation (in limits of Ha Tinh, Quang Binh, Quang Tri, Thua Thien Hue, Quang Nam and Kon Tum provinces of central Vietnam)” 2008-2009 (8418-08).

U.S.A. National Science Foundation - “Collaborative Research: A Multi-Taxa Inventory of Threatened Conservation areas in Viet Nam” 19992001 (grant # DEB-9870231).

Henry Luce Foundation. Vietnam Botanical Conservation Program in Vietnam. 1999-2008. “Preliminary updated checklist of orchids (Orchidaceae) of Ba Be National Park”, 2002; “Preliminary updated checklist of orchids (Orchidaceae) of Bach Ma National Park”, 2003; “Preliminary updated checklist of orchids (Orchidaceae) of Nui

Chua National Park”, 2004; “Preliminary updated checklist of orchids (Orchidaceae) of Bu Gia Map National Park”, 2005; “Preliminary Survey of the Flora and Vegetation of Bi Doup - Nui Ba National Park”, 2005; “Preliminary Survey of the Flora and Vegetation of Da Krong Nature Reserve and allied areas”, 2006; “Flora and vegetation of Pu Nat national park and allied areas”, March 2007; “Flora and vegetation of Thuong Lo Municipality and allied areas (Thua Thien - Hue Province)”, April 2007; “Survey of the flora at Yok Don national park”, March 2008; “Survey of the flora atLo Go-XaMat national park”, December 2008.

American Orchid Society. “Exploration of endangered Vietnamese Paphiopedilums”, years 1996-1997; “Exploration of endangered calcium dependent orchidflora in inaccessible rocky limestone areas of the North Vietnam”, years 1999-2000; “Population studies of endemic Paphiopedilum species in northern Vietnam”, 2001-2002 years; “Discovery of endemic orchid flora in remote limestone areas of Northern Vietnam”, years 2003-2005; “Exploration of Vietnamese orchid flora in regions allied to Laos territory”, years 2008-2009.

International Cooperative Biodiversity Groups (ICBG) Grant No. 1-UO1-TW01015-01, through funds from the National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, and the Foreign Agriculture Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture, U.S.A., 2000-2005.

Fauna & Flora International (Vietnam Program). “The distribution of Paphiopedilum viet-namense and its current status in the wild”. 2000;

“Community-based Conservation of the Hoang Lien Mountain Ecosystem, Vietnam, Flora and vegetation survey of Van Ban district, Lao Cai province of northern Vietnam”, 2002; “Preliminary survey of orchids and gymnosperms in Trung Khanh district, Cao Bang province northern Vietnam”, 2004.

Fauna & Flora International Vietnam Conservation Support Program and the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Vietnam. “Pu Luong - Cuc Phuong Limestone Landscape Conservation Project, Preliminary botanical survey of primary vegetation in Pu Luong nature reserve”, 2003.

Fauna & Flora International (Vietnam Program) & Counterpart International. “Preliminary survey of Orchids (Orchidaceae) in Phong Nha - Ke Bang National Park”, 2005.

WWF Indochina Programme. Green Corridor Project in Thua Thien - Hue Province, VN085301. “Lowlandflora and vegetation. Preliminary survey”, 2005.

Basic Research program in Life Sciences of Viet Nam, # 611001. “Threatened conifers and cycads of Vietnam”, 2000-2002.

Author cordially thanks Ms. A. Averyanova and Ms. T. Maisak, who were very helpful in preparation of ink line drawings. We also thanks Prof. Phan Ke Loc for photos used in fig. 16 e, f; fig. 34 a, d, e; Mr. Duy Nong Van for photos used in fig. 10, a; fig. 21, a and Mr. M. Nuraliev for photos used in fig. 10 g, h. I also thank Dr. P. Efimov for permission of use his line drawing presented in fig. 3 and Dr. A. Sennikov for translation of diagnosis of Habenaria calcicola into Latin and valuable advices in nomenclature.

SUBFAMILY ORCHIDOIDEAE;

Lindl., 1826, Collect. Bot. App. Orchideae. -Subfam. Ophrydoideae Burnett, 1835, Outlines Bot.: 461 (sub “Ophrydae”), nom. invalid.

Type: Orchis L.

115(12) genera and 2500(66) species. Tropical, subtropical, temperate and boreal areas of all continents, with highest taxonomic diversity in Africa.

Trib. 4.1. Diurideae Endl., 1842, Mant. Bot. Suppl. 2: 21. - Subtrib. Diurideae (Endl.) Benth. et Hook.f., 1853, Gen. PL, 463, 483.

Type: Diuris Sm.

195(2) genera and 560(2) species. Tropical and subtropical Asia, Australia, New Zealand and Pacific islands.

Subtrib. 4.1.1. Acianthinae Schltr., 1911, Bot. Jahrb. Systm, 45: 381.

Type: Acianthus R.Br.

5(1) genera and about 150(1) species. Tropical Asia, Australia and Pacific islands.

Corybas Salisb.,

1807, Parad. Lond., Tab. 83.

Type: C. aconitiflorus Salisb.

Miniature terrestrial, epiphytic or lithophytic herbs with paired globose tubers, rootless or with

1-3 thin ephemeral, thin, finely villose roots. Stem erect, slender, with 1 terminal, membranaceous, plicate, cordate, sessile leaf, often with white, yellow or red nerves. Flower 1, very large for the plant, re-supinate, terminal, at anthesis subsessile, with erect, acuminate floral bract. Sepals free, dorsal sepal, much larger than lateral sepals, cucullate, helmetlike. Petals and lateral sepals subsimilar, filiform, free or connate at the base. Lip large, with 2 short spurs, the base embracing column, apex widened, rounded and turned down, usually fringed along margin. Column short, with entire, concave stigma, the anther erect on its back. Pollinia 2, 2-lobed, granular, with viscidium. Capsules ellipsoid, erect, raised on peduncle much elongated after anthesis.

100(1) species. Tropical and subtropical Asia to Australia, New Zealand, New Guinea and southwestern Pacific Islands.

C. annamensis Aver.,

2007, Orchideenjoumal 2007, 3: 97, 98.

Described from southern Vietnam (“Lam Dong Prov., Lac Duong Distr., Da Chais Municipality ... Gia Rich Ridge”). Type ("7.7.7.' Trang, TV. Thao,

N.T. Vinh, HLF 5317”) - HN (holotype), LE (isotype).

Terrestrial herb with spherical, villose tubers

4-7 mm across, and 1-3 roots. Stem nearly white, at anthesis 2.5-4.5 cm tall; at the middle with 1 light greenish bract 8-12 mm long and terminal leaf. Leaf cordate, acute, 1.5-3.5 cm long, dull grey-green, irregularly undulate along edge. Flowers 1, terminal, at anthesis subsessile, 1.2-1.6 cm across. Dorsal sepal narrowly-ovate to spatulate, erect from narrow base, strongly curved above, 2-2.5 cm long,

0.8-1.2 cm wide, with broad hooded acute to shortly acuminate apex, dark crimson-purple, inside with about 11 contrast white longitudinal stripes. Sepal together with the lip forming a helmet. Lateral sepals and petals similar, filiform, free, to 5.5 cm long, 0.8-1 mm wide at the base, white, in lower part with crimson-pink tint; sepals very shortly connate with petals at the base. Lip indistinctly 3-lobe,

1.6-2.2 cm long, 1.4-1.8 cm wide, concave, arcuate and strongly turned down, acute to shortly mu-cronate, finely papillose, ciliate at the edge, white with crimson-purple margin and 3-5 dark crimson-purple longitudinal stripes on side lobes. Spurs short broadly conical straight or slightly curved, very dark purple, 4-6 mm long. Column 3-4 mm tall, 2-2.5 mm wide. Anther erect, at the broadening apex with prominent roundish lateral lobes. Fruit erect, ellipsoid, light yellowish-brown capsule 1-1.5 cm long,

4-6 mm broad, on erect slender pedicel elongated after anthesis up to 12 cm long. Fig. 1; 15, a.

Ecology: Coniferous and mixed primary humid forests with Pinus dalatensis and P. krempfii, commonly in mossy cover on deep silicate soils rich in coniferous humus. 1600-1800 m. FI. July. Very rare (EN).

Distribution: Vietnam (Lam Dong).

Notes. The species is closely related to C. sinii Tang et F.T.Wang, from which differs in entire margin of median sepal and much longer lateral sepals and petals. Up to now it is known only by type collection.

Subtrib. 4.1.2. Cryptostylidinae Schltr., 1911, Bot. Jahrb. Syst., 45: 381.

Type: Cryptostylis R.Br.

1(1) genus and 25(1) species. Tropical Asia, Australia and Pacific islands.

Cryptostylis R.Br.,

1810, Prodr.: 317.

Lectotype: C. longifolia R. Br. (Malaxis subu-lata Labill.).

Fig. 1. Corvbas cmnamensis (HLF 5317): a - flowering plants, b - plant with removed flower, c - fruiting plant, d - flower without lip, e, f - median sepal, g - flattened lip, frontal view, h - column.

Terrestrial herbs with short vertical rhizome, few spreading thick roots, few petiolate leaves and slender erect floriferous stem terminating in loose spike. Flowers not resupinate. Sepals and petals free, subsimilar, narrowly-cuneate, spreading. Lip erect, unlobed, widest near base and tapering to the apex, base concave, surrounding the column. Column very short, with lateral auricles. Anther erect at back of column. Pollinia 4, mealy, with small vis-cidium.

10(1) species. Tropical and subtropical Asia, Australia and Pacific islands to Fiji and Samoa.

1. C. arachnites (Blume) Hassk.,

1844, Cat. Bog.: 48; Seidenf., 1992, Orch. Indochina: 26; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam. Orch.: 30; Aver, et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 24. - Zosterostylis arachnites Blume, 1825, Bijdr. 6, Fig. 32; id. 1825, ibid. 6: 419.

Illustrations. Blume, 1825, I.e. fig. 32 (sub Zosterostylis arachnites)', id., 1858, Coll. Orch. Arch. Ind. Jap., tab. 45, 2 (sub Zosterostylis arachnites)', Gagnep., 1934, FI. Gen. Indochine 6, 5: 568, fig. 54, 17-19, 581, fig. 55,1-2; Seidenf., 1978, Dansk Bot. Ark. 32, 2: 107, fig. 66; Liu, Su, 1978, FI. Taiwan 5: 938, fig. 1570; Jayaweera, 1981, FI. Ceylon 2: 293, fig. 129; Comber, 1990, Orch. Java: 50; Seidenf., Wood, 1992, Orch. Penins. Mai. Sing.: 48, fig. 14 a-d, pi. 1 a; Phamh., 2000, Illustr. FI. Vietnam 3: 766, fig. 10829; Comber, 2001, Orch. Sumatra.: 87.

Described from Java ("Salak et Seribu"). Type - L.

Floriferous stem 20-55 cm tall, with (1)5-30 flowers. Leaves 1-4, all from rhizome, on distinct long petiole 4-12 cm long, leaf blade elliptic

6-18 cm long, 2.5-8 cm wide, pale green, with network of darker green veins, acute. Petiole base not forming a sheath, but covered with separate sheaths. Base of floriferous stem covered with several overlapping sheaths, with 2-3 sheaths higher up. Floral bracts cuneate, shorter than ovary. Sepals and petals pale green, sometime with purple tint, narrowly cuneate, sepals 8-15 mm long, petals twice shorter. Lip narrowly ovate, almost flat or slightly curved forwards at the apex, 1.4-2 cm long, 4-8 mm wide, velvet-hairy, yellowish-brown, yellowish-red to purple-red at the base, pale with deep red-purple or red-brown spots in apical half. Column white, short. Fig. 2; 15, b, c.

Ecology. All kinds of forests on any soils. 2502000 m. FI. April - June. Not common (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam (probably all provinces). Tropical and subtropical Asia, Pacific islands to Solomon islands, Fiji and Samoa.

Fig. 2. Cryptostylis arachnites (VH 5438): flo wer, frontal view.

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Studied specimens. Dak Nong, Dak Glong, Ta Dung mt., HLF 5658 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Bat Dai Son mt., NTH 5420 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Quan Ba, Sin Suoi river, DKH 5005 (HN, LE); Ha Tinh, Huong Son, HAL 5054 (HN, LE); Khanh Hoa, Khanh Son, Hon Giao ridge, VH 4343 (HN, LE); Kon Turn, Hieu, Mang La, VH 5438 (HN, LE, MO); Kon Turn, Kon Plong, VH 5438 (HN, LE); Lam Dong, Lac Duong, Hon Giao mt., HLF 5325 (HN, LE); Ninh Thuan, Nui Chua mt., HLF 4237 (HN, LE); Thua Thien Hue, Bach Ma National Park, HLF 1174 (HN, LE).

Motes. Very variable species in coloration of the lip. Peloric forms with green subactinomorphic flowers having abortive tepals are not rare in populations of normal plants on the territory of Vietnam. Such abnormal plants were originally named as Chlorosa latifolia Blume, 1825, Bijdr.: 420.

Trib. 4.2. Orchideae;

Hatch, 1954, Ceiba 4: 224; Deressler et Dodson, 1960, Ann. Miss. Bot. Gard. 47: 30 - Trib. Ophrvdeae Lindl., 1826, Collect. Bot. App.; Todaro, 1842, Orch. Sic.: 115 (sub "Ophrydineae").

Type: Orchis L.

60(10) genera and 1700(64) species. Tropical, subtropical, temperate and boreal areas of all continents, with highest taxonomic diversity in Africa.

Subtrib. 4.2.1. Orchidinae;

Dressier et Dodson, 1960, Ann. Miss. Bot. Gard. 47: 35; Janchen, 1960, Cat. FI. Aust. 1: 858;

Potucek, 1968, Uber. Nat. Ver. Wuppertal 21-22: 102. - Subtrib. Serapiadinae Benth., 1881, Joum. Linn. Sov. Bot., 18: 288. - Subtrib. Ophrydinae Benth. etHook.f., 1883, Gen. PI. 3: 464 (sub “Euo-phrydeae”). - Subtrib. Androcorydinae Schltr.,

1926, Notizbl. Bot. Fart. Berlin-Dahlen, 9: 568. -Subtrib. Platantherinae Schltr., 1926, l.c.: 568 (sub “Platanthereae”), p.p. - Trib. Platanthereae Schltr., 1914, Orch.: 46, p.p., nom. nud. - Subtrib. Himan-toglossinae Janchen, 1960, Cat. FI. Austr. 1: 858, nom. nud. - Subtrib. Ophryinae Janchen, 1960, I.e.: 858, nom. nud.

Type: Orchis L.

37(5) genera and 600(10) species. Tropical, subtropical and temperate areas of all continents, boreal regions of Northern Hemisphere.

Platanthera Rich.,

1817, Orch. Europ. Annot.: 20,26, 35; id. 1818, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. (Paris) 4: 42, 48, 57.

Terrestrial, lithophytic or epiphytic sympodial herbs with fleshy roots and commonly underground tuber. Floriferous stem sheathed at the base, leadless, or with 1-2(3), lanceolate to ovate, petiolate radical leaves and few sessile cauline leaves, much reduced toward terminal few- to many-flowered racemose apical inflorescence. Flowers resupinate, yellowish, white to green or light brownish-green, rarely yellow, pink or purple. Sepals and petals, free; petals oblique, entire, connivent with dorsal sepal into

hood or spread. Lateral sepals spreading or reflexed. Lip spurred, entire, ligulate; spur long, cylindric, often curved and slightly clavate at apex. Column broad, erect with lateral staminodes. Thecas parallel or divergent and separated by a broad U-shaped connective; lateral lobes of rostellum very short. Stigma sessile, with single, more or less concave surface. Pollinaria 2, each with sectile pollinium, short cau-dicle and small naked viscidium. Ovary sessile or on short pedicel.

Lectotype: P. bifolia (L.) Rich. (Orchis bifolia L.). 50-100(3) species. Europe, Asia, N. America. Sect. Mecosa (Blume) Aver., stat. et comb, nov., gen.Mecosa Blume, 1825, Bijdr. 8: 403.

4(3) species. Mainland SE. Asia, Indonesia, Philippines, New Guinea.

Type: Platanthera angustata (Blume) Lindl. (= Mecosa angustata Blume).

All three species reported from Vietnam form distinct group of species forming no tubers. Orthotropic stems arising from short plagiotropic rhizome bears at the base only few fleshy hairy horizontally directed roots. Stem of last year (or radical leaves of sterile abbreviated last year shoot) usually remains during anthesis. Short rhizome bearing few remaining successive shoots forming no underground tubers reveals lowest level of living form specialization in the genus. This indicates to rather primitive character of this fairly natural group of species that certainly desires rank of distinct section.

Key to species

1. Terrestrial plants; inflorescence rachis shorter than stalk; floriferous stem much longer that rhizomal leaves;

petals shorter than sepals.........................................................................................2

- Epiphytic plants; inflorescence rachis longer than stalk; floriferous stem twice longer that rhizomal leaves, or

2. Sepals 2.5-5 mm long; lip usually forward directed, fleshy, without distinct nerves, 4.5-7 mm long; spur

filiform, more than twice longer than lip; column 1.5 mm tall.....................................2. P angustata

- Sepals 6-9 mm long; lip slightly broadening to the base, usually down or back directed, with numerous

parallel nerves, 9-11 mm long; spur cylindrical, twice longer as lip or shorter; column 3-4 mm tall................

............................................................................................3. P. singgalangensis

1. P. epiphytica Aver, et Efimov,

2006, Rheedea, 16, 1: 10, fig. 7, 9 e, f. Described from southern Vietnam (“Lam Dong prov., Lac Duong distr., ... main ridge of Bi Doup mt.”). Type (“15 October 2005, L.Averyanov et al., HLF 5250”) - HN (holotype), LE (isotype).

Epiphytic herb with cluster of fusiform fleshy roots, 1 leaf on short rhizome and erect floriferous stem to 22 cm tall bearing 1-2 distant bract-like leaves. Leaf on rhizome, fleshy, glossy, ovate to broadly ovate, 12 cm long, 7 cm wide, attenuate into

distinct petiole 3-4 cm long. Spike 15-17 cm long. Floral bracts narrowly ovate, acute, 4.5-1.5 cm long, 1.5-0.5 cm wide. Ovary sessile, 1.5 cm long, slightly curved. Flowers, odorless, green; anther dull reddish-brown. Dorsal sepal ovate, 6 mm long,

4.5 mm wide, round at the apex; lateral sepals, narrowly ovate, slightly oblique, obtuse, twisted, 7 mm long, 2.5 mm wide. Petals ovate, obtuse, oblique, falcate, 8 mm long, 2.5 mm wide. Lip entire, ob-long-ligulate; spur cylindric, 15 mm long. Column

4 mm tall and wide; thecas distant, basally diver-

gent; stigma concave. Fig. 3; 15 d.

Ecology. Epiphyte on mossy trees in primary cloudy wet coniferous forest with Fokienia hodgin-sii and bamboo. 2200-2400 m. FI. September - November. Very rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam (Lam Dong).

Note. This species differs from closely related P. angustilabris Seidenf., described from Thailand in much shorter leaves and much longer spur. Both species have similar ecology and form very peculiar “epiphytic” group within sect. Mecosa.

2. P. angustata (Blume) Lindl.,

1835, Gen. Sp. Orch. PL: 290; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 44; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam. Orch.: 59; Aver, et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 52. -Mecosa angustata Blume, 1825, Bijdr. 6, fig. 1; id. 1825, ibid. 8: 404.

Illustrations. Blume, 1825, I.e. fig. 1 (sub Mecosa angustata); J.J. Smith, 1908, FI. Buitenzorg 6, 2, fig. 12; Hayata, 1914, Icon. PL Formos. 4: 123, tab.21 (sub Platanthera pachyglossa); Seidenf., 1977, Dansk Bot. Ark. 31, 3: 17, fig.5; Phamh.,

2000, Illustr. FI. Vietnam 3: 765, fig. 10828.

Described from Java (“Salak et Burangrang”). Type - L.

Terrestrial herb with erect rather slender floriferous stems 20-60 cm tall bearing 1 or few cauline sessile leaves, often with 1 to few petiolate leaves arising from rhizome. Petiole of leaves from rhizome 4-8 cm long, blade elliptic, acute, 5-14 cm long, 2-5 cm wide; leaves on erect stem distant, sessile, narrowly-ovate to ovate and cuneate, to 8 cm long, 4 cm wide. Inflorescence slender, lax, few- to many-flowered. Flowers light green. Median sepal broadly ovate, 2.5-4 mm long, 2-3 mm wide; lateral sepals oblong-lanceolate, slightly oblique, reflexed, 3-5 mm long, 1.5-2 mm wide. Petals narrowly ovate, oblique, slightly shorter than sepals. Lip usually forward directed, ligulate, fleshy, without distinct nerves, 4.5-7 mm long, about 1 mm wide; spur filiform, to 12-16 mm long. Column 1.5 mm tall; th-ecas not widely separated, stigma flat broad. Fig. 4.

Ecology. Primary coniferous, mixed and broad-leaved evergreen humid montane forests on silicate soils. 1000 - 2500 m. Fl. February - April. Not common (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam (Dak Lac, Ha Tinh, Kon Turn, Ninh Thuan, Quang Binh, Quangnam-Danang, Thua Thien - Hue). S. China, Myanmar, Thailand, Malacca Peninsular, Indonesia, Philippines, New Guinea.

Studied specimens. Dak Lac, Krong Bong,

VH 6201 (HN); Ha Tinh, Huong Son, HAL 5078 (HN); Kon Turn, Kon Plong, DKH 4689 (HN, LE); Kon Turn, mountains between Dak Poko and Dak Mek rivers, VH 967 (HN, LE); Ninh Thuan, Ninh Son, VH 3587 (HN, LE), VH 3629 (HN, LE); Quang Binh, Minh Hoa, HAL 11805 (LE); Quangnam-Danang, Ngoc Linh mountain, VH 920 (HN, LE); Thua Thien -Hue, Phu Loc, Bach Ma mt, HLF 884 (HN, LE), HLF 1006 (HN, LE).

3. P. singgalangensis (J.J. Smith) Efimov,

2009, Turczaninowia, 12, 3-4: 17. - Platanthera angustata (Blume) Lindl. var. singgalangensis J.J. Smith, 1922, Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg 3, 5: 13.

Illustrations. Comber, 2001, Orch. Sumatra.: 98, 99 (sub Platanthera angustata).

Described from Sumatra (“Sumatra: West coast, Goenoeng Singgalang, 2800 m., in underbrush, common. (H.A.B. Bunnemeijer n. 2871, June 1918). As quoted, fan along the lake on the summit, 2870 m. (S. Leefmans n. 16, April 1918). Laras Ta-lang, Boekit Gombak, 2200 m. {H.A.B. Bunnemeijer n. 5716, November 1918).”). Lectotype (designated here: “Bunnemeijer 2871, 1 VI 1918”) - L.

Terrestrial herb with erect, more or less robust floriferous stems 20-70 cm tall bearing 1 or few cauline sessile leaves, often with 1 to few peti-olate leaves arising from rhizome. Petiole of leaves from rhizome 4-10 cm long, blade elliptic, acute, 5-16 cm long, 3-6 cm wide; leaves on erect stem distant, sessile, narrowly ovate to ovate and cuneate, to 14 cm long and 5 cm wide. Inflorescence more or less robust, lax, few- to many-flowered. Flowers light green to brownish-green. Median sepal broadly ovate, 6-8 mm long, 5-6 mm wide; lateral sepals oblong-lanceolate, slightly oblique, spreading or reflexed, 8-9 mm long, 3-3.5 mm wide. Petals ovate, oblique, slightly shorter than sepals. Lip ligulate, flat, slightly broadening to the base, with numerous parallel nerves, usually down or back directed, 9-11 mm long and 1.5-2 mm wide, 3 mm broad at the base; spur cylindrical, to 12-16 mm long. Column 3-4 mm tall, 5 mm wide; thecas widely separated, stigma flat, broad. Fig. 5; 15 e.

Ecology. Primary coniferous, mixed and broad-leaved evergreen humid montane forests on silicate soils. 1000 - 1800 m. Fl. February - April. Not common (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam (Cao Bang, Kon Turn, Lam Dong, Lao Cai, Vinh Phuc). S. China, Myanmar, Thailand, Malacca Peninsular, Indonesia, Philippines, New Guinea.

Fig. 3. Platanthera epiphvtica (HLF 5250, type): a - flowering plant, b - flower, c - flattened sepals and petals, d - lip, e-g - column frontal, side and back view.

Fig. 4. Platanthera angustata (I'll 967): a - flowering plant, b - flower, c - flattened sepals and petals, d- lip, e, f - column, frontal and side view, g - fruit.

Fig. 5. Platanthera singgalangensis (CBL 138): a - flowering plant, b - flower, c - flattened sepals, petals and lip, d - column, frontal view, e - fruit.

Studied specimens. Cao Bang, Nguyen Binh, CBL 138 (HN, LE); Kon Turn, Kon Plong, VH5437 (HN, LE), VH 5545 (HN, LE); DKH 4689 (HN, LE); Lam Dong, Lac Duong, VH 3344 (HN, LE); Lao Cai, Van Ban, HAL 2011 (HN, LE); Vinh Phuc, Tamdao, L.Averyanov, LX-VN2365 (HN, LE).

Brachycorythis Lindl.,

1838, Gen. Sp. Orch. PL: 363.

Type: Brachycorythis ovata Lindl.

Terrestrial sympodial tuberiferous herbs with stout erect stem and several distant, ovate-elliptic leaves, rarely plants achlorophyllous saprophytic. Inflorescence terminal, laxy, few- to many-flowered

raceme. Floral bracts leaf-like, usually distinctly longer than flowers. Flowers medium to large, re-supinate, white, yellow, pink or purple. Sepals free, entire, lateral sepals spreading and oblique. Petals elliptic much smaller, cuneate. Lip spurred, entire or 2-3 lobed, usually projecting forward; spur short, broad, sometimes saccate. Column erect with parallel anther loculi; pollinia 2, clavate, granular, each with short caudicle and viscidium; rostellum small, erect, longitudinally folded; stigma hollowed with concave surface.

30(3) species. Tropical and southern Africa, Madagascar, tropical and subtropical mainland Asia, Taiwan.

Key to species

1. Dorsal sepal shorter than 9 mm long; spur less than 5 mm long; sepals and petals light yellow-greenish, lip

white with dark purple veins, distinctly emarginate orbilobed.......................................1. B. galeandra

- Dorsal sepal longer than 9 mm long; spur more than 5 mm long; sepals, petals and lip white with light violet

2. Plants 15-60 cm tall with many leaves and many-flowered inflorescence; lip rounded or slightly emarginate

- Plants 10-20 cm tall with 1-3 flowers and 3-4 leaves; lip rounded at apex, 1.9-2.2 cm across; spur 8-10 mm

1. B. galeandra (Reichenb. f.) Summerh..,

1955, Kew Bull. (1955): 241; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 42, fig. 19; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam. Orch.: 52; Aver, et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 13. - Pla-tanthera galeandra Reichenb.f., 1852, Linnaea 25: 226. - Habenaria galeandra (Reichenb.f.) Benth. var. annamica Gagnep., 1934, FI. Gen. Indo-Chine, 6: 598.

Illustrations. Lang et Tsi, 1976, Icon. Corm. Sinic. 5: 615, fig. 8060; Phamh., 2000, Illustr. FI. Vietnam 3: 766, fig. 10830; Su, 2000, FI. Taiwan 5: 761, fig. 324.

Described from SE. China (“Hongkong”). Type (“1845, Fortune 78”) - W, K, BM.

Plants 20-25 cm tall. Leaves broadly lanceolate to elliptic, obtuse, to 5 cm long and 2.5 cm wide. Sepals and petals narrowly ovate, light yellowish-green with some red dots, sepals 6-8 mm long, petals smaller. Lip white with dark purple veins, broadly obovate to flabellate, emarginate or shallowly bi-lobed, 7.5-14 mm long. Spur broadly conical, short, 2-5 mm long, tapering from a wide mouth. Fig. 6

a, b.

Ecology. Open forests, shrubs and grasslands. 900-1500 m. FI. June - July. Very rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam (Lam Dong). NE. India, Myanmar, S. China, Taiwan.

Studied specimens. Dalat, Sigaldi 237 (P); Dankia, Hayata 22 (P); Langbian 1400 m, Jacquet 574b (P); Les Planches, Dalat, Evrard 1056 (P).

2. B. helferi (Reichenb.f.) Summerh.,

1955, Kew Bull. (1955): 235; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 41. - Gymnadenia helferi Reichenb.f., 1872, Flora, 55: 276. - Brachycorythis henryi (Schltr.) Summerh., 1955, l.c.: 235. - Phyl-lomphax henryi Schltr., 1919, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih., 4: 45. - Brachycorythis obovalis Summerh., 1955, l.c.: 237.

Illustrations. Seidenf., 1977, Dansk Bot. Ark. 31, 3: 14, fig. 3; Chen, Tsi, Luo, 1999, Nat. Orch. China: 24 (sub Brachycorythis henryi).

Described from Myanmar (“Tenasserim”). Type (“1837, Heifer 244”) - W (holotype), K, BM (isotype).

Plants 15-60 cm tall. Leaves numerous, broadly lanceolate to narrowly elliptic, to 14 cm long and

3.5 cm wide. Sepals and petals white, light violet to the base, narrowly ovate, acute, 1.5-2 cm long, petals smaller. Lip white, light violet at the base, orbicular, rounded or emarginate at apex, 1.2-3.3 cm across. Spur light violet, with narrow apex, 6.5-10.5 mm long. Column light violet, anther violet. Fig. 7; 15 f.

Ecology. Open deciduous and semi-deciduous

Fig. 6. Brachycorythis galeandra (Shaik Mokim 82, N. Myanmar): a - flower, side view, b - flattened flower, frontal view; B. laotica (Thorel 2145, Cambodia): c - flowering plant, d - flower.

forests, sometimes with bamboo, open shrubs and grasslands. 600-800 m. FI. June - August. Very rare (EN). ”

Distribution. Vietnam (Kon Tum). NE. India, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos.

Studied specimens. Kon Tum, Dak Gley, VH 2001a (LE). ”

Note. Highland specimens with large flowers exceeding rather short floral bracts are often recognized as separate species - Brachycorythis henryi (Schltr.) Summerh. Such plants, closely allied to B. helferi, are not rare in northern Thailand and southern China and may be certainly found in Vietnam.

1500 m. FI. June - July. Very rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam (Lam Dong). Laos, Cambodia.

Studied specimens. Dalat, Sigaldi 248 (P); Pongour, Djiring, Evrard 1211 (P).

Note. Questionable species, which differs from B. helferi (Reichenb.f.) Summerh. barely in small size of the plant and few-flowered inflorescence.

Himalayan species - Brachycorythis obcor-data (Lindl.) Summerh. reported from Laos under the name B. thorelii (Gagnep.) Summerh. may be subsequently found in Vietnam additionally to mentioned species.

3.B. laotica (Gagnep.) Summerh.,

1955, Kew Bull. (1955): 236; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 41, fig. 17; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam. Orch.: 52; Aver, et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 13. - Habe-ncirici laotica Gagnep., 1931, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 78: 71.

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Illustrations. Phamh., 2000, Illustr. FI. Vietnam 3: 766, fig. 10831.

Described from Cambodia ("Bassac. Stung-streng'). Type (“1866-1868, Thorel 2145”) - P.

Plants 10-20 cm tall. Inflorescence with 1-3 flowers. Leaves 3-4, broadly lanceolate to narrowly elliptic, to 7 cm long and 2 cm wide. Sepals and petals narrowly ovate, about 1.5 cm long, petals smaller. Lip orbicular, rounded at apex, 1.9-2.2 cm across. Spur slender, 8-10 mm long. Fig. 6 c, d.

Ecology. Open forests, shrubs and grasslands. 800-

Amitostigma Schltr.,

1919, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 4: 91. - Mitostigmci Blume, 1856, Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat., 2: 189, non Decne, 1844.

Type: Amitostigma gracile (Blume) Schltr. (Mitostigma gracile Blume).

Miniature lithophytic and terrestrial tuberife-rous sympodial herbs with few thin basal leaves adpressed to the ground and 1-2 villose tubers. Inflorescence few-flowered raceme on erect leafless scape. Flowers resupinate, widely opening, odorless, white to purple. Sepals and petals free. Lip spurred, usually 3-lobed. Column obovate, laterally with small hemi-spherical auricles, anther loculi pointing forward, rostellum small. Pollinia 2, sectile, with caudicle and viscidium. Stigma concave, entire.

30(2) species. NE. India, Myanmar, Korea, Japan, China, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam.

Fig. 7. Brachycorythis helferi (I II 2001a): a - flowering plant b - flattened tepals, c - lip, frontal view.

Key to species

1. Lip side lobes triangular, obtuse to roundish at the apex, midlobe rectangular, distinctly emarginate or 2-lobed;

spur shortly cylindrical, inflated to the apex, 4 mm long or less; viscidium lanceolate, much longer than

caudicle..........................................................................................1. A. keiskeoides

- Lip side lobes rectangular, truncate at the apex, midlobe obovate, obtuse or hardly emarginate; spur narrowly

cylindrical, tapering to the apex, 5-11 mm long; viscidium circular, much shorter than caudicle......................

..................................................................................................2. A. bidupense

1. A. keiskeoides (Gagnep.) Garay et W. Kittr.,

1985, Bot. Mus. Leafl. 30: 47; Seidenf., 1992,

Opera Bot. 114: 43, fig. 20; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam. Orch.: 53; Aver, et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 10. - Habe-naria keiskeoides Gagnep., 1931, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 78: 71.

Illustrations. Phamh., 2000, Illustr. FI. Vietnam 3: 766, fig. 10829.

Described from northern Vietnam (“Tonkin: Cha-pa, 1500 m”). Type (“Petelot, 5160”) - P.

Lithophytic and occasionally terrestrial tuberi-ferous herb with 1-3 basal leaves and ovoid tubers. Leaves ovate, subsessile, acute, 1.5-7 cm long. Scape 6-14 cm tall, with 1-3 cuneate, acute bracts. Rachis 2-5 cm long with 7-10 pink subsessile flowers. Ovary to 7-8 mm long. Floral bracts cuneate, acute, 5-7 mm long. Sepals and petals subsimilar, narrowly ovate, 4-5 mm long, obtuse; lateral sepals and petals oblique. Lip obovate, 3-lobed, 5-6 mm long with 2 longitudinal low keels on the disc; side lobes obtuse to roundish at the apex; median lobe emarginate. Spur shortly cylindrical, saccate, inflated to the apex, 3.5-4 mm long. Column 1-1.5 mm tall. Pollinarium clavate, with a short caudicle and very large, lanceolate viscidium. Fig. 8; 15 g, h.

Ecology. Humid broad-leaved evergreen forests on silicate soils, commonly on mossy cliffs near mountain tops. 1500-1700 m. FI. May - July. Very rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam (Lai Chau, Lao Cai).

Studied specimens. Chapa, Petelot 5149 (P?), Nuraliev s.n., 27.06.2009 (LE); Lai Chau, Sin Ho, HAL 9959 (HN, LE).

2. A. bidupense (Aver.) Aver., comb, nov.,

Aver, et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist

Orch. Viet.: 10, comb. invalid. - Hemipilia bidupense Aver., 1999, Lindleyana, 14, 4: 222, Fig. 5.

Described from southern Vietnam (“Lam Dong Province, Lac Duong District,... on peaks of Bi Dup ridge at 2150 m ...”). Type (“VH4471 ”) - LE (holo-type), HN, MO (isotypes).

Lithophytic and occasionally terrestrial tube-riferous herb with 1-2 basal leaves and narrowly

cylindrical, villose, tubers. Leaves ovate to broadly ovate, subsessile, acute, 2-8 cm long. Scape 8-16 cm tall, leafless, or with 1, small, cuneate, bract-like leaf. Rachis to 4 cm long, pedicels 1-3 mm long. Floral bracts cuneate, acute, 5-8 mm long. Flowers 3-8, odorless, pink to purple. Sepals 4-6 mm long; median sepal obovate, obtuse; lateral sepals, narrowly ovate to ovate, strongly oblique, acute. Petals ovate, oblique, as long as sepals, narrowing to obtuse apex. Lip deeply 3-lobed, 5-8 mm long and wide; side lobes rectangular, 2.5-3.5 mm long, widening from the base to truncate apex; median lobe narrowly obovate to obovate, 3.5-6 mm long, obtuse, round or hardly emarginate. Spur straight, narrow, acute,

5-11 mm long. Column 2-3 mm tall. Pollinarium clavate, oblique-secund, with a long caudicle and small circular viscidium. Fruit ellipsoid capsule, 8-10 mm long, 3.5-4.5 mm wide. Fig. 9; 15 i; 16 a.

Ecology. Humid coniferous and broad-leaved evergreen forests on silicate soils, commonly on mossy cliffs near mountain tops. 2100-2400 m. FI. May - July. Rare (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam (Dak Lac, Kon Tum, Lam Dong).

Studied specimens. Dak Lac, Krong Bong, Chu Yang Sinh mt., VH 6159 (HN, LE); Kontum, Ngoc Linh mt., VH 582 (HN, LE); Lam Dong, Lac Duong, Bi Dup ridge, VH 3021 (HN, LE), HLF 5258 (HN, LE).

Hemipilia Lindl.,

1835, Gen. Sp. Orch. PL: 296.

Type: Hemipilia cordifolia Lindl.

Miniature lithophytic and terrestrial tuberif-erous sympodial herbs with 1 fleshy basal leaf ad-pressed to the ground and 1-2 villose ovoid tubers. Leaves light green, usually variously mottled with brownish-purple. Inflorescence few-flowered raceme on erect leafless scape. Flowers sessile, resupinate, widely opening, odorless, pink to purple, sometimes variegated with green. Sepals and petals free. Dorsal sepal concave, often adnate to petals forming hood. Lip spurred, entire, emarginate or 3-lobed. Column erect, ovoid, with small lateral auricles, anther loculi divergent to the base, rostellum very large, porrect,

Fig. 8. Amitostigma keiskeoides (Nuraliev s.n.): a - flowering plant, b, c - flower, d - flattened sepals and petals, e - lip.

curved upwards. Pollinia 2, clavate, sectile, with 10(2) species. Bhutan, Nepal, NE. India, S.

caudicle and viscidium, concealed by the incurved China, Taiwan, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, apex of stigma lobe. Stigma concave, entire.

Key to species

1. Flowers light green, variegated with purple-violet; lip ovate to cordate, acute, without callosities; sepals

cuneate, acute..................................................................................1. H. discolor

- Flowers uniform light pink to purple-violet; lip obovate, emarginate, with 2 papillose calli at the base; sepals

ovate to pyriform, shortly mucronate.........................................................2. H. calophylla

1. H. discolor Aver. et Averyanova,

2006, Komarovia, 4: 21, fig. 10.

Described from northern Vietnam (“Вас Kan Prov., Cho Don Ditr., Ban Thi municipality ... at elev. of 800-900 m a.s.l. Type {“HAL 4717”) -

HN (holotype), LE (isotype).

Lithophytic herb. Leaf 1(2), broadly ovate to orbiculate, to 12 cm long, shortly acuminate, light green, heavily spotted with dull purple-brown marks. Inflorescence 6-12 cm tall, with 4-12 flowers in lax spike. Scape glabrous, ebracteate or with 1-2 herbaceous bracts. Floral bracts lanceolate, to 12 mm long, acuminate. Flowers 8-10 mm across. Sepals ovate, acute, 6-8 mm long, green, with light violet tint toward the apex. Petals cuneate, acute, 5-7 mm long, about 2 mm wide at the base, light green with dark violet marginal line. Lip flat, cordate, acute,

crenulate along the margin, 7-8 mm long, 6 mm wide, lemon-yellow, with purple-violet apex; spur broadly cylindrical, 5-6 mm long, 2-3 mm wide, light green. Column about 3 mm long, 2.5 mm wide, light green. Ovary light green, with purple-brown tint, cylindrical, slightly curved, 1.2-1.5 cm long,

1.5-2 mm wide. Fig. 10 a-f; 16 b.

Ecology. Primary humid coniferous and broadleaved evergreen forests on rocky limestone cliffs near mountain tops. 800-900 m. FI. May - June. Very rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam (Bac Kan).

2. H. calophylla Parish et Reichenb.f.,

1874, Joum. Bot. 12: 197; Aver, et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 40.

Illustrations. Parish, 1887, Bot. Mag., tab.

Fig. 9.Amitostigma bidupense (VH 4471): a - fruiting plant, b - flattened sepals and petals, с - lip, d- column, side and frontal view, e - pollinarium.

6920; Seidenf., 1977, Dansk Bot. Ark. 31, 3: 19, fig. 6.

Described from Myanmar ("Tcnasserim"). Type (“Parish 348”) - K?, W?

Lithophytic herb. Leaf 1(2), ovate to orbicu-late, 5-11 cm long, shortly acuminate, light green, heavily spotted with dull purple-brown marks. Scape glabrous, 4-12 cm tall, with (1)3-10 flowers in lax spike to 9 cm long and 1-2 acuminate herbaceous sterile bracts. Floral bracts cuneate, 5-12 mm long, acuminate. Ovary 10-16 mm long. Flowers

8-12 mm across, light pink to purple-violet. Sepals ovate, shortly mucronate, 6-8 mm long. Petals ovate to pyriform, shortly mucronate, 4-6 mm long. Lip with 2 oblong papillose calli at the base, obovate, emarginate, with small median dent, crenulate along the margin, 9-12 mm long, 7-9 mm wide; spur broadly cylindrical, 5-7 mm long, 1.8-2.2 mm wide. Column 4-5 mm tall, with prominent winglike flanges at front. Fig. 10 g, h; 16 c, d.

Ecology. Coniferous and broad-leaved ever-

green forests, secondary shrubs on shady rocky limestone cliffs, particularly on travertine deposits. 700-1200 m. Fl. September - November. Rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam (Cao Bang, Lai Chau, Thanh Hoa). S. China, Thailand, Vietnam.

Studied specimens. Cao Bang, Bao Lac, CBL 426 (HN, LE); Cao Bang, Tra Linh, VH 4922 (HN, LE); Lai Chau, Sin Ho, HAL 9829 (HN, LE); Thanh Hoa, Quan Son, HAL 11212 (HN, LE - photo).

Vietorchis Aver. et Averyanova,

2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 92.

Type: Vietorchis aurea Aver. et Averyanova.

Terrestrial achlorophyllous leafless white saprophyte with vertical rhizome and few short, fleshy, clavate, spreading tuber-like roots. Inflorescence erect, glabrous, 10-30 cm tall, with 1-5 lax flowers, at lowest half with 3-4 distant, lanceolate, acute, white bracts, 1-3 cm long; at the base bears numerous close broadly ovate short white scales. Floral

Fig. 10. Hemipilia discolor (HAL 4717, type): a - flowering plant, b - flower, c - flattened sepals and petals, d - lip, e - column, frontal view, /- ovary; H. calophylla (I 'II4922): g - flattened flower, h - column, side view.

bracts white, lanceolate, acute, 1.5-2 cm long. Ovary slightly curved, 1-1.5 cm long, 2-3 mm wide. Flowers sessile, resupinate, odorless, widely opening,

1.5-2.2 cm across, brightly yellow, lip with orange-red stripes on disc. Sepals subsimilar, broadly ovate, 6-11 mm long, obtuse; dorsal sepal smaller. Petals obscurely rhomboid, 6-7 mm long, 4-5 mm wide, obtuse and finely irregularly denticulate along margin. Lip not mobile, 3-lobed, 8-12 mm long,

5-8 mm wide, at the base with large glossy ovate callus connate with column base. Side lobes oblong,

7-8 mm long, 3 mm wide, obtuse, incurved at the apex. Midlobe 5-7 mm long, 2-2.5 mm wide, rigid, upward incurved, broadening and truncate at the

apex. Column as long as broad, 2 mm tall, with lateral wings at front, large entire stigma, apical erect anther and 2 globular auricles. Fig. 11; 16 e, f.

Monotype genus endemic to northern Vietnam.

V. aurea Aver. et Averyanova,

2003, Updated Checkl. Orch. Vietnam: 61, 95, Fig. 10.

Described from northern Vietnam ("Ninh Binh Prov., Nho Quan Distr., Cue Phuong Municipality, Cue Phuong national park”). Type (“22 May 2002 N.M. Cuong, M.V.Xinh N.H. QucmgNMC 1643”) -Herbarium of Cue Phuong national park (holotype), HN, LE (isotypes).

Fig. 11. Vietorchis aurea (NMC1643, type): a - flowering plant, b, c - flower, cl, e- flattened sepals, petals and lip, / g - lip base, h-j - column, frontal half-side and side view, k - pollinarium, / - young fruit.

Ecology. Closed evergreen broad-leaved valley forest on alluvial soil between rocky limestone ridges. 350 m. FI. April - June. Very rare (CR).

Distribution. Vietnam (Ninh Binh).

Studied specimens. Ninh Binh, Cue Phuong national park, May 2004, M V. Xinh, MVX 261 (Herbarium of Cue Phuong national park, HN, LE).

Notes. Very rare relic species of aboriginal lowland limestone flora of northern Vietnam. The plant was not observed up to now anywhere outside of Cue Phuong national park. Quite possible this species represents last surviving population of this unique strictly endemic taxon. The orchid is the bright example of local endemism of very high level and object for protection of highest priority. The nearest relative (also representative of monotypic genus), Silvorchis colorata J.J.Smith was described in 1907 from Java. This was the only record, since then this orchid has not been found during the past century and is probably extinct.

Subtrib. 4.2.2. Gymnadeniinae Parl.,

1858, FI. Ital. 3: 393 (sub "(iymnadenleae"): Potucek, 1968, Uber. Nat. Ver. Wuppertal 21-22: 102. - Trib. Gymnadenieae Endl., 1830, Fl. Poson.: 162. - Subtrib. Hcibenciriinae Benth., 1881, Joum. Linn. Soc. London (Bot.) 18: 288; Benth., 1883, in Benth. et Hook.f., Gen. Plant., 3: 464, 486. - Trib. Habenarieae Schltr., 1914, Orch.: 72, nom. nud.; Dunsterv. et Garay, 1961, Venez. Orch. 111., 2: 28. -Subtrib. Herminiinae Szlach., 1991, Fol. Geobot. Phytotax. 26, 3: 320.

Type: Gymnadenia R. Br.

21(5) genera and 1100(54) species. Tropical, subtropical and temperate areas of all continents, boreal regions of Northern Hemisphere, with highest diversity in Africa.

Herminium L.,

1758, Opera Varia: 251.

Type: Herminium monorchis (L.) R.Br.

Terrestrial sympodial tuberiferous herbs with one or few lanceolate leaves and many-flowered terminal spike. Flowers small, yellowish-green. Sepals and petals ovate to lanceolate, petals smaller, free, or connivent with dorsal sepal into hood. Lip entire,

2-lobed or 3-lobed, flat, concave or obscurely saccate at the base. Column short, with 2 prominent, often stalked lateral staminodes. Anther loculi small, parallel. Pollinia 2, each with short caudicle and viscidium. Stigma 2-lobed, with small rostellum; stigma lobes convex, clavate.

30(1) species. Europe, tropical, subtropical and

temperate mainland Asia, Japan, Taiwan, Hainan, Philippines and Indonesia.

H. lanceum (Thunb. ex Sw.) Vuijk,

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1961, Blumea, 11: 228; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 45; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam. Orch.: 55; Aver, et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 40. - Ophrys lancea Thunb. ex Sw., 1800, Kongl. Vetensk. Acad. Nya Handl., 21: 223.

Illustrations. Lindl., 1832, Bot. Reg. 18, tab. 1525 (sub Acercts an gusti folia); King, Pantl., 1898, Ann. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 8, tab. 434 (sub Herminium an gusti folia); Lang, Tsi, 1976, Icon. Corm. Sinic. 5: 624, fig. 8078, : 622, fig. 8073 (sub Herminium alaschanicum); Seidenf., 1977, Dansk

Fig. 12. Herminium lanceum (HLF5202): a - flowering plant, b - flattened flower, c - young fruit.

Bot. Ark. 31, 3: 21, fig.7; Comber, 1990, Orch. Java: 66; Seidenf., Wood, 1992, Orch. Penins. Mai. Sing.: 101, fig. 41, pi. 3a; Chen, Tsi, Luo, 1999, Nat. Orch. China: 263; Phamh., 2000, Illustr. FI. Vietnam 3:

766, fig. 10832; Su, 2000, FI. Taiwan 5: 925, fig. 393.

Described from Java (“Java”). Type (" Thun-berg”) - UPS.

Stem 20-120 cm tall with small ovoid tubers and 2-4 linear to linear-lanceolate, sessile, acuminate leaves 6-20 cm long, 0.4-1.7 cm wide. Inflorescence densely many-flowered, 4-30 cm long. Floral bracts narrowly ovate to lanceolate, acuminate, 3-10 mm long, 1-2 mm wide, shorter than ovary. Flowers 6-8 mm long, green to yellowish-green. Ovary fusiform, 5-7 mm long. Sepals and petals ovate to narrowly ovate, 2-3 mm long, 0.51 mm wide, connivent into hood, petals distinctly smaller and more narrow. Lip elongate, 2.5-5 mm long, 3-lobed; lateral lobes long, linear; midlobe oblong short, often dent-like, obtuse. Column 0.5-

0.8 mm tall. Fruit ovoid, sessile erect, 5-10 mm long. Fig. 12; 16 g.

Ecology: Open secondary forests, grassy coniferous woodlands, open dump shrubs and grasslands. 1400-1800 m. FI. September - November. Occasional (LR).

Distribution: Vietnam (Lam Dong, Lao Cai). Tropical and subtropical mainland Asia, Japan, Philippines, Timor, Sulawesi and Java.

Studied specimens. Chapa 1500 m, Petelot 5161 (P); Prenh, Dalat, Eberhardt, s.п.; Lam Dong, Lac Duong, Bi Doup mt., HLF5201 (HN, LE), HLF 5282 (HN, LE).

Peristylus Blume,

1825, Bijdr.: 404, nom. cons.

Lectotype: Peristylus grandis Blume Terrestrial sympodial tuberiferous herbs with few leaves and many-flowered terminal spike. Flowers resupinate, small, commonly light green. Sepals and petals ovate, free, petals often oblique, connivent with dorsal sepal into hood. Lip longer than sepals, entire or 3-lobed, saccate or spurred at the base. Spur shorter than ovary. Column short, erect, with sessile lateral staminodes. Anther loculi small, parallel. Pollinia 2, shortly clavate, sectile, each with short caudicle and viscidium. Stigma 2-lobed, with small rostellum; stigma lobes remote, sessile or stalked, convex, adnate to base of lip and stami-nodes. Ovary sessile.

75(13) species. Tropical and subtropical Asia, NE. Australia and southwestern Pacific islands.

Key to species

1. Lip entire....................................................................................... 1. P chapaensis

2. Lip side lobes narrowly cuneate, triangular or rectangular, usually shorter than or little longer than median

lobe; spur shorter than median sepal; lip not split into hypochile and epichile by transversal ridge.............3

- Lip side lobes elongate, finger- or thread-like, distinctly longer than median lobe; spur longer than median

sepal; lip divided into hypochile and epichile by transversal ridge, behind which hypochile is concave, giving protection to clavate rather long stigmas; epichile usually recurved down from transversal ridge.................11

3. Lip without calli on disc; leaves more or less distant in lower part of stem; spur usually round or retuse at the

- Lip with higher or lower, rounded or lunate callus on disc; leaves usually in rosette; spur usually shortly

apiculate ....................................................................................................... 7

4. Lip dissected into lobes to the middle; lip lobes rather equal, slender, 2.5-5 times as long as broad at base;

- Lip dissected into lobes less than to the middle; lip lobes equal or not, broadly-triangular, less than 2.5 times

5. Lip as long as or shorter than petals; lateral sepals not oblique spreading, not with strongly inrolled edges, but

more or less hooded, enclosing column; floral bracts usually shorter than ovary.......................3. P. prainii

- Lip longer than petals; lateral sepals oblique spreading, with strongly inrolled edges; floral bracts usually

6. Spur broadly fusiform; basal part of lip slightly concave; petals slightly oblique, not much broader than

- Spur globular; basal part of lip not concave, but longitudinally with narrowly triangular nectary in front of

entrance to spur; petals strongly oblique, much broader than lateral sepals.....................5. P. goodyeroides

7(3). Lip side lobes broad, rectangular or rhombic, with broad truncate erose apex; callus on the lip high, broadly

- Lip side lobes narrowly cuneate to filiform, with attenuate, acute apex; callus on the lip low, lunate.10

8. Lip side lobes triangular-oblong, round and entire at the apex; flowers pure white....................6. P. maingayi

- Lip side lobes rectangular, truncate and dentate at the apex; flowers white or brownish-purple........................9

9. Flowers pure white.....................................................................................7. P. holttumii

10(7). Leaves in radical rosette; lip side lobes cuneate, falcate, as broad or hardly narrower than median lobe; lip

divided into lobes from the middle; spur much shorter than lip . 9........................................P. lacertiferus

- Leaves in rosette at the middle of the stem; lip side lobes finger-like to filiform, much narrower than median

lobe; lip divided into lobes from the base; spur as long or longer than lip...........................10. P. aristatus

11(2). Lip side lobes narrowly lanceolate, ligulate to finger-like, not much longer than median lobe; leaves distant

or in rosette at the middle of the stem..............................................................................12

- Lip side lobes filiform, thread-like, much longer than median lobe; leaves radical or subradical......................13

12. Leaves more or less distant; lip side lobes narrowly lanceolate to linear, as broad as median lobe; spur

- Leaves in rosette at the middle of the stem; lip side lobes finger-like, much narrower than median lobe; spur

clavate, bifid at the apex; petals as broad as sepals or narrower........................................10. P. aristatus

13. Spur globular or clavate, slightly bifid, as long as or shorter than median sepal..................12. P. tentaculatus

- Spur as long as or longer than median sepal, clavate, obdeltoid, much widening toward apex which has a low

broad incision........................................................................................13. P. monticola

1 .P. chapaensis (Gagnep.) Seidenf.

1977, Dansk Bot. Ark. 31: 63, fig. 34; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 52, fig. 26; Aver., 1994, Iden-tif. Guide. Vietnam. Orch.: 56; Aver, et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 50. - Habe-naria chapaensis Gagnep., 1931, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 78: 67.

Illustrations. Phamh., 2000, Illustr. FI. Vietnam 3: 768, fig. 10837.

Described from northern Vietnam (‘Tonkin: Chapa, 1550 m”). Type (“Poilane s.п.") - P.

Plant 10 cm tall with 2 radical leaves and lax 12-flowered inflorescence. Leaves broadly lanceolate 1-2 cm long. Floral bracts linear, acuminate, to

5 mm long. Ovary cylindrical, to 3 mm long. Flowers white, 2.5 mm across. Sepals and petals subsimilar narrowly ovate, obtuse, 2.5-3.5 mm long. Lip entire, narrowly ovate to broadly lanceolate, attenuate, slightly shorter than sepals. Spur broadly cylindrical, 2 mm long, obtuse. Column 1 mm tall. Fig. 13 a-c.

Ecology.? 1500-1600 m. FL? Very rare (DD).

Distribution. Vietnam (Lao Cai).

Note. Questionable species known on the base of alone type specimen, which may represent abnormal peloric form of P. laceriferus.

2. P. constrictus (Lindl.) Lindl.,

1835, Gen. Sp. Orch. PL: 300; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 49;Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam. Orch.: 57; Aver, et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 50. - Herminium constrictum Lindl., 1832, Bot. Reg. 18, tab. 1499. - Habenaria cylindrocalyx Gagnep., 1931, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 78: 68.

Illustrations. King, Pantl., 1898, Ann Bot.

Gard. (Calcutta) 8, tab. 429 (sub Habenaria con-stricta); Seidenf., 1977, Dansk Bot. Ark. 31, 3: 47, fig. 20; Phamh., 2000, Illustr. FI. Vietnam 3: 768, fig. 10838.

Described from NE. India (“India, Assam, Gualpara”). Tvpe (“Buchanan-Hamilton Wall. Cat. 7043B”) - K.

Plant 40-100 cm tall with 4-6 ovate-elliptic to broadly lanceolate, acute, shortly petiolate leaves in lower half. Leaves to 18 cm long and 8 cm wide. Spike dense, many-flowered, to 30 cm long. Floral bracts lanceolate, acuminate, erect, to 15 mm long. Flowers 8-12 mm across. Ovary 7-9 mm long. Sepals pale brown, lanceolate, 7-9 mm long; lateral sepals narrower, spreading. Petals white, narrowly ovate to ovate, oblique, 8-9 mm long. Lip deeply

3-lobed, spurred, 1-1.2 cm long; lateral lobes linear, slightly falcate, diverging, 3-6 mm long; median lobe oblong, obtuse, 5 mm long. Spur globose, compressed, 1.5-2 mm across. Column broad, about 1 mm tall. Fig. 13 d.

Ecology.? 300-1600 m. FI. June - August. Rare (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam (Dong Nai, Lam Dong). Bhutan, Nepal, India, Myanmar, S. China, Thailand, Cambodia.

Studied specimens. Cochinchina s.l., Pierre 146; Gia Lao and Bao Chang, Pierre s.n. (P); Lang-bian, Sigaldi 231 (P); Mt. Tamire, Pierre s.n. (P); Pongour, Djiring, Evrard 1202 (P).

3.P. prainii (Hook.f.) Kraenzl.,

1898, Orchid. Gen. Sp. 1: 514; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 49; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam. Orch.: 57; Aver, et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 50. - Habenaria prainii

Hook.f., 1890, FI. Brit. India 6: 159.

Illustrations. King, Pantl., 1898, Ann. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 8, tab. 431; Seidenf., 1977, Dansk Bot. Ark. 31, 3: 50, fig. 22; Phamh., 2000, Illustr. FI. Vietnam 3: 769, fig. 10842.

Described from NE. India (“Naga Hills, Ko-hima”). Type {"Pram 42") - K.

Slender plants 30-40 cm tall with 3-4 ovate, acute, sessile leaves clustered at the middle of stem. Spike lax to subdense, many-flowered, 5-10 cm long. Leaves 1.8-5 cm long, 0.8-1.8 cm wide. Floral bracts lanceolate, acuminate, 7-10 mm long. Ovary

6-7 mm long. Flowers 3-4 mm across, brownish-green. Sepals ovate to narrowly ovate, obtuse, 2-2.5 mm long; lateral sepals apiculate at apex. Petals ovate to broadly ovate, oblique, of the same length. Lip 3-lobed, spurred, 2 mm across; lip lobes triangular, 0.5-0.8 mm long; median lobe much narrower, dent-like. Spur globose, 0.5-0.8 mm across. Column 0.6-0.8 mm tall. Fig. 13 e-g.

Ecology.? 1000 m. FI. June - July. Very rare (DD).

Distribution. Vietnam (Cao Bang, Lao Cai). Bhutan, Nepal, NE. India, Myanmar, Thailand.

Studied specimens. Chapa, Petelot 5163 (P); Pho Bang, Cao Bang, sine coll. 71, 82 (HN); Tinh Tuc, Cao Bang, D.Khoi 128 (HN).

4. P. parishii Reichenb.f.,

1874, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 30: 139; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 49; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam. Orch.: 57; Aver, et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 50.

Illustrations. King, Pantl., 1898, Ann Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 8, tab. 426 (sub Habenaria parishii); Seidenf., 1977, Dansk Bot. Ark. 31, 3: 52, fig. 24; Phamh., 2000, Illustr. FI. Vietnam 3: 769, fig.10841

Described from Myanmar (“Moulmein”). Type (“Parish 216”) - K.

Plants 40-60 cm with 3-5 leaves clustered around middle and lax to subdense many-flowered spike 5-18 cm long. Leaves ovate elliptic, acute,

8-12 cm long, 3-5.5 cm wide. Floral bracts lanceolate, acuminate 8-12 mm long. Ovary 5-7 mm long. Flowers 4-5 mm across. Sepals brown to olive-green, ovate to narrowly ovate, 3-4 mm long. Petals olive-green, ovate, 2.5-3 cm long. Lip 3-lobed, spurred, olive-green, 7-10 mm long; lateral lobes triangular, 1 mm long; median lobe oblong, exceeding lateral lobes, 1.2-1.5 mm long. Spur straight, fusiform, 1.5-2.2 mm long. Column 0.8-1 mm tall. Fruit sessile, ovoid, erect, 7-12 mm long. Fig. 14 a.

Ecology.? 600-1500 m. FI. June - July. Very rare (DD).

Distribution. Vietnam (Thua Thien - Hue). Bhutan, Nepal, India, Andaman Islands, Myanmar,

S. China, Thailand.

Studied specimens. Mekong to Hue, Harmand 1894 (P).

5. P. goodyeroides (D.Don) Lindl.,

1835, Gen. Sp. Orchid. PL: 299; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 49;Aver., 1994,Identif. Guide. Vietnam. Orch.: 57; Aver, et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 50. - Habenaria goodyeroides D Don, 1825, Prodr. FI. Nepal.: 25.

Illustrations. Lindl., 1832, Bot. Reg. 18, tab. 1499 (sub Herminium goodyeroides); King, Pantl., 1898, Ann. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 8, tab. 430 (sub Hebenaria goodyeroides); Lang, Tsi, 1976, Icon. Corm. Sinic. 5: 633, tab. 8095; Seidenf., 1977, Dansk Bot. Ark. 31, 3: 54, fig. 25; Comber, 1990, Orch. Java: 70; Seidenf., Wood, 1992, Orch. Penins. Mai. Sing.: 105, fig. 43 a-c, pi. 3c; Chen, Tsi, Luo,

1999, Nat. Orch. China: 345; Phamh., 2000, Illustr. FI. Vietnam 3: 768, fig. 10840; Su, 2000, FI. Taiwan 5: 997, fig. 423; Comber, 2001, Orch. Sumatra.: 107.

Described from Nepal (“Nepalia”). Lectotype (“Nepal, Paspulnath, coll. Wallich, Wall. Cat. 7066A p.p.”) - CAL (lectotype), BM, K (isolectotypes).

Plants 30-80 cm tall with 3-5 ovate-elliptic, acute leaves at the middle of stem, bracteate stalk and dense, many-flowered spike 9-20 cm long. Leaves sessile, 5-15 cm long, 3-6 cm wide. Floral bracts lanceolate, acuminate 1-1.4 cm long. Flowers sweet spicy fragrant, 5-8 mm across. Ovary 8-10 mm long. Sepals dull greenish, ovate, concave, 5-6 mm long. Petals 6-7 mm long, much broader than sepals, white, rhombic, obtuse, forming hood with median sepal. Lip white, sometime with green tint, spurred, 5-6.5 mm long, 3-lobed; lobes subsimilar, triangular, obtuse; medial lobe usually broader; spur short, globose, 1.6-2 mm across. Column broad, 2-2.5 mm tall. Fruit erect, ovoid, sessile, 8-12 mm long. Fig. 14 b, c; 16 h, i.

Ecology. Secondary open forests and shrubs, grassy woodlands and grasslands on any kind of soil. 500-1500 m. FI. June - August. Rare (LR).

Distribution. Vietnam (Cao Bang, Kon Turn, Lam Dong, Thai Nguyen). Nepal, Bhutan, India, S. China, Taiwan, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Malacca, Philippines, Indonesia, New Guinea.

Studied specimens. Cao Bang, Trung Khanh, HAL 5763 (HN, LE); Dalat, Tixier drawing s.n. (P);

Fig. 13. Peristvlus chapaensis (Poilane s.n., type): a - flowering plant, b - flower, c - flattened sepals, petals and lip; P. constrictus (GT 7911 Thailand): d - lip; P. prainii (I). Khoi et al„ 128): e - flowering plant,/- ovary and flower, g - flattened sepals, petals and lip.

Fig. 14. Peristvlus parishii (Harm and 1894): a - flattened tepals; P. goodyeroides (VH 2001b): b - flowering plant, c - flattened sepals, petals and lip; P. maingayi (Evrard 1219): flower.

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Fig. 15. Corvbas annamensis: a (HLF 5317, type); Cryptostvlis arachnites', b (HLF1174), c (HAL 5054): Pla-tanthera epiphvtica: d (HLF5250, type); Platanthera singgalangensis: e (CBL 138): Brachycorythis helferi: f (IH2001a): Amitostigma keiskeoides: g, h (Nuraliev s.n.):Amitostigma bidupense: i (IH 6159).

Fig. 16. Amitostigma bidupense: a (VH 6159): Hemipilia discolor: b (HAL 4717, type); H. calophvlla: c, d (HAL 9829): Vietorchis aurea: e, f (A/IT261, type); Herminium Icmceum: g (HLF 5282): Peristylus goodyeroides: h, i (HLF 7407a). ' ' '

Kon Turn, Dak Gley, VH2001b (LE), VH2395 (HN, LE); Thai Nguyen, Vo Nhai, HAL 1586 (HN, LE).

6. P. maingayi (King et Pantl.) J.J. Wood et Ormerod,

2001, Orchids Sarawak: 368. - Habenaria maingayi King et Pantl., 1897, Joum. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 2, 66: 604. - Peristylus candidus J.J. Sm., 1905, Orch. Java: 36; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 49, fig. 24; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam. Orch.: 58; Aver, et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 50. - Habenaria geoffrayi Gagnep., 1931, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 78: 69. -

H. langbianensis Gagnep., 1931, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 78: 71. - Her minium australe Gagnep., 1931, Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat., 2, 3: 324. -H. annamense Gagnep.,1932, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 79: 36.-Peristylus australis (Gagnep.) Tang et F.T.Wang, 1951, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 1: 63. - P. langbianensis (Gagnep.) Tang et F.T. Wang, 1951, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 1: 64.

Illustrations. Gagnep., 1934, FI. Gen. Indo-chine 6, 5: 588, fig. 57, 1-8 (sub Herminium annamense), 591,fig. 58,5-11 (sub Habenaria geoffrayi); Seidenf., 1977, Dansk Bot. Ark. 31, 3: 61, fig. 30 (sub Peristylus candidus); Seidenf., Wood, 1992, Orch. Penins. Mai. Sing.: 106, fig. 44 g-j (sub Peristylus candidus); Phamh., 2000, Illustr. FI. Vietnam 3: 767, fig. 10835 (sub Peristylus candidus).

Described from Singapore (“Singapore”). Type (“Maingay; Herb. prop. 3354 Kew distrib. № 1663”) - K.

Plant 25-35 cm tall with 2-3 radical leaves. Leaves broadly lanceolate to narrowly ovate, to 8 cm long and 2.5 cm wide. Inflorescence subdense to dense, many-flowered. Floral bracts and ovary about

1 cm long. Flowers white, 5-7 mm across. Sepals and petals subsimilar, narrowly ovate, 5-6 mm long. Lip 3-lobed, 5-6 mm long; lateral lobes spreading, rectangular, round at apex; median lobe narrowly triangular, blunt, little shorter than side lobes. Spur ovoid, shortly apiculate, 1.5 mm long. Fig. 14 d.

Ecology. Open secondary forests, grassy coniferous woodlands, grasslands. 1400-1600 m. FI. September - November. Very rare (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam (Lam Dong). Indochina, Malacca, Indonesia, Australia.

Studied specimens. Bidop, Ht. Donai, Poilane 30261 (P); Dan Ta La, Dalat, Tixier drawing, s.n. (P); Langbian, Eberhardt 1901 (P), Tixier s.n. (P), Lecomte , Finet 1534 (P); Mt. Elephant, Langbian, Evrard 1219 (P).

7. P holttumii Seidenf.,

1977, Dansk Bot. Ark. 31: 56, fig. 27. - Habenaria sumatrana (Schltr.) Schltr. var. major Holt-tum, 1947, Gard. Bull. Singapore 11: 281.

Illustrations. Seidenf., Wood, 1992, Orch. Penins. Mai. Sing.: 105, fig. 43 d-h.

Described from Malacca Peninsula (“Malaya: Kuala Nerang, Kedah”). Lectotype (“Corner 31522”) - K.

Plant 18-22 cm tall with 2-4 leaves in radical rosette. Leaves broadly lanceolate to ovate, acute to shortly acuminate, 3-4.5 cm long. Scape with 3-5 narrowly cuneate, acuminate, distant sterile bracts. Spike subdense to dense, many-flowered, to 7 cm long. Floral bracts and ovary 5-7 mm long. Flowers white. Sepals and petals subsimilar, narrowly ovate, acute, 4-5 mm long. Lip 3-lobed, spurred, 4-5 mm long, with lunate callus and small recurved blunt median dent at the base; lateral lobes rectangular, truncate and erose-dentate at apex, 2-2.5 mm long; median lobe narrowly triangular, obtuse, shorter than lateral lobes. Spur ovoid, shortly apiculate,

1-1.4 mm long. Column about 1 mm tall. Fig. 17 a-c; 33 a.

Ecology. Open secondary forests, grassy coniferous woodlands, grasslands. 1400-1600 m. FI. September - October. Very rare (LR).

Distribution. Vietnam (Lam Dong). Thailand, Malacca.

Studied specimens. Lam Dong, Dalat, TV. V.Duy 331, 23 Sept. 2003 (LE).

8. P. holttumianus Aver.,

1988, Bot. Joum. (Leningrad) 73: 1025; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 51, fig. 25; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam. Orch.: 58; Aver, et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 50.

Illustrations. Phamh., 2000, Illustr. FI. Vietnam 3: 767, fig. 10836.

Described from southern Vietnam (“Ht. Massif de Klang-Yang, Dalat ... 1500 m”). Type (‘ ‘Phain-ThuanCRST 120”)- P.

Plant 30-40 cm tall with few radical leaves, erect scape and dense spike 5-6 cm long. Floral bracts narrowly ovate, obtuse, 5-7 mm long. Flowers purple-brown, 4-5 mm across, more or less cam-panulate. Sepals and petals narrowly ovate, 3-4 mm long, lateral sepals and petals slightly oblique. Lip shortly spurred, 3.5-4 mm long, 3-lobed; lateral lobes spreading, rectangular, 2-2.5 mm long, 1.5-

2 mm wide, median lobe triangular, dent-like. Fig. 17 d.

Ecology.? 1500 m. FI. May - June. Very rare (DD).

Distribution. Vietnam (Lam Dong).

Note. Species is still know on the base of alone collection. It is very close to white-flowered P. holt-tumii, from which differs in purple-brown color of flowers.

9. P. lacertiferus (Lindl.) J.J. Smith.,

1927, Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg, 3, 9: 23. -Coeloglossum lacertiferum Lindl., 1835, Gen. Sp. Orchid. PL: 302.

Illustrations. King, Pantl., 1898, Ann. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 8, tab. 427 (sub Habenaria ten-taculata); Seidenf., 1977, Dansk Bot. Ark. 31, 3:

59, fig. 29; Comber, 1990, Orch. Java: 69; Seidenf., Wood, 1992, Orch. Penins. Mai. Sing.: 106, fig. 44 a-f; Phamh., 2000, Illustr. FI. Vietnam 3: 768, fig. 10840 b (sub “Habenaria lateriflora”); Comber,

2001, Orch. Sumatra.: 108.

Described from Myanmar (“Burma, Ta-voy”). Type (“W.Gomez Wall. Cat. 7055”) - K.

Plant 10-25 cm tall with 2-3 narrowly ovate to ovate obtuse, sessile leaves in radical rosette. Leaves

2-4 cm long, 1-1.5 cm wide. Spike lax to subdense, with 8-12 flowers. Floral bracts cuneate, acuminate, to 12 mm long, longer than ovary. Ovary glabrous, erect, 5-7 mm long. Flowers green, 4-5 mm across. Sepals and petals narrowly ovate, 2-3 mm long. Lip deeply 3-lobed, spurred, 3-3.5 mm long; lateral lobes linear-lanceolate, slightly falcate, acute, about 1 mm long; median lobe oblong, equal or slightly longer than lateral lobes. Spur saccate-fusiform, shortly apiculate, 1 mm long, 0.5 mm wide. Column about 1 mm tall. Fig. 17 e-g.

Ecology. Open secondary shrubs and grasslands on silicate soils. 1500-1700 m. FI. June - September. Very rare (LR).

Distribution. Vietnam (Son La). NE. India, Myanmar, S. China, Ryukyu Islands, Thailand, Malacca, Sumatra.

Studied specimens. Son La, Thuan Chau, HAL 9686a (LE); northern Vietnam, sine loc., G. V. Mike-shin, s.n., a. 1963 (LE).

10. P. aristatus Lindl.,

1835, Gen. Sp. Orch. PL: 300. - Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam. Orch.: 58; Aver, et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 50.

llustrations. Seidenf., 1977, Dansk Bot. Ark.

371, fig. 164; Phamh., 2000, Illustr. FI. Vietnam 3:

767, fig. 10834, 771, fig. 10852 (sub Habenaria aristata).

Described from Sri Lanka (“Zeylona ... prope

Peradeniam”). Type (“Macrae, 56’’) - K.

Herb 15-60 cm tall with rosette of 3-4 leaves at the middle of stem. Leaves narrowly ovate, acuminate, membranaceous, 2-7 cm long, 0.8-2.5 cm wide. Flowers pale green, in lax spike 7-20 cm long. Floral bracts ovate, acuminate, 4.5-6 mm long. Sepals and petals subsimilar, narrowly ovate to oblong-ovate, 2.5-3 mm long. Petals connivent to median sepal forming hood. Lip deeply 3-lobed; lateral lobes filiform, falcate, 3-4 mm long; median lobe broader and slightly shorter, ligulate. Spur clavate, shortly bifid at apex, 3-4 mm long. Fig. 17 h.

Ecology.? FL? Very rare (DD).

Distribution. Vietnam ? Sri Lanka, S. India, Laos ?, Cambodia ?

Studied specimens. Indo-chine, sine loc., 1933,Petelot, 5653 (AMES).

Note. Alone report of this species for French Indochina (Jayaweera, 1981, Fl.Ceylon, 2: 370) is based on single collection and certainly needs verification. According to Dr. Seidenfaden (1992, Orch. Indochina: 48) the specimen in question is P. densus.

11. P densus (Lindl.) Santap. et Kapad.,

1960, Joum. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 57: 128; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 48; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam. Orch.: 59; Aver, et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 50. -Coeloglossum densum Lindl., 1835, Gen. Sp. Orch. PL: 302. - Habenaria evrardii Gagnep., 1931, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 78: 69. -H. dankiaensis Gagnep., 1932, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 79: 35. - Glossula passerina Gagnep., 1934, FL Indo-Chine 6: 627. -Habenaria passerina (Gagnep.) Tang et F.T.Wang, 1951, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 1: 63.

Illustrations. Wight, 1851, Icon. PL India Orient. 5, tab. 1702 (sub Habenaria peristyloides); Gagnep., 1934, FL Gen. Indochine 6, 5: 626, fig.

60, 7-13 (sub Glossula passerina); Seidenf., 1977, Dansk Bot. Ark. 31, 3: 34, fig. 12; Phamh., 2000, Illustr. FL Vietnam 3: 768, fig. 10839.

Described from NE. India (“Sylhet”). Type (“Wallich, 7057”) - K?

Plant 50-120 cm tall with 3-11 distant, lanceolate to narrowly ovate, acuminate leaves, 6-18 cm long, 1-5 cm wide. Spike lax to subdense, many-flowered, 8-30 cm long. Floral bracts ovate, acuminate, 6-9 mm long, as long as ovary. Flowers green. Sepals and petals subsimilar, narrowly ovate to oblong, 3.5-5 mm long, petals broader than lateral sepals. Petals connivent to median sepal forming hood; lateral sepals spreading. Lip spurred, divided into concave hypochile and 3-lobed epichile by transver-

sal ridge; lateral lobes, linear lanceolate, finger-like, falcate, spreading, 3.5-4.5 mm long; median lobe ligulate, straight, obtuse, 2-3 mm long, about 1 mm wide. Spur fusiform to cylindrical, acute, 3-3.5 mm long. Column about 1 mm tall. Fig. 17 i; 33 b, c.

Ecology. Secondary open forests with bamboo, grassy coniferous woodlands, grasslands on silicate soils. 600-1800 m. Fl. September - November. Not common (LR).

Distribution. Vietnam (Binh Thuan, Dak Lak, Lam Dong, Ninh Thuan). India, Myanmar, S. China, Thailand, Cambodia.

Studied specimens. Bellevue, Dalat, Tixier drawings.n. (P); Between Xongang and Dran, Lang-bian, Chevalier 38498 (P); Dak Lak, Krong Bong, Chu Yang Sin mt., HLF 5484 (HN, LE); Lam Dong, Lac Duong, Bi Doup mt., HLF 5203 (HN, LE); Langbian, Poilanel8625 (P); Mt. Elephant, Dalat, Evrard 1225 (P), Evrard 965 (AMES), Evrard 993 (P); Ninh Thuan, Langbian, Eberhardt 1741 (P); Nui Chua Chan, Pierre s.n. (P); W. Tonkin, Bon 592.

12. P. tentaculatus (Lindl.) J.J.Smith.,

1905, Orch. Java: 35; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 48; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam. Orch.: 58; Aver, et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 50. - Glossula tentaculata Lindl., 1824, Bot. Reg. 10, tab. 862.

Illustrations. Seidenf., 1977, Dansk Bot. Ark. 31, 3: 43, fig. 18; Chen, Tsi, Luo, 1999, Nat. Orch. China: 346; Phamh., 2000, Illustr. Fl. Vietnam 3: 769, fig.10843.

Described from S. China (“China” - sec. Ind. Kew.). Type (“Parks”) - K?

Plant 15-40 cm tall with 2-4 narrowly ovate to ovate, obtuse, sessile leaves in radical rosette. Leaves

3-5 cm long, 1-2 cm wide. Spike lax, many-flowers. Floral bracts triangular-cuneate, acuminate, 5-7 mm long, as long as ovary. Flowers light green. Sepals and petals subsimilar, narrowly ovate, 3-4 mm long. Petals connivent to median sepal forming hood; lateral sepals spreading. Lip 3-lobed, spurred; lateral lobes filiform, thread-like, spreading, to 18 mm long; median lobe oblong-ligulate, straight, obtuse, much shorter than lateral lobes, 2.5-3.5 mm long. Spur globular, slightly bifid, as long as or shorter than sepals, 2-2.5 mm across. Column about 1 mm tall. Fig. 18 a.

Ecology.? 100-300 m. Fl.? Very rare (DD).

Distribution. Vietnam (Ninh Binh). S. China, Thailand, Cambodia.

Studied specimens. Ninh Binh, W Tonkin, Bon 2 (P).

13. P monticola (Ridl.) Seidenf.,

1977, Dansk Bot. Ark. 31: 35. - Habenaria monticola Ridl., 1896, Joum. Linn. Soc., Bot. 32: 413. - Glossula calcarata Rolfe, 1913, Kew Bull. (1913): 145. - Peri stylus calcaratus (Rolfe) S.Y.Hu, 1973, Quart. Joum. Taiwan Mus. 26: 398; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 48, fig. 22; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam. Orch.: 59; Aver, et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 50.

Illustrations. Seidenf., 1977, Dansk Bot. Ark. 31, 3: 36, fig. 13; Comber, 1990, Orch. Java: 69; Seidenf., Wood, 1992, Orch. Penins. Mai. Sing.: 104, fig. 42 d-f, pi. 3b; Phamh., 2000, Illustr. Fl. Vietnam 3: 767, fig. 10833 (sub Peristylus calcaratus); Comber, 2001, Orch. Sumatra.: 109.

Described from Malacca Peninsula (“Malaya: Mt. Ophir”). Type (“Ridley 9994”) - K.

Plant 10-50 cm tall with 2-4 narrowly ovate to ovate, acute, sessile or shortly petiolate leaves in radical rosette. Leaves 1-7 cm long, 0.5-2 cm wide. Spike lax, few- to many-flowered, to 20 cm long. Floral bracts cuneate, acuminate, 5-8 mm long, as long as ovary. Flowers light green to dull yellowish-green. Sepals and petals subsimilar, narrowly ovate,

2-3 mm long. Petals connivent to median sepal forming hood; lateral sepals spreading. Lip spurred, with transversal ridge dividing concave hypochile and 3-lobed epichile; lateral lobes filiform, threadlike, erect or spreading, straight or sometime flexuo-se, 1.5-2.5 cm long; median lobe bent down, ligulate, straight, 2-3.5 mm long, 0.5 mm wide. Spur dark green, clavate, obdeltoid, dilated and distinctly

2-lobed at apex, 3-4 mm long, longer than sepals. Column about 1 mm tall. Fig. 18 b-d; 33 d-f.

Ecology. Open secondary forests, grassy coniferous woodlands, grasslands. 1400-1600 m. Fl. September - November. Rare (LR).

Distribution. Vietnam (Lam Dong, Lao Cai). Andaman Islands, S. China, Taiwan, Malacca, Philippines, Indonesia to New Guinea.

Studied specimens. Chapa, Petelot 5168 (P); Dalat, CRST, f. 191 (P); Mt. Elephant, Prenn, Evra-rad 1220 (P); Lam Dong, Dalat, N.V. Duy 332, 23 Sept. 2003 (LE); Lam Dong, Lac Duong, HLF 5280 (HN, LE), HLF 5384a (HN, LE).

Note. Species is very close to P. tentaculatus, from which differs in long, obdeltoid spur retuse at the apex and in smaller flowers.

Habenaria Willd.,

1805, Sp. PI. 4: 44.

Terrestrial and lithophytic sympodial herbs with fleshy roots or underground tuber. Leaves linear

Fig. 17. Peristvlus holttumii (Duv 331): a - flowering plant, b, c - flower; P. holttumianus (CRST120, type): cl llowcr: P. lacertiferus (HAL 9686): e - flowering plant,/- flattened flower, g - lip, side view; P. aristatus (Thwaites CP 3081, Sri Lanka): h - flattened tepals; P. densus (HLF 5203): i - flattened tepals.

Fig. 18. Peri stylus tentaculatus (GT 3036, NW. Thailand): a - flower; P. monticola (N.. V. Duv 332): b - flowering plant, c - flower, d - flattened lip.

to suborbicular, from 1 to many, radical or distant in lower part of unbranched erect floriferous stem, sheathed at the base; upper part of stem bears bract-like, much reduced leaves and terminal many-flowered racemose inflorescence. Flowers resu-pinate, commonly white, light green or brownish, rarely red or yellow. Sepals and petals, free; petals often oblique, entire, 2-lobed, bifid or laciniate, usually connivent with dorsal sepal into hood. Lateral sepals oblique spreading or reflexed. Lip entire or

3-lobed, spurred at the base. Lip lobes sometimes divided into lobules. Spur usually cylindrical, long, often curved, geniculately bent, or inflated at apex. Column broad, erect with lateral staminodes (au-

ricles). Anther loculi either adjacent or separated by a U-shaped connective, anther canals at the base adnate to elongated side lobes of rostellum forming viscidiophore. Stigma with 2 separated lobes, each often on top of stalk-like stigmaphore. Pollinaria 2, each with sectile pollinium, long caudicle and small naked viscidium. Stigmaphores 2, short or long, free or joined in lower part to rostellum. Ovary sessile or on short pedicel, sometimes beaked.

Lectotype: H. macroceratitis Willd. (Orchis habenaria L.).

600-800(35) species. Tropical and subtropical regions of Old and New World.

Key to species

Petals distinctly bipartite, lower or upper segment sometimes very reduced...........................................................2

2. Lateral sepals with aristate or mucronate tips...................................................................3

- Lateral sepals not aristate or mucronate at the apex.............................................................5

3. Sepals with aristate tips usually drawn out into thread........................................1. H. pantlingiana

- Sepals with small mucro at the back of apex......................................................................4

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4. Lip spurless, entire, triangular, 3-4 mm long, 1.5-1.8 mm wide.......................................2. H. luceana

- Lip distinctly spurred, with spur 18-23 mm long, 3-lobed, with subequal lobel 12-14 mm long.........................

..............................................................................................3. H. falcatopetala

5(2). Petals and lip shortly hairy along margin; inflorescence lax, few-flowered...........................4. H. petelotii

- Petals and lip with glabrous edges; inflorescence many-flowered, dense to subdense, many-flowered................6

6. Sepals obtuse; median sepal 5-7 mm long; petal lobes subsimilar or lower lobe little bit shorter and narrower;

- Sepals acute to shortly acuminate; median sepal 7-11 mm long; lower petal lobe much reduced, many times

shorter than upper segment; inflorescence rather lax..........................................6. H. stenopetala

7(1). Lip side lobes deeply laciniate....................................................................................8

- Lip side lobes entire or sometimes shallowly toothed; or lip entire, without side lobes...........................11

- Median sepal much shorter than 1.4 cm..............................................................................9

10. Fringes on lip side lobes 5-8, much branching; spur distinctly geniculately bent, a knee about 2 cm from

base; staminodes on side of column slender, subulate, acute, often raising above the thecas.....................

................................................................................................9. H. medioflexa

- Fringes on lip side 17-30, simple; spur not distinctly geniculately bent, without distinct knee; auricles on side

11(7). Lateral sepals hyaline, recurved, lunate, very oblique, with broadly-rounded frontal edge and more or less

straight opposite margin; no distinct transversal ridge at front of spur entrance...............................12

- Lateral sepals not hyaline, ovate or obique-ovate, not too much oblique; lip commonly with more or less

12. Lateral sepals much larger than median sepal, very strongly oblique, 2.5-4 times broader than long................13

- Lateral sepals not much larger than median sepal, not too much oblique, as long as broad or few longer...........14

13. Spur 4.5-6 cm long, lip more than 2 cm long................................................11. H. commelinifolia

14. Dorsal sepal without keels at back; ovary subglabrous or with low serrulate keels; spur less than 2 cm, shorter

than ovary, strongly incurved, distinctly inflated at apex....................................13. H. malleifera

- Dorsal sepal with 3 distinct, finely dentate keels at back; ovary with distinct irregularly serrate keels; spur

about 2 cm or longer, as long as ovary, hardly incurved, not much inflated at apex.................14. H. ciliolaris

15(11). Rostellum very large, as high or higher than anther; flowers red, orange or brightly yellow.....15. H. rhodocheila

- Rostellum shorter than anther; flowers white, light pink, rarely dull yellow.....................................16

16. Small plants less than 25 cm tall, with only 1-2(3) radical leaves more or less flattened and adpressed to soil

- Large or medium sized plants, regularly taller than 25 cm, normally with more than 2 leaves; leaves subradical,

clustered or spaced along stem, erect or suberect, not adpressed to soil surface; sepals commonly longer than

4 mm, rarely less than 4 mm.....................................................................................18

17. Spur less than 7 mm, sometimes lacking; leaves less than 3.5 cm long...........................16. H. reniformis

- Spur longer than 7 mm, leaves 4-7 cm long...........................................................17. H. poilanei

18(16). Lip simple, entire or with very indistinct side lobes.............................................................19

19. Spur nearly lacking, lip with small transversal furrow at the base.............................18. H. malintana

20. Lip rhomboid, sometimes with unclear side lobes, not more than 3-4 time longer than wide, acute ...................................................................................................19. H. parageniculata

22. Spur around 12 cm long; median sepal around 2 cm long..........................................21. H. praetermissa

23. Leaves distant or scattered at lower part of stem, lanceolate to ovate; lip median lobe linear, subulate; side

lobes from broad, fan-shaped to narrowly-lunate, usually as long as median lobe......................................

.....................................................................................................22. H. dentata

- Leaves radical or subradical, usually broadly-ovate; lip median lobe narrowly-ovate to lanceolate, obtuse;

side lobes very short, subulate, much shorter than median lobe....................................23. H. lindleyana

24(21). Lip side lobes petaloid, fat, recurved, as long as lateral sepals; median lip lobe fat, up curved with its tip

- Lip side lobes not petaloid, more or less thin; median lip lobe not up curved and not adnate to hood...............25

26. Sepals subequal in length; lip side lobes thin, thread-like, much longer than median lobe; petals slender,

triangular, longer than sepals; leaves linear, grass-like, less than 5 mm wide....................25. H. khasiana

- Median sepal shorter than lateral sepals; lip side lobes as nearly long as median lobe; petals broadly triangular

to ovate, shorter than lateral sepals; leaves narrowly lanceolate, about 1 cm wide...................................

..................................................................................................26. H. viridiflora

27. Viscidiophores 0.6-0.8 mm long with broadening uncinate apex; raceme short, dense-flowered, head-like;

spur much shorter than ovary...........................................................................27. H. rumphii

- Viscidiophores usually 1 mm or longer, tapering toward apex; raceme more or less elongate, lax; spur as long

29. Spur less than 18 mm long, shorter or hardly longer than ovary.....................................28. H. acuifera

- Spur longer than 18 mm; distinctly longer than ovary...............................................29. H. linguella

30. Lip without rising rim around entrance to spur; petals linear-lanceolate, less than 1 mm wide; leaves broadly lanceolate to narrowly obovate, more or less distant along stem; stem with dense fasciculate numerous fat

- Lip with rising transversal ridge at front of entrance to the spur; petals lanceolate to ovate, usually broader

than 1 mm; leaves narrowly lanceolate to lanceolate, radical or subradical; tuberiferous plants...................31

31. Thecas geniculately bent upward at the middle; base of the lip in front of spur with high, erect obscurely

3-lobed, papillose plate; flowers white to pale pink with large brown very characteristic patch on lateral sepals 31. H. rostellifera

- Thecas straight or hardly upward bent; base of lip with high or low truncate lunar rim around entrance to

spur; flowers white, pinkish or reddish with green tint, lateral sepals sometimes entirely brown..................32

Spur slightly shorter than ovary; base of lip with rather high truncate rim around entrance to spur; sepals

reddish with brown or greenish tint; petals pink......................................................32. H. rostrata

Spur longer than ovary; base of lip with low insignificant rim around entrance to spur; flowers white or light

Spur longer than 2 cm; lip lobes 15 mm long; inflorescence subdense to dense; stem with 2-4 subradical, broadly-lanceolate leaves; sepals very oblique; median sepal, petals and lip white, lateral sepals brown;

- Spur shorter than 2 cm; lip lobes 5-7 mm long; inflorescence lax; stem with numerous radical, lanceolate

leaves; sepals not oblique or hardly oblique; flowers pure white; viscidiophores less than 1 mm long..............34

34. Lip side lobes filiform, spreading, smooth, slightly flexuose; median lobe filiform, not widening to the apex

- Lip side lobes linear-falcate, forward directed, denticulate along adaxial margin, straight; median lobe

broadening from cylindrical base to apical part into a flat narrowly spatulate plate..................35. H. harderii

32.

33.

1. H. pantlingiana Kraenzl.,

1900, Orchid. Gen. Sp. 1: 892; Aver, et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 39. - H. stenopetala var. polytricha Hook.f., 1895, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 5: 64. -H. longiten-taculata Hayata, 1914, Icon. PI. Formos. 4: 127. -

H. cirrhifera Ohwi, 1932, Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 1: 141. -H. polytrichia (Hook.f.) U.C. Pradhan, 1979, Indian Orchids: Guide Identif. Cult. 2: 683. - H. ses-hagiriana A.N. Rao, 1985, J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 6, 1: 223; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 56; Aver., 1994,

Identif. Guide. Vietnam. Orch.: 71.-H.polytrichoides Aver. 1988, Bot. Joum. (Leningrad) 73, 3: 432.

Illustrations. Hook.f., 1895, Ann. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 5, tab. 96 (sub Habenaria stenopetala var. polytricha); Seidenf., 1977, Dansk Bot. Ark. 31, 3: 73, fig. 38 (sub Habenaria stenopetala var. polytricha); Chen, Tsi, Luo, 1999, Nat. Orch. China: 252 (sub Habenaria longidenticulata); Phamh., 2000, Illustr. FI. Vietnam 3: 777, fig. 10875 (sub Habenaria seshagiriana); Su, 2000, FI. Taiwan 5: 918, fig. 390.

Described from NE.India (“India, Sikkim”). Type (“Pantling 415”) - K (holotype), BM, W (isotypes).

Terrestrial herb to 1.2 m high, with 5-7 leaves scattered in middle or upper part of stem, bractea-te above leaves. Tuber cylindrical, to 15 cm long. Leaves elliptic or ovate, acute to acuminate,

6-20 cm long, 2.5-4.5 cm wide. Raceme dense, many-flowered, to 15 cm long. Floral bracts nar-rowly-triangular, acuminate, 1.6-2.1 cm long, as long as ovary or slightly shorter. Ovary 2-2.6 cm long. Flowers 3-4 cm across, uniformly pale green, pollinia orange-yellow. Sepals narrowly-lanceolate to narrowly-ovate, long caudate, 2.4-2.7 cm long, spreading. Petals with 2 similar, filiform spreading lobes, lower little longer. Lip spurred, 3-lobed; lobes filiform as nearly long as petals. Spur narrowly cy-lindric, 1.6-2 cm long. Column 2 mm tall. Fruits erect, shortly stalked. Fig. 19; 33 g.

Ecology. Broad-leaved evergreen wet forests on shale. 1000-1200 m. FI. September - December. Very rare (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam (Kon Turn, Lao Cai). NE.India, Bhutan, S.China, Taiwan.

Studied specimens. Chapa, Petelot 5657 (P); Kon Turn, Dak Gley, VH1792 (HN, LE).

Note. Species closely allied to H. stenopetala, from which differs in aristate sepals and filiform petal lobes. Sweet fragrance was reported for flowers of specimens from Bhutan, which flower in July - August (Pearce, Cribb, 2002).

2. H. luceana Aver.,

2010, Taiwania, 55, 2: (in print).

Illustrations. d-EXSICCATES OF VIETNAMESE FLORA 0165/HLF 7407b.

Described from S.Vietnam (“Dac Lac province, Buon Don district, Krong Na municipality, Yok Don national park”). Holotype (“NT. Hiep, L. Averyanov, P.K. Loc et al., HLF 7407b 27 March 2008”, in fruits) - HN; epitype (designated here: “Z. Averyanov HLF 7407bb, 01 December 2008”, in flowers) - LE.

Terrestrial herb 25-35 cm tall, with 4-6 leaves in lower part of stem. Tuber cylindrical, 1.5-2.5 cm long. Leaves elliptic, 6-11 cm long, 1.8-2.5 cm wide, acute and shortly mucronate. Scape glabrous, 2025 cm tall, with 4-5 green, cuneate bracts, 2-3 cm long and short inflorescence of 5-10 flowers. Floral bracts narrowly cuneate, attenuate, finely papillose along margin, 8-15 mm long, as long as ovary, or a little longer. Flowers odorless, not widely opening,

7-8 mm across, sepals, petals and lip light green

with white base. Sepals 6-8 mm long, finely papillose along margin; median sepal ovate, acute; lateral sepals narrowly ovate, mucronate. Petals 4-4.5 mm long, bipartite, lower lobe large, triangular, acute; upper lobe in form of small triangular dent. Lip spur-less, fleshy, triangular, 3-4 mm long, 1.5-1.8 mm wide, shortly attenuate to acute apex. Column 3.5-

4 mm tall; anther yellow; thecae distant, narrow and parallel; viscidiophores 2-2.2 mm long, upward arising; stigma lobes much shorter, 0.4 mm long; auricles broadly conical, irregular finely verrucose. Ovary erect, 1.4-2 cm long, 3 mm broad, attenuate into narrow sterile beak 2-5 mm long. Fig. 20; 33 h, i; 35.

Ecology. Open dry Dipterocarpus forest and woodlands on thin rocky ferralite soils, commonly on rocky slopes of small temporary streams. 150— 250 m. FI. November - December (in cultivation). Very rare (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam (Dac Lac). Cambodia?

Notes The species is known up to now by the only type collection.

We do not see any certain relations of this species. Formally, it may be close to representatives of the genus having simple lip lacking spur, like Habenaria geniculata D. Don var. ecalcarata King & Pantl., H. malintana (Blanco) Merrill,

H. parageniculata Tang & F.T. Wang and some forms of H. dentata (Sw.) Schltr. However, bipartite petals; short, very small, triangular, fleshy lip; not fully opening flowers and mucronate sepals indicate isolated taxonomic position of this species.

Species was discovered in locality closely allied to territory of Cambodia where this plant may be also certainly found.

3. H. falcatopetala Seidenf.,

1977, Dansk Bot. Ark. 31, 3: 74, fig. 39; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 56; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam. Orch.: 71; Aver, et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 38.

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Illustrations. Seidenf., 1977, Dansk Bot. Ark. 31, 3: 75, fig. 39; Phamh., 2000, Illustr. FI. Vietnam 3: 772, fig. 10857.

Described from Thailand (“Thailand... Eastern spur of Doi Inthanond ending in Doi Pa Mawn”). Type (“Garrett, 470”) - K.

Terrestrial herb about 70 cm tall with 5 leaves approximated at the middle part of stem and 2-3 small bracts on erect scape. Leaves narrowly-ovate, acute, to 12 cm long and 3.5 cm wide. Raceme lax, many-flowered, to 22 cm long. Floral bracts slightly shorter than ovary, which is about 3 cm

Fig. 19. Habenaria panthngiana (I'll 1792): a - flowering plant, b - flower, c - column, half side view, c/-llat-tened tepals.

Fig. 20. Habenaria luceana (HLF 7407b, type): a - flowering plant, b - ovary and flower, c - flower, frontal view, d -flattened tepals, e - flattened petals,/- lip, g, h - column, frontal and side view.

long. Flowers pale green. Sepals ovate, 12-17 mm long, shortly mucronate on the back of apex. Petals

2-lobed; upper segment narrowly-lanceolate, falcate less than half of median sepal, less than 1 mm wide; lower segment reduced to small horizontal flange, about 1 mm long. Lip spurred, 3-lobed; lip lobes linear, 12-14 mm long; median lobe slightly fatter and shorter. Spur 18-23 mm long, slightly clavate. Anther erect, 4.5 mm tall, thecas parallel; viscid-iophores 2-2.5 mm long; stigma lobes cylindrical, straight, forward directed, to 3 mm long. Fig. 21.

Ecology.? 1500-2000 m. Fl. September. Very rare (DD).

Distribution. Vietnam (Lam Dong). Thailand.

Studied specimens. Langbian, Eberhardt 1886 (P).

Note. Present occurrence of this species in Vietnam needs confirmation by new observations.

4. H. petelotii Gagnep.,

1931, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 78: 73; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 57, fig. 28; Aver., 1994, Iden-tif. Guide. Vietnam. Orch.: 71; Aver, et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 39. - H. ho-sokcrwcie Fukuy., 1934, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 48: 297.

Illustrations. Lang, Tsi, 1976, Icon. Corm. Sinic. 5: 635, fig. 8100; Seidenf., 1977, Dansk Bot. Ark. 31, 3: 82, fig. 45; Phamh., 2000, Illustr. Fl. Vietnam 3: 775, fig. 10867.

Described from northern Vietnam (“Tonkin: Cha-pa”). Type (“Petelot 5157”) - P.

Terrestrial herb to 50 cm tall with 3-6 clustered leaves at upper part and 2-4 leaf-like bracts on erect scape. Leaves elliptic or obovate, acute to 20 cm long, 5 cm wide. Inflorescence lax, few- to many-flowered. Floral bracts cuneate, 1.5-2 cm long. Ovary stalked, 3-3.5 cm long. Sepals ovate,

12-14 mm long, shortly acuminate; lateral sepals slightly longer, oblique, concave. Petals 2-lobed, coarsely haired along margin; lobes linear, 1.5-2 cm long, lower lobe little longer. Lip spurred, 3-lobed; lip lobes coarsely haired along margin, linear, about 15 mm long, median lobe slightly shorter. Spur 1.4-

1.8 cm long, geniculately bent and expanded to the apex. Column erect, 5-7 mm tall; staminodes hemispheric, finely tuberculate; viscidiophores straight, forward directed, 2.5-3 mm long; stigma lobes of the same length, cylindrical, down directed. Fig. 22; 34 a.

Ecology. Open secondary forests and shrubs on alluvial slopes of limestone hills. 1000-1500 m. Fl. July - September. Very rare (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam (Hoa Binh, Lao Cai). SE. China, Taiwan.

Studied specimens. Hoa Binh, Mai Chau, HAL 9007 (HN, LE).

5. H. calcicola Aver., sp. nov.

H. amplexicaulis auct. non Rolfe ex Downie, 1925: Aver, et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 38. -H. thailandica auct. non Seidenf.: Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, l.c.: 39.

Illustrations. d-EXSICCATES OF VIETNAMESE FLORA 0167/HAL 12681aa.

Described from northern Vietnam ("Phu Tho Prov., Tan Son Distr., Xuan Son Municipality, Du village, around point 21 °06'57'TSf 104°57' 17”E; primary broad-leaved closed wet forest on very steep rocky slopes and cliffs of low remnant mountains composed with highly eroded solid marble-like limestone at elevation 400-500 m a.s.l.; lithophytic and terrestrial tuberiferous herb on very steep rocky slope and on cliffs”). Holotype {'L. Averyanov.;

Fig. 21. Habenaria falcatopetala (Garrett, 470, type): a -flattened tepals, b - column, frontal view.

Fig. 22. Habenaria petelotii (HAL 9007): a - flowering plant, b -flattened tepals, c - column, frontal view, d - ovary, e - floral bract.

P.K Loc, N.T. Vinh, L.T. Son HAL 12681a 16 February 2009”, in fruit) - HN; epitype (designated here: “Z. Averyanov HAL 12681aa August-Septem-ber 2009”, in flower) - LE.

Herba lithophytica vel terrestris, 30-60 cm alta, foliis radicalibus ellipticis 5-6 ad 20 cm longis. Scapus bracteis cuneatis acutis nonnullis. In-florescentia densiuscula vel densa, multiflora. Brac-teae floriferae ovario aequilongae vel id superantes. Flores laete virides. Sepala ovata, 5-8 mm longa, lateralia obliqua. Petala biloba, lobis linearibus,

5-7 mm longis, lobo inferiore distincte angustiore. Labium trilobum, lobis subaequalibus, linearibus, acutis, 9-12 mm longis. Calcar rectum, 15-25 mm longum. Viscidiophorum rectum, 2-4 mm longum; lobi stigmatis breves, minus 1 mm longi. Ovarium 10-18 mm longum, carinis minute denticulatis.

Lithophytic or terrestrial herb 30-60 cm tall with 3-6 radical leaves and several narrowly triangular leaf-like acute bracts on scape. Leaves elliptic or narrowly-obovate, to 20 cm long. Inflorescence subdense to dense, many-flowered, to 15 cm long. Floral bracts as long as ovary or longer, 1-2.2 cm long. Ovary shortly stalked, 10-18 mm long, with finely denticulate keels, curved. Flowers white to light green, light sweet fragrant. Median sepal ovate to broadly-ovate, concave, 5-7 mm long; lateral sepals triangular, oblique, 7-8 mm long. Petals with 2 linear-subulate lobes, subequal, or lower lobe distinctly narrower, 5-7 mm long. Lip spurred, 3-lobed. Lip lobes subequal, linear-subulate, acute, recurved,

9-12 mm long. Spur slightly clavate, straight, 15-25 mm long, horizontally or upward directed. Anther erect; staminodes erect, shortly cylindric, finely tuberculate; viscidiophores straight, forward directed 2-4 mm long; stigma lobes clavate, much shorter, less than 1 mm long. Fruit ellipsoid, ribbed, strongly curved capsule 2 cm long, 4-5 mm wide on sterile stalk 2-3 mm long, with short apical beak. Fig. 23; 34 b, c; 36.

Ecology. Primary broad-leaved evergreen shady forests on rocky limestone. 400-900 m. FI. June - September (in cultivation). Rare (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam (Вас Can, Hoa Binh, Phu Tho, Tuyen Quang).

Studied specimens. Вас Can, Ba Be, HLF 540 (HN, LE), HLF 648 (HN, LE); Вас Can, Na Ri, NTH 3731 (HN, LE); Hoa Binh, Da Вас, HAL 253 (HN, LE); Tuyen Quang, Na Hang, HLF 674 (HN, LE).

Note. Species has probably relation to H. am-plexicaulis Rolfe ex Downie, H. digitata Lindl. and

H. thailandica Seidenf. but distinctly differs from these species in radical leaves, dense many-flowered

inflorescence and in long, narrow, hardly clavate, horizontally or upward directed spur.

6. H. stenopetala Lindl.,

1835, Gen. Sp. Orch. PL: 319;N.T.Hop, 2001, Orch. Viet Nam 1: 318; Aver, et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 39.-H. linearipetala Hayata, 1914, Icon. PI. Formos. 4: 126.-H. sutepensis Rolfe ex Downie, 1925, Kew Bull. (1925): 420.

Illustrations. Seidenf., 1977, Dansk Bot. Ark. 31, 3: 72, fig. 37; Phamh., 2000, Illustr. FI. Vietnam 3: 777, fig. 10876.

Described from N India (“Kashmir’ ’)• Type (“Royle s.n.”) - K.

Terrestrial herb 40-80 cm high, with 5-8 leaves scattered in upper part; scape bracteate above leaves. Tuber fusiform. Leaves narrowly-ovate to ovate, acute, sometimes shortly petiolate, 6-16 cm long, 2.2-3 cm wide. Raceme rather lax, many-flowered, 5-15 cm long. Floral bracts cuneate, acuminate, 1.3-1.5 cm long, as long as ovary or little longer. Ovary 1-1.8 cm long. Flowers 1-2 cm across, uniformly dull pale green-brown, pollinia light yellow. Sepals narrowly-ovate to ovate, acute to shortly acuminate, 7-11 mm long; lateral sepals slightly oblique, spreading. Petals unequally bifid from base into narrowly lanceolate upper lobe 5-8 mm and small dent-like lower lobe 2-3 mm long. Lip spurred, 3-lobed; median lobe ligulate, 7-8 mm long; side lobes subulate, 4-6 mm long, spreading. Spur narrowly cylindric, 10-14 mm long. Column light pink-brown, 3-4 mm tall; anther locules close, parallel, 3-4 mm long; staminodes ovate, rugose, 0.8-1 mm tall; viscidiophores and stigma lobes forward protruding, 1.5 mm long. Fig. 24; 34 d, e.

Ecology. Broad-leaved evergreen shady forests on limestone. 1000-1350 m. FI. July - August. Very rare (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam (Hoa Binh). Nepal, India, Bhutan, S.China, Taiwan, Japan, Thailand, Philippines.

Studied specimens. Hoa Binh, Mai Chau, HAL 8924 (HN, LE).

Note. The early mention of this species for Vietnam is based on publication of N.T. Hop, who reports it for Sa Pa (Lao Cai province). However, he hardly ever seen any material from Vietnam. The record, obviously, is based on specimen cited by

G. Seidenfaden (Chapa, Petelot 5657) for H. pantlin-giana Kraenzl. (Seidenfaden, 1977, 1992). Publication both N.T.Hop, and Ho, 1972, 1993, 2000 contain copies of Seidenfaden’s drawings prepared from specimens originated from northern Thailand. Up to

Fig. 23. Habenaria calcicola (HAL 253; HAL 12681a, type): a - flowering plant, b - portion of floriferous stalk, c - flower, cl, e -flattened tepals,/- column, frontal view.

Fig. 24. Habenaria stenopetala (HAL 8924): a - flowering plant, b -flower, c -flattened tepals, d - column frontal view, e - floral bract,/- ovary.

now alone collection of this species in Vietnam was made recently in Hoa Binh province. These plants differ from Himalayan specimens having white flowers in uniformly pale brown-green tepals.

7. H. limprichtii Schltr,

1919, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 4: 50; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 57. - Habena-ria arietina auct. non Hook.f.: Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam. Orch.: 70; Aver, et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 38.

Illustrations. Seidenf., 1977, Dansk Bot. Ark. 31, 3: 83, fig. 46; Phamh., 2000, Illustr. FI. Vietnam 3: 771, fig. 10850.

Described from southern China (“Yunnan: Ta-lifu”). Type (“Limpricht, 1024”) - WRSL?

Terrestrial herb with fusiform tuber 2-3.5 cm long; stem 35-80 cm high, with 6-7 distant leaves, bracteate above. Leaves narrowly-ovate to lanceolate, acute to shortly acuminate, 4-11 cm long, 1.3-

2.3 cm wide. Raceme subdense, many-flowered,

15-18 cm long. Floral bracts leaf-like, lanceolate,

1.6-4 cm long, longer than ovary. Ovary finely glandular-pubescent, 2.5-4 cm long. Flowers 4-5 cm across, greenish-yellow. Sepals narrowly-ovate to ovate, acute, 1.4-2 cm long, spreading; lateral sepals oblique. Petals narrowly-ovate, oblique, dilated at base, 1.4-1.8 mm long. Lip spurred, 3-lobed; median lobe simple, linear, obtuse, 1-1.2 cm long; side lobes 1.2-1.5 cm long, deeply pectinate-fimbriate abaxially, with fimbriae 7-9 mm long, inner margin straight, entire. Spur cylindric, slightly clavate,

1.3-1.8 cm long. Column broad, 3 mm tall; stigmas elongate, 6-8 mm long. Anther locules divergent, divided by broad connective; viscidiophores elongate upward bent, longer than stigmas. Fig. 25 a, b.

Ecology.? FI.? 1500-1800 m. Very rare (DD).

Distribution. Vietnam (Lao Cai, Lam Dong). Thailand, S.China.

Studied specimens. Chapa, Petelot 5153 (P); Dalat, CRST123/TS (P); Langbian, Grillet 53 (P).

Note. Species is very close to Himalayan

H. arietina Hook.f., from which differs in short spur (shorter than 2 cm). Its present occurrence in Vietnam needs confirmation by modem observations.

8. H. godefroyi Reichenb.f.,

1878, OtiaBot. Hamburg.: 33; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 58; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam. Orch.: 70; Aver, et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 38.

Illustrations. Seidenf., 1977, Dansk Bot. Ark. 31, 3: 85, fig. 47; Phamh., 2000, Illustr. FI. Vietnam

3: 773, fig. 10858.

Described from Cambodia (“Pursat. 18. Juin 1875”). Type (“Godefroy 399”) - K, P.

Terrestrial herb 30-40 cm tall with 1-4 leaves and 2-3 minute bracts on scape. Leaves acute, liner to lanceolate, 8-10 cm long, 6-8 mm wide. Raceme lax, with 6-10 flowers. Floral bracts about 5 mm long, twice shorter than ovary. Median sepal ovate to suborbiculate, 3 mm long; lateral sepals narrowly-ovate, 4 mm long. Petals lanceolate as long as median sepal. Lip spurred, 3-lobed; median lobe entire, ligulate, 5 mm long; side lobes dissected into 5-10 filiform segments 5-9 mm long. Spur 10-12 mm long, cylindrical, strongly curved. Anther 2 mm tall with parallel thecas and subsessile viscidia; staminodes very small hemispheric; stigma lobes cylindric, straight, forward directed, 1.5-2 mm long. Fig. 25 c, d

Ecology.? FI ? Very rare (DD).

Distribution. Vietnam (An Giang). Thailand, Cambodia.

Studied specimens. Mt. Bay, Chaudoc, Pierre sine n (P).

Note. Present occurrence of this species in Vietnam needs confirmation by modem observations.

9. H. medioflexa Turrill,

1923, Kew Bull. (1923): 118 (1923); Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 58;Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam. Orch.: 70; Aver, et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 39. - H. trichochila Rolfe ex Downie, 1925, Kew Bull. (1925): 421. -

H. myriotricha Gagnep. var. confluens Gagnep., 1934, FI. Gen. Indo-Chine 6: 615.

Illustrations. Seidenf., 1977, Dansk Bot. Ark. 31, 3: 86, fig. 48; Seidenf., Wood, 1992, Orch. Pen-ins. Mai. Sing.: 110, fig. 46 b, c, pi. 4a; Phamh.,

2000, Illustr. FI. Vietnam 3: 774, fig. 10865.

Described from Thailand (“Pungah, Lower Siam”). Type (“Haniffet Nuir, 3858”) - K, SING.

Terrestrial herb 35-45 cm tall with 4-6 leaves in lower part of stem and few narrow leaf-like bracts on erect scape. Leaves elliptic-obovate, to 20 cm long. Inflorescence lax, many-flowered. Sepals light green, petals and lip white. Median sepal ovate, concave, 7-8 mm long; lateral sepals longer and broader, spreading. Petals linear-lanceolate, slightly shorter than median sepal. Lip orbicular in outline,

16-22 mm across, spurred, 3-lobed, with rising ridge-like folder at front of entrance to spur. Median lobe ligulate, simple, 7-11 mm long; side lobes la-ciniate into 6-8 branching filiform lobules, which spread in a semicircle. Spur 3-4 cm long, slender,

Fig. 25. Habenaria limprichtii (GT2705, NW. Thailand): a - flattened tepals, b - column, frontal view; H. go-defrovi {GT 8126, NE. Thailand): c - flattened tepals, d- column, frontal view.

geniculate and swollen at the middle, light green. Column 3-4 mm tall, with conic, finely rugose, acute staminodes, as long as anther or little shorter; viscidiophores protruding above entrance of spur,

1.5-2 mm long; stigma lobes very short, hardly visible. Fig. 26; 34 f, g.

Ecology. Broad-leaved open lowland forest on any kind of soils. 400-600 m. FI. August - October. Rare (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam (Ba Ria - Vung Tau, Dong Nai, Khanh Hoa, Kon Turn, Thanh Hoa). Thailand, Cambodia, Malacca Peninsula.

Studied specimens. Bao Chian, Bien Hoa,

Pierre s.n. (P); Mt. Dinh, Baria, Pierre s.n. (P); Cap St. Jscques, Poilane 583 (P); Cochinchina, sine loc., Regnier; Between Giang Lo and Dak To, Kontum./Y«-Icme; Thanh Hoa, Quan Hoa, HAL 3609 (HN, LE).

10. H. myriotricha Gagnep.,

1931, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 78: 72; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 60; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam. Orch.: 70; Aver, et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 39.

Illustrations. Seidenf., 1977, Dansk Bot. Ark. 31, 3: 88, fig. 50; Phamh., 2000, Illustr. FI. Vietnam 3: 775, fig. 10866.

Described from Laos (“Laos: Cam-Kcut"). Type (“Spire, 260”) - P.

Terrestrial herb to 60 cm tall with 5-6 leaves in lower part of stem and bracteate scape. Tubers cylindric to 4 cm long. Leaves acute, to 15 cm long,

3.5 cm wide. Raceme lax, to 12 cm long with about 20 flowers. Floral bracts lanceolate, acuminate,

1.5-2 cm long. Ovary 2.5 cm long. Flowers white. Sepals, ovate, concave, 6-7 mm long. Petals linear-lanceolate, 5-6 mm long. Lip spurred, 3-lobed; median lobe entire, ligulate, 5-7 mm long; side lobes dissected into 17-30 filiform simple segments 14-18 mm long each. Spur to 2.5 cm long, dilated and unguiculate in basal third. Viscidiophores straight, forward directed, about 2 mm long, much loner than sub-sessile stigma lobes. Fig. 27.

Ecology.? FI ? Very rare (DD).

Distribution. Vietnam (Cochinchina sine loc.). Laos.

Studied specimens. Cochinchina sine loc., Regnier 313 (P).

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Note. Present occurrence of this species in Vietnam needs confirmation by modem observations. Species should be compared with closely allied widespread species H. medusae Kraenzl.

11. H. commelinifolia (Roxb.) Wall, ex Lindl.,

1835, Gen. Sp. Orch. PL: 325; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 60; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam. Orch.: 69; N.T.Tich, 2001, Orch. Vietnam 1: 302; Aver, et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 38. - Orchis commelinifolia Roxb., 1832, FI. Ind., 3:451.

Illustrations. Seidenf., 1977, Dansk Bot. Ark. 31, 3: 90, fig. 51; Phamh., 2000, Illustr. FI. Vietnam 3: 772, fig. 10854.

Described from India (“northern parts of Bengal”). Type (“Roxburgh”) - K?

Terrestrial herb up to 1.5 m tall with few leaves in lower third and bracteate erect scape. Leaf blade

Fig. 26. Habenaria medioflexa (HAL 3609): a - flowering plant, b - flattened flower, c - column frontal

view.

Fig. 27. Habenaria mvriotricha (Spire, 260, type): flattened tepals.

9-14 cm long, 2.5-3 cm wide, attenuate to the base into petiole. Inflorescence sublax, to 14 cm long, many-flowered. Floral bracts acuminate, 1.5-3 cm long. Median sepal ovate, concave, helmet-like,

6-7 mm long; lateral sepals reflexed, very oblique, the upper edge 6-7 mm long, straight, the lower edge very strongly curved up to width 12-14 mm. Petals, rectangular, about 6-7 mm long, 4 mm wide. Lip spurred, 3-lobed; median lobe ligulate, 2-3 cm long; lip side lobes filiform, 3-3.5 cm long. Spur curved forwards, thickened to the apex, as long as ovary,

4.5-6 cm long. Staminodes erect cylindrical, acute, finely warty at apex, 2.5-3 mm long; viscidiophores, straight, forward and upwards directed, 8-11 mm long; stigma lobes hemispheric, subsessile. Fig. 28.

Ecology.? FI ? Very rare (DD).

Distribution. Vietnam (Dong Nai). India, Myanmar, Thailand.

Studied specimens. Ya-lao and Bao Chian, Pierre sine n (P).

Note. Present occurrence ofthis species in Vietnam needs confirmation by modem observations. N.T. Tich (l.c.) records this species from Binh Phuoc (Long Khanh, Loc Ninh) and Lam Dong (Dam Ri, Langhanh, Gougah) provinces. Besides alone photograph published in his book any voucher material for mentioned finding hardly was preserved.

12. H. reflexa Blume,

1825, Bijdr.: 403; Aver, et Averyanova, 2003,

Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 39.

Illustrations. Seidenf., 1977, Dansk Bot. Ark.

31, 3: 93, fig. 54; Comber, 1990, Orch. Java: 64; Seidenf., Wood, 1992, Orch. Penins. Mai. Sing.: 112, fig. 47, c, d, pi. 4b; Comber, 2001, Orch. Sumatra.: 102.

Described from Java (“Kuripan”). Type (“Blume”) - L.

Terrestrial herb 30-50 cm tall. Leaves 4-5, near base of stem, petiolate, blade to 16 cm long,

5 cm wide, slightly crisped along margin. Scape with several leaf-like narrow, acuminate bracts, finely papillose along ridges. Inflorescence sublax, many-flowered, about 10 cm long, rachis finely hairy. Floral bracts broad, as long as ovary, finely pubescent along margin. Ovary 2 cm long, finely papillose, curved, with a narrow neck. Flowers pale green. Median sepal broadly ovate, blunt, hooded,

4 mm long; lateral sepals, reflexed, the upper edge

5 mm long, straight, the lower edge very strongly curved up to width 8-10 mm. Petals small, triangular, 2-3 mm long. Lip spurred, 3-lobed; lip lobes filiform-subulate. Median lobe about 16 mm long,

S-curved from the view side; lateral lobes diverging, curved, about 9 mm long. Spur strongly curved forwards, thickened to the apex, slightly shorter than ovary. Anther 1.5-2 mm tall; staminodes small, finely tuberculate; viscidiophores directed down, straight, 5-6 mm long; stigmas very short, hemispheric. Fig. 29.

Ecology. Broad-leaves rather open forests. 900-1200 m. Fl. September - October. Very rare (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam (Kon Tum). NE.India, Thailand, Malacca Peninsula, Singapore, Sumatra, Java.

Studied specimens. Kon Tum, Dak Gley, L. Averyanov s.n., 26 Nov. 1995 (LE).

13. H. malleifera Hook.f.,

1890, Fl. Brit. India 6: 143; Aver, et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 39.

Illustrations. Seidenf., 1977, Dansk Bot. Ark.

Described from NE.India (“India, Daijeeling, Senadah (Sonada)”, “India, Khasia Hills”, “India, Khasia, Myrung”). Syntypes (“King s.n”, “Lobb s.n”, “Hooker & Thomson 257”) - CAL, K

Terrestrial herb with cylindric or fusiform tuber 3-6 cm long. Stem 30-90 cm high, with 3-5(6) leaves clustered on lower third of stem, with few herbaceous acute bracts above. Leaves narrowly ovate to ovate, acute to shortly acuminate, 7-25 cm

Fig. 28. Habenaria commelimfolia (P. Mackinnon 21751, NE Himalaya): a - flowering plant, b - flattened tepals, c -flattened column, frontal view, d - ovary.

Fig. 29. Habenaria reflexa (Averyanov, III s.n.): a - inflorescence, b - flower, c - flattened sepals and petals, d - flattened lip, e - column, frontal view,/- ovary.

long, 2.5-8 cm wide. Raceme lax, many-flowered,

8-30 cm long. Floral bracts, lanceolate, acuminate,

1.2-2.5 cm long, shorter, equal or slightly longer than ovary, papillose along margin. Ovary 1.8-

2.4 cm long, minutely papillose on ridges. Flowers

1.2-2 cm across, white to uniformly light green, odorless. Median sepal broadly ovate to orbicular, hooded, 6-7 mm long; lateral sepals, triangular-oblong to lunate-falcate, reflexed, 6-8 mm long. Petals small, triangular-oblong, 2-4 mm long. Lip spurred,

3-lobed; lip lobes subsimilar, filiform, acute, 12-18 mm long. Spur 10-18(20) mm long, strongly curved, cylindric, apex abruptly clavate. Column 3-5 mm tall; staminodes small, hemispheric, finely tubercu-late; viscidiophores forward directed, 2-3 mm long; stigmas minute, hemispheric. Fig. 30; 34, h.

Ecology. Broad-leaved evergreen forest on rocky limestone. 50-900 m. Fl. August - September. Occasional (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam (Вас Kan, Cao Bang, Ha Tinh, Hai Phong, Nghe An, Ninh Binh, Quang Binh, Thai Nguyen, Thanh Hoa). Nepal, NE.India,

S.China.

Studied specimens. Вас Kan, Cho Don, HAL 4788 (HN); Вас Kan, Na Ri, HAL 5436 (HN); Cao Bang, Trung Khanh, HAL 5615 (HN); Hai Phong, Cat Ba, LX-VN 3238 (HN, LE); Nghe Tinh, Qui Chan sine coll. (HN); Quang Binh, Bo Trach, HAL 6353 (HN); Quang Binh, Minh Hoa, HAL 5873 (HN), HAL 5942 (HN); Thai Nguyen, Vo Nhai, HAL 1584 (HN); Thai Nguyen, Vo Nhai, NTH 3802 (HN, LE); Thanh Hoa, Ba Thuoc, HAL 920a (HN), HAL 2923 (HN); Thanh Hoa, Quan Hoa, HAL 3608 (HN); Thanh Hoa, Thach Thanh, HAL 2893 (HN).

14. H. ciliolaris Kraenzl.,

1892, Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 16: 169; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 60, fig. 29; Aver., 1994, Iden-tif. Guide. Vietnam. Orch.: 69; Aver, et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 38.

Illustrations. Lang, Tsi, 1976, Icon. Corm. Sinic. 5: 636, fig. 8101; Seidenf., 1977, Dansk Bot. Ark. 31, 3: 95, fig. 56; Phamh., 2000, Illustr. Fl. Vietnam 3: 771, fig. 10853.

Described from SE. China (“Hongkong. Little Hong-Kong”). Type (“Ford, 95”) - K.

Species closely allied to H. malleifera, from which differs in 3 distinct dentate dorsal keels on median sepal, distinct irregular-serrulate keels on ovary and on scape, as well as in longer spur, 2 cm long or longer, as long as ovary, slightly incurved and hardly inflated at apex. Fig. 31.

Ecology. Shady forests and shrubs on rocky lime-

stone. Fl. August - October. 50-400 m. Rare (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam (Bac Kan, Ninh Binh). SE. China, Hainan, Taiwan.

Studied specimens. Вас Kan, Ba Be, HLF540 (HN, LE); Ha Nam Ninh, Cue Phuong, N.KKhoi, Mac 903 (HM, LE).

Note. Questionable taxon, which may be regarded as marginal form or local race of previous species in rank of variety. Occurrence of this plant in Vietnam needs confirmation.

15. H. rhodocheila Hance,

1856, Ann. Sci. Nat. (Paris) 5 ser., 5: 243; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 69; Aver., 1994, Iden-tif. Guide. Vietnam. Orch.: 69; Aver, et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 39. - H. pu-silla Reichenb.f., 1878, Otia Bot. Hamburg.: 33. -

H. militaris Reichenb.f., 1886, Gard. Chron., n.s., 26: 518. -H. xanthocheila Ridl., 1896, Joum. Linn. Soc., Bot. 32: 411. - H. roebelenii Rolfe, 1913, Orch. Rev. 21,241: 39.

Illustrations. Hook.f., 1897, Bot. Mag., tab. 7571; Lang, Tsi, 1976, Icon. Corm. Sinic. 5: 636, fig. 8102; Seidenf., 1977, Dansk Bot. Ark. 31, 3: 135, fig. 86; Seidenf., Wood, 1992, Orch. Penins. Mai. Sing.: 115, fig. 49, a-d, pi. 4d; Phamh., 2000, Illustr. Fl. Vietnam 3: 776, fig. 10871.

Described from southern China ("Fi-loi-tsz. secus amnem North River prov. Cantoniensis”). Type (“Simpson, 1133Г) - BM?

Lithophytic herb 15-35 cm tall with 3-8 ro-sulate leaves and few leaf-like acuminate bracts on erect scape. Leaves acute, lanceolate to 12 cm long, pale green to pinkish-gray, often with fine network of darker veins. Raceme lax, few- to many-flowered. Flowers odorless, brightly red, orange or yellow, sepals often with more or less pronounced green tint. Median sepal ovate, concave, 8-10 mm long; lateral sepals slightly larger, oblique, reflexed. Petals oblong to narrowly obovate, as long as median sepal. Lip spurred, 3-lobed, to 3 cm long, 2.2 cm wide; side lobes obovate, indistinctly truncate, little longer than wide; median lobe to 1.5 cm long, 1.2 cm wide, obcordate, more or less deeply divided into 2 rounded lobules. Spur acute, to 5 cm long. Column with very large rostellum as high or higher than anther; staminodes small, hemispheric, warty; viscidiophores 3-4 mm long, straight, forward directed; stigma lobes fat, club-shaped, short, decurved. Fig. 32; 34 i; 58 a, b; 59.

Ecology. Broad-leaved forests and shrubs on any kind of soils, commonly on shady rocks along stream valleys. 50-1500 m. Fl. March - November. Not rare (VU).

Fig. 31. Habenaria ciliolaris (Ford 95, type): a - flower, b - median sepal, side view.

Distribution. Vietnam (probably all provinces). Thailand, S.China, Laos, Cambodia, Malacca Peninsula, Philippines.

Studied specimens. Binh Phuoc, Phuoc Long, Bu Gia Map, HLF 5001 (HN); Binh Tri Thien, Nam Dong, Thai Thuan 475 (HM, LE); Bo Giang and Bai Ka, Thuathien, Ebergardt; Col de Nuages, An-nam, Eberhardt drawing 735 (P); Dak Lak, Krong Bong, Chu Yang Sin mt., HLF 5461 (HN, LE); Dak Nong, Dak Glong, HLF 5742 (HN); Gia Lai Kon-tum, Chupa, Gia Lu, LX-VN 2144 (HN, LE); Gia Lai Kontum, Konplong, Mang Den, LX-VN 2273 (HN, LE); Gia Lai Kontum, Kontum, Dacuy, LX-VN 2206 (HN, LE); Hai Phong, Cat Ba, LX-VN 3244b (HN, LE); Kontum, Dak Doa, Poilane; Lam Dong, Dalat, L.Avenwnov, s.n. a.2005 (LE, photo); Lam Dong, Dalat, N.T.Hiep 160 (HN, LE); Lao Cai, Than Uyen, NTH2693 (HN, LE); Mt. Bavi, Balansa 2004; Ninh Binh, Nho Quan, Cue Phuong National Park, HAL 1634 (HN); Phu Quoc, Godefroy s.n.; Quang Nam, Dong Giang, HAL 12091 (HN, LE); d-EXSICCATES OF VIETNAMESE FLORA 147/ HAL 12091; Quang Tri, Da Krong, HLF 6140 (HN), HLF 6235 (HN, LE); Quang Tri, Cu Bi, Eberhardt; Son La, Moc Chau, NTH 2927 (HN, LE); Sai Wong Mo Shan, Dam-ha, W.T.Tsang 30385 (С, K, LE); Thai Nguyen, Dong Ну, HAL 9090 (HN, LE); Thay Ninh, Regnier; Thua Thien - Hue, A Luoi, HAL 7996 (HN); Thua Thien - Hue, Nam Dong, HAL 7080 (HN, LE); Thua Thien - Hue, Phu Loc, Bach Ma National Park, HLF 1483 (HN), HLF 1601 (HN, LE), HLF 1668 (HN); Vietnam sine loc., LX-VN s.n., a. 1985 (LE); Vinh Phuc, Tam Dao, L.Averyanov, RKLoc s.n., 6 June 1990 (LE).

Note. Flower color in this species in Vietnam varies from red-purple and brightly red to orange and yellow. Red flowered forms in the area are much more common than others. Names - H. militaris and H. roebelenii were applied to plants with flowers having brightly red, more or less thick tepals, whereas name H. xanthocheila was used for golden-yellow flowering specimens with more or less ovate-triangular lateral sepals. On the base of our observation we feel that all these forms represent normal variation of the same variable species. Very similar pale-pink flowered plants described recently from Thailand as H. erichmichaelii E.A. Christenson (2003, Orchids 72, 2: 136) have not been reported yet from the territory of Vietnam.

16. H. reniformis (D. Don) Hook.f.,

1890, FI. Brit. India 6: 152; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 67; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam. Orch.: 68; Aver, et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 39. -Listera reniformis D. Don, 1825, Prodr. FI. Nepal.: 28. - Habenaria clovisii Gagnep., 1931, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 78: 68.

Illustrations. Seidenf., 1977, Dansk Bot. Ark. 31, 3: 133, fig. 85; Phamh., 2000, Illustr. FI. Vietnam 3: 776, fig. 10870.

Described from Nepal (“in Ncpaliac"). Type CWallich, 7067”) - K. ”

Terrestrial herb 10-15 cm tall with 1-3 radical sessile leaves adpressed to ground and erect scape with 3-5 minute bracts. Leaves ovate to suborbicu-lar, 2-3 cm long. Inflorescence lax, with 2-12 small flowers. Floral bracts narrow, acuminate, to 6 mm long. Ovary 1-1.8 cm long, 6-angled. Sepals nar-

Fig. 32 . Habenaria. rhodocheila (HAL 12091): a -and side view, f - fruits.

rowly-ovate, 3-4 mm long, lateral sepals little longer, slightly oblique. Petals narrowly triangular, 3 mm long. Lip spurred, 3-lobed. Lip lobes filiform; lateral lobes flexuose, about 6 mm long; median lobe straight, shorter. Spur straight, slightly expanded in apical half or not, 5-7 mm long. Column about 2 mm tall; staminodes very small insignificant; vis-cidiophores very short, viscidia subsessile; stigma lobes cylindric, straight, forward directed, 1 mm long. Fig. 37.

Ecology.? 1300-1500 m. FL? Very rare (DD).

flowering plant, b, c - flattened tepals, d,e- column, frontal

Distribution. Vietnam (Lam Dong). Nepal, NE.India, Thailand, S.China, Cambodia.

Studied specimens. Dalat, Evrard 1480 (P).

Note. Present occurrence of this species in Vietnam needs confirmation by modem observations.

17. H. poilanei Gagnep.,

1931, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 78: 73; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 68, fig. 37A; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam. Orch.: 69; Aver, et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 39.

Illustrations. Phamh., 2000, Illustr. FI. Vietnam 3: 775, fig. 10868.

Described from southern Vietnam (“Cana, Phanrang”). Type (“Poilane 12451”) - P.

Terrestrial herb 17-25 cm tall with 2 radical, sessile leaves adpressed to ground and erect scape with 4-5 erect, minute, acuminate bracts. Leaves ovate, 4-7 cm long. Inflorescence sublax, with 2030 small flowers. Floral bracts narrow, acuminate, to 7 mm long. Ovary about 1.2 cm long. Median sepal narrowly ovate, 3 mm long; lateral sepals narrowly ovate, 5 mm long. Petals lanceolate, obtuse, 4.2 mm long. Lip spurred, 3-lobed. Lip lobes linear; lateral lobes incurved, 6-7 mm long; median lobe straight, slightly shorter. Spur slightly curved, expanded in apical half, shortly apiculate, 7-11 mm long. Column about 1 mm tall; staminodes hardly visible; vis-cidiophores very short, viscidia subsessile; stigma lobes cylindric, straight, forward directed, 1 mm long. Fig. 38.

Ecology.? FI ? Very rare (DD).

Distribution. Vietnam (Ninh Thuan).

Studied specimens. Cana, Phanrang, Evrard 2421 (P).

Note. Questionable taxon, which differs from previous species in more robust habit, larger and broader leaves, many-flowered inflorescence and little bit larger flowers. More materials are necessary for detailed study of variation of both mentioned species.

18. H. malintana (Blanco) Merr.,

1918, Bur. Sci. Publ. Manilla 12: 112; Se-idenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 67; Aver., 1994, Iden-tif. Guide. Vietnam. Orch.: 65; Aver, et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 38. - Thelymit-ra malintana Blanco, 1837, FI. Filipin.: 642.

Illustrations. Lang, Tsi, 1976, Icon. Corm. Sinic. 5: 640, fig. 8109; Seidenf., 1977, Dansk Bot. Ark. 31, 3: 127, fig. 79; Phamh., 2000, Illustr. FI. Vietnam 3: 774, fig. 10863.

Described from Philippines (“Malinta”). Type not located.

Terrestrial and lithophytic herb. Stem 40-60 cm high, with 2-4 leaves clustered on lower third of stem, with few herbaceous acuminate bracts above. Leaves narrowly ovate to broadly lanceolate, acute,

7-15 cm long, 2.2-4 cm wide. Raceme lax to sub-dense, many-flowered, 5-12 cm long. Floral bracts, lanceolate, acuminate, 1.5-2.2 cm long, as long as ovary. Ovary minutely pubescent on ridges, 1.5-2.2 cm long. Flowers 1-1.5 cm across, white, subactino-morphic. Sepals subsimilar, ovate, acute to shortly

acuminate, 7-10 mm long. Petals and lip similar, triangular-oblong, obtuse, 6-7 mm long. Lip spurless, at the base with small transversal furrow at the base. Column about 2 mm tall; staminodes hemispheric, finely tuberculate, less than 0.5 mm long; anther loc-ules close, parallel; viscidiophores forward directed,

1.5-2 mm long; stigma lobes much shorter, less than 1 mm long. Fig. 39.

Ecology. Open secondary forests, shrubs and secondary grasslands on any kind of soils. 8001500 m. Rare (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam (Dong Nai, Ho Chi Minh, Hoa Binh, Lai Chau, Lam Dong, Lao Cai, Ninh Thuan, Son La). NE.India, Myanmar, S.China, Hainan, Thailand, Philippines.

Studied specimens. Between Chapa and Mu-ong Xen, Lecomte, Finet; Sol La, Lemaire; Cana, Poilane; Dran, Evrard; Ya-lao, Caicong and Mt. Dinh, Pierre; Gougah, Tixier s.n. (P); Hoa Binh, Mai Chau, VH 2447 (HN, LE); Lai Chau, Binh Lu, Khoi, Do 179 a. 1989 (HN, LE).

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Note. Very polymorphic species allied in its variation to H. dentata and may be regarded as its variety.

19. H. parageniculata Tang et FT. Wang,

1936, Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol. 7: 137.

Described from Myanmar (“Burma: Yroathit -Salween Valley,...”). Type ("IV. Micholitz s.n”) - K.

Terrestrial herb up to 50 cm tall with 3-4 su-berect leaves in lower part of stem and few narrow bracts on erect scape. Leaves lanceolate to ovate, acute, 6-7 cm long, 2.5-3 cm wide. Inflorescence shortly cylindric, subdense, many-flowered, to 7 cm long. Floral bracts erect, narrowly-cuneate, as long as ovary or slightly longer. Flowers pure white, odorless. Median sepal ovate, acute, concave, 10-12 mm long; lateral sepals triangular-ovate, oblique, shortly apiculate, 11-13 mm long. Petals triangular-lanceolate, acute, 7-8 mm long. Lip narrowly rhombic, entire or indistinctly 3-lobed, 11-14 mm long, 4-5 mm wide; side lobes short, indistinctly triangular, truncate at apex, irregular denticulate along margin, much shorter than median lobe; median lobe acute-ligulate, 6-8 mm long. Spur cylindrical, geniculate, 20-24 mm long, sometimes slightly clavate. Ovary beaked, 16-20 mm long. Anther 3-4 mm tall; staminodes hemispheric, finely tuberculate, 1 mm tall; viscidia- and stigmaphores straight, forward directed, 2-2.5 mm long. Fig. 40; 58 c, d.

Ecology. Open secondary forests and shrubs, coniferous grassy woodlands and wet grasslands on silicate soils. 1000-1500 m. FI. September - November. Very rare (EN).

Fig. 33. Peristvlus holttumii: a (Duv 331): P. densus: b, c (HLF 5203): P. monticola: d-f (HLF 5280): Habe-nariapantlingiana: g (VH1792): H. luceana: h, i (HLF 7407b, type).

Fig. 34. Habenariapetelotii: a (HAL 9007): H. calcicola: b, с (HAL 12681a): H. stenopetala: d, e (HAL 8924): H. medioflexa: f, g (HAL 3609): H. malleifera: h (Averyanov L., LX-l ’N 3238): H. rhodocheila: і (HAL 12091).

Fig. 35. Digital herbarium specimen of Habenaria luceana (Averyanov L. HLF 7407bb, epitype).

Fig. 36. Digital herbarium specimen of Habenaria calcicola (Averyanov L. HAL 12681aa, epitype).

Fig. 37. Habenaria reniformis (C.B. Clarke 44614, NE. India): a - flowering plant, b - ovary and lip, c - flattened sepals and petals, d - column, frontal view.

Distribution. Vietnam (Lai Chau, Lam Dong,

Son La). Myanmar, Thailand.

Studied specimens. Border of Son La and Lai

Chau Provinces, HAL 9762 (LE); Lam Dong, Da Lat, HAL 8628 (HN, LE).

Note. Species allied in it’s variation to H. den-tata and may be regarded as it subpeloric variety with name - Habenaria dentata var. parageniculata (Tang et F.T. Wang) Aver., comb. nov. (Habenaria parageniculata Tang et F.T. Wang, 1936, Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol. 7: 137).

20. H. mandersii Collett et Hemsl.,

1890, Joum. Linn. Soc. London (Bot.) 28: 133;

Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 67, fig. 34; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam. Orch.: 65; Aver, et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 39.

Illustrations. Seidenf., 1977, Dansk Bot. Ark. 31, 3: 128, fig. 80, a-c; Phamh., 2000, Illustr. FI. Vietnam 3: 774, fig. 10864.

Described from Myanmar (“Shan hills at 4400 feet”). Type CH. Manders”) - K?

Terrestrial herb 30-40 cm tall with 4-6 subradical leaves and erect stem bearing 3-5 leaf-like acuminate bracts. Leaves broadly lanceolate, acute, 4-6 cm long, 1-2.2 cm wide. Raceme subdense, with few- to many-white flowers. Floral bracts as

Fig. 38. Habenariapoilanei (Poilane 12451, type): view, d - ovary.

long as ovary, 17-25 mm long. Sepals subsimilar, ovate, 7-7.5 mm long; lateral sepals reflexed, little longer. Petals lanceolate, 7 mm long. Lip spurred, simple, 9-12 mm long, 2 mm wide, lip lateral margins incurved; lip in basal part with oblong ligula rising at front of spur entrance; ligula 1.5-2 mm tall, more or less conduplicate, with longitudinal median lamella. Spur curved, slightly inflated in apical half,

2-3 cm long. Anther 3-3.5 mm tall; staminodes conical, erect, finely tuberculate, 1.5 mm long; vis-cidia- and stigmaphores forward directed, 2.5-3 mm long. Fig. 41.

Ecology.? FI ? Very rare (DD).

Distribution. Vietnam (Lam Dong). Myanmar,

r - flowering plant, b -flattened tepals, c - column, frontal

Laos, Cambodia.

Studied specimens. Djiring, Evrard 1207 (P). Note. Present occurrence of this species in Vietnam needs confirmation by modem observations.

21. H. praetermissa Seidenf.,

1992, Opera Bot. 114: 60, fig. 30; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam. Orch.: 66; Aver, et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 39.

Illustrations. Phamh., 2000, Illustr. FI. Vietnam 3: 775, fig. 10869.

Described from northern Vietnam ("Kien Khe, W. Tonkin”). Type (“Bon 2 773”) - P.

Terrestrial herb 50 cm tall with 4-5 leaves

at base of stem and numerous large, overlapping, acute, leaf-like bracts on erect scape. Leaves broadly lanceolate to narrowly ovate, to 25 cm long and

4 cm wide. Raceme short, dense-flowered with, 6-8 white flowers. Floral bracts lanceolate, acute, as long as ovary, about 3 cm long. Median sepal ovate, acute, about 23 mm long; lateral sepals, somewhat sigmoid, distinctly shorter, 15-16 mm long, 6 mm wide. Petals as long as median sepal, narrowly triangular, acute, about 3 mm wide. Lip spurred, with terete hypochile about 10 mm long splitting into 3 filiform lobes about 18 mm long; median lobe slightly shorter. Spur to 12 cm long, somewhat clavate. Column about 9 mm tall, viscidia- and stigmaphores straight, forward protruding, 4-5 mm long. Fig. 42.

Ecology.? FI. October. Very rare (DD).

Distribution. Vietnam (HaNoi). SE. China.

Note. Species in Vietnam is known on the base of only type collection and its present occurrence needs confirmation by modem observations.

22. H. dentata (Sw.) Schltr,

1919, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 4: 125; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 61; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam. Orch.: 65; Aver, et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 38. - Orchis dentata Sw., 1800, Kongl. Vetensk. Acad. NyaHandl. 21:207.

Illustrations. Hook.f. 1895, Ann. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 5, tab. 98 (sub Habenaria geniculata); King, Pantl., 1898, Ann. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 8, tab. 405 (sub Habenaria geniculata); Summerh., 1944, Bot. Mag. tab. 9663; Lang, Tsi, 1976, Icon. Corm. Sinic. 5: 639, fig. 8107, fig. 8108 (sub Habenaria finetiana); Seidenf., 1977, Dansk Bot. Ark. 31, 3: 100, fig. 60; Seidenf., Wood, 1992, Orch. Penins. Mai. Sing.: 112, fig. 47, e-g, pi. 4c; Chen, Tsi, Luo, 1999, Nat. Orch. China: 250; Phamh., 2000, Illustr. FI. Vietnam 3: 772, fig. 10855.

Described from China (“E. China’ ’)• Type (“Swartz s.n.”) - S.

Terrestrial herb with ellipsoid tuber 2.5-3 cm long. Stem 0.4-1 m high, with 2-4 distant leaves and few leaf-like bracts. Leaves lanceolate to narrowly ovate, acute, 6-18 cm long, 1.5-4 cm wide. Raceme subdense, few- to many-flowered, 3-8 cm long. Floral bracts lanceolate, acuminate, 1.5-2.5 cm long, as long or longer than ovary. Ovary slender, 2-2.5 cm long. Flowers 1.5-2 cm across, white, odorless. Median sepal ovate to broadly-ovate, acute, 10-16 mm long; lateral sepals narrowly-ovate, acute, spreading or reflexed, slightly oblique, 10-16 mm long. Petals oblong, obtuse, 7-12 mm long. Lip spurred, 3-lobed;

median lobe linear to oblong, acute, 12-18 mm long; side lobes large, ovate, flabellate or lunate, often denticulate along margin, 12-18 mm long,

3-8 mm wide. Spur cylindric, geniculate, slightly clavate, 2-4 cm long. Column broad, 2-4 mm tall; staminodes hemispheric, finely tuberculate; stigmas elongate, 3-4 mm long; anther locules divergent; viscidiophores forward directed, 2-3 mm long. Fig. 43; 58 e, f.

Ecology. Open secondary forests and shrubs, coniferous grassy woodlands and wet grasslands on any soils. 50-1500 m. Fl. September - November. Not common (LR).

Distribution. Vietnam (probably all provinces). Bhutan, Nepal, NE.India, Myanmar, China, Japan, Taiwan, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Malaysia, Philippines.

Studied specimens. Baika, Eberhardt 2497 (P); Boc Bat, Ninh Binh, Bon 749 (P); Cao Bang, Bao Lac, CBL 409 (HN, LE); Cao Bang, N.T.Hiep s.n., a. 1989 (LE); Chapa, Petelot 5656 (P); Hue, Coud-erc, sine n (P), Eberhardt 127, 1343, 2086 (P); Lam Dong, Da Lat, HAL 8627 (HN, LE); Longtcheou, Simond 290 (P); Mon-Quyen, Вас Bat, Tonkin, Bon 749; Northern Vietnam, sine loc., G.V.Mikeshin, a. 1963 (LE); Nui chua Chan, Pierre sine n (P); Pulo Condor, Talmy sine n (P), Gabriac sine n (P), Har-mand 633 (P); Sept Pagodas, Mouret 422 (P); Son La, Thuan Chau, DKH 5672 (HN, LE, MO); Vung-tau - Condao, Con Dao, L.Averyanov, Kudryavtzeva 290, a. 1989 (LE).

23. H. lindleyana Steud.,

1840, Nomencl. Bot., 2, 1: 717; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 61; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam. Orch.: 66; Aver, et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 38. -H. latifolia Lindl., 1835, Gen. Sp. Orch. PL: 321, nom. illeg. - H. columbae Ridl., 1900, Gard. Chron. 2: 390. - H. macroptera Gagnep., 1931, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 78: 72.

Illustrations. Gagnep., 1934, FL Gen. In-dochine 6, 5: 591, fig. 58, 12-17 (sub Habenaria macroptera); Seidenf., 1977, Dansk Bot. Ark. 31, 3: 103, fig. 61; Phamh., 2000, Illustr. FL Vietnam 3: 773, fig.10860.

Described supposedly from Thailand (“Hab. in Zeylona, Macrae” - sphalm.?). Type (“Lindley”) - K.

Terrestrial herb 30-40 cm tall with 3-6 rosu-late leaves adpressed to ground and slender erect scape with 7-10 small adpressed acute bracts. Leaves ovate to suborbiculate, obtuse, 5-10 cm long, 2-7 cm wide. Raceme lax 8-15 cm long, with 6-25 flowers. Floral bracts cuneate, acuminate, to

Fig. 42. Habenariapraetermissa (Bon 2773, type): a - flowering plant, b - flower, c - fattened tepals.

20 mm long, shorter than ovary. Ovary fusiform, 2-2.5 cm long. Median sepal narrowly ovate, obtuse, 7-9 mm long; lateral sepals ovate, slightly oblique, obtuse, spreading, 10-15 mm long. Petals lanceolate, 7-8 mm long. Lip spurred, 3-lobed, with low rim around entrance to the spur. Median lobe narrowly-obovate, 11-16 mm long, rounded at apex; side lobes narrowly lanceolate to lanceolate, much smaller, 2-5 mm long, acute. Spur filiform, 3-3.5 cm long, acute. Anther 3.5-4 mm tall; staminodes small, insignificant; thecas broadly divergent toward base; viscidiophores bent upwards, 4-5 mm long; stigmaphores straight, narrow, acute, twice shorter. Fig. 44.

Ecology.? Fl ? Very rare (DD).

Distribution. Vietnam (Dong Nai). Thailand, Laos.

Studied specimens. Mt. de Baria, Pierre sine n( P).

Note. Present occurrence of this species in Vietnam needs confirmation by modem observations.

24. H. lucida Wall, ex Lindl.,

1835, Gen. Sp. Orch. PL: 319; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 63; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam. Orch.: 68; Aver, et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 38. - H. recurva Rolfe ex Downie, 1925, Kew Bull. Kew (1925): 420.

Illustrations. Seidenf., 1977, Dansk Bot. Ark. 31, 3: 104, fig. 62; Phamh., 2000, Illustr. FL Vietnam 3: 774, fig. 10862.

Described from Myanmar (“regno Burmano; Rangoon”). Type ("Walich, 7047') - K.

Terrestrial herb 30-50 cm tall with 4-6 leaves at the base of stem and erect scape with numerous small, cuneate, acute bracts. Tubers oblong, 4 cm long. Leaves narrowly-obovate to obovate, acute,

8-16 cm long, 2-4.5 cm wide. Raceme subdense, many-flowered, to 25 cm long. Floral bracts cuneate, acute, about 5 mm long, shorter than ovary. Ovary about 15 mm long. Sepals ovate, 3.5-4 mm long; median sepal concave, erect; lateral sepals more or less flat, replicate. Petals narrowly ovate to oblong, connivent at apex to the apex of hooded median sepal. Lip spurred, 3-lobed; median lobe ligu-late, erect, connivent with its apex to apices of petals and median sepal; lateral lobes narrowly obovate, replicate and adjoin to subsimilar lateral sepals. Spur filiform, horizontal, 15-18 mm long. Anther 2-2.5 mm tall; staminodes and stigma lobes very small, hemispheric; viscidia subsessile. Fig. 45.

Ecology.? FL? Very rare (DD).

Distribution. Vietnam (Ba Ria - Vung Tau,

Ninh Thuan). NE.India, Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia, S. China, Taiwan.

Studied specimens. E of Cana, Annam, Ev-rards.n.; Pulo Condor, Harmand, s.n.

Note. Present occurrence of this species in Vietnam needs confirmation by modem observations.

25. H. khasiana Hook.f.,

1896, FL Brit. India 6: 151; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 67;N.T.Tich, 2001, Orch. Vietnam: 304; Aver, et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 38. - H. graminifolia Gagnep., 1931, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 78: 70, non Rich., 1841.

Illustrations. Seidenf., 1977, Dansk Bot. Ark. 31, 3: 119, fig. 73; Phamh., 2000, Illustr. FL Vietnam 3: 773, fig. 10859.

Described from NE.India (“Khasia Hills;... alt.

4-5000 ft., ...”). Type-K?

Terrestrial herb 20-30 cm tall with 2-4 su-berect, radical, linear leaves and slender scape bearing few narrow bracts. Leaves 7-10 cm long, acute. Raceme elongate, lax, few-flowered. Floral bracts small, much shorter than ovary. Ovary 9-14 mm long, suberect, curved, shortly pedicellate and beaked. Flowers sweet fragrant, yellow-greenish. Sepals subsimilar, ovate 6-8 mm long, lateral sepals oblique, deflexed. Petals triangular-lanceolate, slightly longer than median sepal. Lip spurred, with 3 filiform lobes; side lobes 14-16 mm long, twice longer than median lobe. Spur rather stout, slightly curved, as long as ovary. Anther broad; anther cells subparallel; viscidia sessile; staminodes large, cylin-dric, finely tuberculate; stigma lobes clavate, about 1 mm long. Capsule subsessile, fusiform. Fig. 46.

Ecology. Open shrubs and grasslands. 12001500. FL? Very rare (DD).

Distribution. Vietnam (Dong Nai). NE.India, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia.

Note. J.D. Hooker (I.e.) considers this species as close relative to H. viridiflora (“Very near

H. viridiflora, from which the narrower leaves, shorter pedicels, subequal sepals, of which the dorsal is narrower and erect, and stout spur distinguish this”). Report of this species for Vietnam is based on only observation of N.T. Tich (I.e.) in Dong Nai Province (Ba Ria, Binh Chau - Xuyen Moc). Voucher specimens, probably, were not preserved.

26. H. viridiflora (Rottler ex Sw.) Lindl.,

1835, Gen. Sp. Orch. PL: 319; Seidenf., 1992,

Opera Bot. 114: 67; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam. Orch.: 66; Aver, et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 39. - Orchis viridiflora

Fig. 46. Habenaria khasiana (C.B. Clarke 44353, Shillong, NE. India): a - flowering plant, b - fattened sepals

and petals, c - lip, d - column, frontal view, e - ovary.

Rottler ex Sw., 1800, Kongl. Vetensk. Acad. Nya Handl. 21: 206.

Illustration. Griff., 1851, Icon. PI. Asiat. 3, tab. 342 (sub Habenaria tenuis); Seidenf., 1977, Dansk Bot. Ark. 31, 3: 120, fig.74; Jayaweera, 1981, Fl. Ceylon 2: 362, fig. 160; Phamh., 2000, Illustr. Fl. Vietnam 3: 778, fig. 10878.

Described from India (“Ind. Or.” - sec. Ind. Kew.). Type (‘ ‘sine loc. Rottler”) - C.

Terrestrial herb 15-25 cm tall with 2-4 radical suberect leaves. Leaves narrowly lanceolate, 5-9 cm long. Scape with few small, acute bracts and lax

many-flowered raceme to 8 cm long. Floral bracts cuneate, acuminate, twice shorter than ovary. Ovary stalked, 14 mm long. Sepals and petals ovate, obtuse,

2.2-2.6 mm long; lateral sepals slightly oblique and distinctly longer. Lip spurred, 3-lobed; lobes subsimilar, linear-filiform, 4-5 mm long. Spur filiform, 12-14 mm long. Column 1-1.2 mm tall; staminodes insignificant; viscidia sessile; stigma lobes very short, clavate, about 0.5 mm long. Fig. 47.

Ecology.? Fl ? Very rare (DD).

Distribution. Vietnam (Quang Binh, Quang Nam, Thua Thien - Hue). S India, Sri Lanka, Thai-

Fig. 47. Habenaria viridiflora (Hohenacker 140, Mangalor, SW. India): a - flowering plant, b - fattened sepals and petals, c - lip, d - column, frontal view, e - ovary.

land. Laos?, Cambodia?

Studied specimens. Hue, Tourane, Lecompte,

Finet 1050 (P); Tonkin sine loc, d'Alleizette 148 (P); Truoi Thuathien, Eberhardt 2417 (P).

Note. According to G.Seidenfaden (I.e.) all Laotian and Cambodian plants listed under this name by Gagnepain (1934) belong to H. tonkinense. It may be also true for listed here Vietnamese plants. New collections are necessary for clarification of this question.

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27. H. rumphii (Brongn.) Lindl.,

1835, Gen. Sp. Orch. PL: 320; Seidenf., 1992, OperaBot. 114: 67;Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam. Orch.: 67; Aver, et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 39. - Platanthera rumphii Brongn., 1834, in L.I.Duperrey, Voy. Monde: 194.

Illustrations. Rumphius, 1750, Herb. Ambon 6: 118, tab. 54, 2 (sub Orchis cimboinicci minor); Brongn. 1829, I.e. tab. 38, fig. A (sub Platanthera rumphii); Seidenf., 1977, Dansk Bot. Ark. 31, 3: 121, fig. 75; Phamh., 2000, Illustr. FI. Vietnam 3:

777, fig.10874.

Described from Moluccas (“L’ile d’Amboine”). Type - P, PC?

Terrestrial herb 15-35 m tall with 1-3 linear to narrowly lanceolate leaves in lower part of stem and few narrow, acute, erect green bracts on erect slender scape. Leaves to 10 cm long, 3-4 mm wide. Raceme short, dense, head-like, many-flowered, 2-3 cm long. Floral bracts cuneate, acuminate, shorter than ovary. Ovary to 8 mm long. Flowers odorless, pure white. Median sepal and petals narrowly ovate about 3-4 mm long, forming erect hood; lateral sepals narrowly ovate to ovate, oblique, turned upwards, 4-5 mm long. Lip spurred, with distinct rim around entrance to the spur, 3 lobed. Lip lobes linear, 6-8 mm long; median lobe little wider and longer, straight, down directed; side lobes horizontally spreading. Spur cylindric, hardly inflated at green apex, 5-6 mm long, shorter than ovary. Column

1.5 mm tall; staminodes small, hemispheric; viscid-iophores 0.6-0.8 mm long, uncinate, with broadening hooked apex; stigma lobes shortly cylindrical, glossy, slightly incurved, 0.5 mm long. Fig. 48; 58 g-i.

Ecology. Open semi-deciduous Dipterocarpus forests, grassy woodlands and grasslands on thin ferralite alluvial swampy soils. 5-50 m. FI. September - November. Rare (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam (Kien Giang, Tay Ninh). Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Indonesia, Philippines, N Guinea.

Studied specimens. E. of Phu Quoc, Godefroy 938 (K); Tay Ninh, Tan Bien, HLF 5107 (HN, LE).

Note. The report of this species (Seidenfaden, 1992, I.e.) from highlands of southern Vietnam, prov. Lam Dong province (Langbian, Evrard; Dalat, d’Alleizette) certainly needs confirmation. The occurrence of this plant there looks hardly possible.

28. H. acuifera Wall, ex Lindl.,

1835, Gen. Sp. Orch. PL: 325; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 63; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam. Orch.: 67; Aver, et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 38.

Illustrations. Seidenf., 1977, Dansk Bot. Ark. 31, 3: 107, fig. 64; Chen, Tsi, Luo, 1999, Nat. Orch. China: 247; Phamh., 2000, Illustr. FI. Vietnam 3: 770, fig. 10848.

Described from Myanmar (“regno Burmano; Tavoy”). Type (“coll. W.Gomez Wallich, 7045”) - K.

Terrestrial herb 20-30 cm tall with 2-4 lanceolate leaves at the base. Upper part of stem with numerous distant, narrowly triangular, acute bracts. Raceme short, subdense to dense, many-flowered, to 5 cm long. Floral bracts twice shorter than nar-

rowly cylindrical ovary. Flowers yellow. Median sepal and petals narrowly ovate, about 3 mm long; lateral sepals broadly ovate, strongly oblique, concave, 4-5 mm long. Lip spurred, with distinct rim around entrance to the spur, 3-lobed; median lobe linear-ligulate, 5-6 mm long; side lobes horizontally spreading, dent-like, 1-2 mm long. Spur cylindric inflated at apex, 10-17 mm long, shorter or hardly longer than ovary. Anther 2.5 mm tall; staminodes erect, finely tuberculate, 1 mm long; viscidia- and stigmaphores straight, about 1 mm long. Fruit strongly curved capsule, 6-8 mm long. Fig. 49.

Ecology. Secondary open shrubs and grasslands. 50-1500 m. FL? Rare (DD).

Distribution. Vietnam (Ca Mau, Dong Nai, Hanoi, Kien Giang, Lam Dong, Thua Thien - Hue). NE.India, Myanmar, Thailand, S.China.

Studied specimens. Baubang, Evrard 2534 (P); Bavia, Pierre sine n (P); Cochinchina sine loc., Regnier 683 (P); Dalat, Grillet 117 (P); Fu Thap, Tonkin, Balansa 6131 (LE, P); Giaray, Chevalier 36453 (P); Hue, Lecompte, Finet 1084 (P); Khe Dua, Tonkin, Bon 6131 (P); Muxahay, Pierre sine n (P); Phu Quoc, Lacour 80 (P); Phuoc Than, Cochinchina, Thorel sine n (P); Preacan, Harmand sine n (P).

Note. Wide distribution of this species in Vietnam based on old collections needs confirmation by special study and new field observations.

29. H. linguella Lindl.,

1835, Gen. Sp. Orch. PL: 325; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 63, fig. 31; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam. Orch.: 67; Aver, et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 38.

Illustrations. Lang, Tsi, 1976, Icon. Corm. Sinic. 5: 637, fig. 8104; Seidenf., 1977, Dansk Bot. Ark. 31, 3: 108, fig. 65; Phamh., 2000, Illustr. FL Vietnam 3: 773, fig. 10861.

Described supposedly from southern China (“Kwangtung”). Type (““Millet sine n”) - K.

Species closely allied to H. acuifera, but differs in longer spur, (20)26-27 mm long. Fig. 50.

Ecology.? FL? Very rare (DD).

Distribution. Vietnam (QuangNinh). S.China, Hainan.

Studied specimens. Tonkin, Quang Yen, Balansa 312 (K).

Note. Present occurrence of this species in Vietnam needs confirmation by modem observations.

30. H. apetala Gagnep.,

1931, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 78: 67; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 67 fig. 33; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam. Orch.: 67; Aver, et Averyanova,

2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 38.

Illustration. Seidenf., 1977, Dansk Bot. Ark. 31, 3: 116, fig. 71; Phamh., 2000, Illustr. FI. Vietnam 3: 771, fig. 10849.

Described from southern Vietnam (“Annam: massif de Hon-ba, prov. Nhatrang”). Type ("A. Chevalier, 3882F) - P.

Terrestrial herb 40 cm tall with numerous fat fasciculate roots and 7 distant, narrowly obovate leaves to 20 cm long, 3.5 cm wide; upper leaves bracteate. Raceme subdense, 6 cm long, with 1214 flowers. Floral bracts cuneate, as long as ovary, to 12 mm long. Sepals 6 mm long; median sepal ovate, concave; lateral sepals strongly oblique. Petals oblong, blunt, about 4 mm long, 1 mm wide. Lip spurred, with 3 subsimilar, linear-ligulate lobes

5-6 mm long each; median lobe little shorter. Spur filiform, 11-13 mm long. Anther 2-3 mm tall; staminodes hemispheric, insignificant; viscidia- and stig-maphores forward directed, about 2 mm long. Fig. 51.

Ecology.? FL? Very rare (DD).

Distribution. Vietnam (Khanh Hoa).

Note. Questionable species is still known on the base of alone type collection.

31. H. rostellifera Reichenb.f.,

1878, OtiaBot. Hamburg.: 34; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 63; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam. Orch.: 69; Aver, et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 39. - H. roseata Ridl., 1908, J. Straits Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. 49: 42.

Illustrations. Seidenf., 1977, Dansk Bot. Ark.

31, 3: 109, fig. 66; Seidenf., Wood, 1992, Orch. Pen-ins. Mai. Sing.: 114, fig. 48; Phamh., 2000, Illustr. FL Vietnam 3: 776, fig. 10872.

Described supposedly from Cambodia (“in Cochinchina... Bonnet a poil pres Harton”). Type

Terrestrial herb 30-45 cm tall with 2-4 radical sessile leaves and several erect, cuneate, acuminate bracts on erect scape. Leaves acute, lanceolate, to 12 cm long. Raceme subdense, many-flowered. Floral bracts narrow, to 15 mm long, shorter than ovary, minutely hairy along edge. Ovary with long curved beak at top, totally 15-20 mm long. Flowers white to light pink, lateral sepals with large brown spot. Median sepal ovate, concave, 4.5-5.5 mm long. Lateral sepals reflexed, much longer and broader, oblique, upper margin nearly straight, lower edge broadly rounded. Petals narrowly ovate, 4-5 mm long. Lip spurred, 3-lobed, with vertical, pustulate, obtuse plate rising at front of entrance to spur. Lip lobes filiform of about equal length, 7-12 mm long.

Spur as long as ovary, thickened toward the dark green apex, geniculately bent at middle. Column

3.5-4 mm long; thecas parallel; staminodes small, finely tuberculate; viscidiophores 3-3.5 mm long, forward directed and at the middle upward curved; stigma lobes cylindric, about 1.5 mm long, straight, forward protruding. Fig. 52; 61 a-c.

Ecology. Open semi-deciduous Dipterocarpus forests, Dipterocarpus woodlands and grasslands on thin ferralite alluvial swampy soils. 5-50 m. FL September - November. Rare (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam (Dong Nai, Tay Ninh). Thailand, Laos, Malacca Peninsula.

Studied specimens. Jorai, Dournes s.n. (P); Tay Ninh, Tan Bien, HLF 5109 (HN, LE), HLF 7737 (HN, LE), HAL 9246C (HN, LE).

32. H. rostrata Wall, ex Lindl.,

1835, Gen. Sp. Orch. PL: 325; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 63; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam. Orch.: 68; Aver, et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 39. - H. acuifera var. rostrata (Lindl.) Finet, 1901, Rev. Gen. Bot. 12: 526.

Illustrations. Seidenf., 1977, Dansk Bot. Ark. 31, 3: 111, fig. 67; Phamh., 2000, Illustr. FL Vietnam 3: 776, fig. 10873.

Described from Myanmar (“regno Burmano”). Type CWallich, 7051A”) - K.

Terrestrial herb 20-30 cm tall with 2-4 radical leaves and several narrow, acuminate erect bracts on erect scape. Leaves acute, lanceolate, to 10 cm long. Raceme short, subdense. Floral bracts narrow, much shorter than ovary. Ovary with distinct curved beak, totally 20-24 mm long. Flowers pink, median sepal brownish with green tint, lateral sepals with darker center, sometimes entirely reddish-brown. Median sepal and petals ovate, 4.5-5 mm long. Lateral sepals reflexed, much longer and broader, oblique, upper margin nearly straight, lower edge broadly rounded. Petals narrowly ovate, 3.5-4 mm long. Lip spurred, 3-lobed, with high truncate collar at front of entrance to spur. Lip lobes filiform, 14-15 mm long. Spur slightly clavate, shorter than ovary, 15-17 mm long. Anther 2.5 mm tall; staminodes erect, 2-2.5 mm long; viscidiophores forward protruding, 2 mm long; stigma lobes very short, clavate, less than

0.5 mm long. Fig. 53.

Ecology.? FL? Very rare (DD).

Distribution. Vietnam (southern Vietnam, sine loc.). Myanmar, S.China, Thailand, Laos.

Studied specimens. Thoy Daumot, Cochin-hina, sine coll. 211 (fide Finet, I.e.)

Note. Present occurrence of this species in Viet-

Fig. 51. Habenaria apetala (A. Chevalier, 38821, type): a - flowering plant, b - fattened sepals, petals and lip, c, d - column, frontal and side view.

Fig. 53. Habenaria rostrata (Wallich, 7051A, type): a - fattened sepals and petals, b - lip, c - column, half side view, d - ovary.

nam needs confirmation by modem observations.

33. H. erostrata Tang et F T. Wang,

1936, Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol. 7: 138; Se-idenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 63; Aver., 1994, Iden-tif. Guide. Vietnam. Orch.: 68; Aver, et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 38.

Illustrations. Seidenf., 1977, Dansk Bot. Ark. 31,3: 112, fig. 68; Phamh., 2000, Illustr. FI. Vietnam 3: 772, fig. 10856.

Described from southern Vietnam ("Annam: Nha Trang Rcsidcn"). Type (“June 11, 1903 W. Micholitz s.n.”) - K.

Terrestrial herb 35-40 cm tall with 3-4 leaves spaced in lower part of the stem and few leaf-like acuminate bracts on erect scape. Leaves suberect, broadly lanceolate to narrowly ovate, acute to shortly attenuate, 6-11 cm long, 15-20 mm wide. Inflorescence shortly cylindric, subdense to dense, many-flowered, 6-7 cm long. Floral bracts lanceolate, acuminate, as long as ovary or shorter. Ovary about 2 cm long. Median sepal ovate, acute, concave, 4.5-5 mm long; lateral sepals oblique, ovate, acute, deflexed, 6-7 mm long. Petals narrowly ovate, obtuse, 4.5-5.5 mm long. Lip spurred, 3-lobe; lobes subequal in length, linear-filiform 15 mm long, median lobe slightly broader, down directed, lateral lobes spreading. Spur clavate, 2-3 cm long. Anther

2-3 mm tall; staminodes small, shortly cylindrical,

finely warty; viscidia- and stigmaphores straight, forward directed, 2 mm long. Fig. 54.

Ecology. Secondary shrubs and wet grasslands on silicate soils. 50-200 m. FI. September - October. Very rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam (Khanh Hoa). Laos?

Studied specimens. Phu Khanh, Hon Tre, Kud-ryavtzeva, Ogureeva 84 (LE), 121 (LE).

34. H. tonkinensis Seidenf.,

1977, Dansk Bot. Ark. 31, 3: 114, fig. 70; id., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 63, fig. 32; Aver., 1994, Iden-tif. Guide. Vietnam. Orch.: 68; Aver, et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 39.

Illustrations. Phamh., 2000, Illustr. FI. Vietnam 3: 777, fig. 10877.

Described from northern Vietnam ("Taai Wong Mo Shan, Tong Fa market, Ha-coi, Tonkin”). Type CTsang, 29566”) - C, K.

Lithophytic or terrestrial herb with 6-11 radical suberect leaves and erect inflorescence 15-30 cm tall. Leaves lanceolate, acute, 5-12 cm long, 0.5-1.2 cm wide. Scape with 6-12 green, narrowly triangular, acuminate bracts and lax few- to many-flowered raceme 2-10 cm long. Floral bracts cuneate, acuminate, shorter than ovary. Ovary 8-15 mm long, 0.8-1 mm wide. Flowers white, odorless, 6-8 mm across. Sepals ovate, obtuse, 4-4.5 mm long; lateral sepals slightly oblique. Petals broadly lanceolate, some-

what spatulate, obtuse, 4-4.5 mm long, 1-1.2 mm wide. Lip spurred, 3-lobed, with low rim around spur entrance; median lobe linear-filiform, 4-5 mm long downwards pointing; side lobes filiform, slightly longer, spreading and somewhat flexuose, acute. Spur 14-16 mm long, narrowly cylindrical, straight and slightly clavate. Column ovate, 1.5-2 mm tall; staminodes shortly cylindrical; viscidiophores straight, forward protruding, 0.6-0.8 mm long; stigma lobes fat, twice shorter. Fig. 55; 61 d, e.

Ecology. Broad-leaved evergreen forests on silicate soils, commonly on shady, mossy rocks along stream valleys. 200-300 m. FI. April - June. Rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam (Ha Tinh, Quang Ninh). Laos, Cambodia.

Studied specimens. Ha Tinh, Huong Son, HAL 1336 (HN, LE), HAL 5001 (HN, LE); Sai Wong Mo Shan, Long Ngong village, Dam Ha, Tsang 30401 (C).

Note: In its description G.Seidenfaden notes “Flowers said to be white, fragrant, in August -September.” According to our field observations the plant flowers in April - June, all observed samples have pure white, odorless flowers.

35. H. harderii Aver. et Averyanova,

2006, Komarovia 4: 16, fig. 8; id., 2006, Joum. Orchideenfr. 13, 1: 72, nom. nud.

Described from northern Vietnam (“Ha Giang Prov., Vi Xuyen Distr., Lung Thao village along stream; along a path between Tam Ve and Nap Ma villages”). Type (“12 September 2000, DKH 5491”) - HN (holotype), LE, MO (isotypes).

Lithophytic or terrestrial herb 20-40 cm tall with 6-10 radical suberect, acute, narrowly lanceolate to lanceolate leaves 6-8 cm long, 0.5-0.7 cm wide. Scape with 10-12 narrow, acuminate bracts and sublax many-flowered raceme 4-10 cm long. Floral bracts narrowly triangular, acuminate,

6-10 mm long, longer than ovary. Ovary 8-10 mm long. Flowers sessile, white, 6-8 mm across. Sepals ovate, obtuse, 4 mm long; lateral sepals hardly oblique. Petals broadly oblanceolate, obtuse, 4 mm long. Lip spurred, 3-lobed, with small transverse callus at front of spur entrance and shallow median longitudinal groove at base; median lobe linear, cylindrical in basal part, 5 mm long, 0.8 mm wide, broadening into spatulate apex; side lobes 5-5.5 mm long 0.4-0.7 mm wide, flat, falcate, irregularly denticulate along adaxial margin. Spur 14-16 mm long, slightly broadening toward somewhat bilobed apex. Column 1-1.2 mm tall, with small rostellum, short thecae and short stigma arms. Fig. 56.

Ecology. Broad-leaved eveigreen forests on granite, particularly along rocky stream valleys. 400600 m. Fl. September - November. Very rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam (Ha Giang).

Note. The species is known up to now by the only type collection.

Pecteilis Raf.,

1837, Fl. Tellur. 2: 37. - Parhabenaria Gag-nep., 1932, Bull. Mus. Nat. (Paris) 2 ser., 4, 5: 597.

Type: Pecteilis susannae (L.) Raf. (Orchis su-sannae L.).

Terrestrial sympodial tuberiferous herbs. Stem erect, stout, leafy. Leaves several, distant, or in basal rosette, ovate-elliptic. Inflorescence terminal, laxy spike or raceme. Flowers medium to large, resupi-nate, white. Sepals free, elliptic. Petals much smaller, cuneate. Lip spurred, 3-lobed; lateral lobes often fringed, median lobe ligulate, entire; spur pendent, cylindric, very long. Column erect, broad; anther locules widely spaced, pollinia 2, clavate, sectile, each with caudicle and ovate viscidium; rostellum broad, 3-lobed, erect; stigma with 2 closely spaced, cushion-shaped lobes.

8(4) species. Tropical Asia, Japan.

Key to species

- Side lobes of lip not with lacinate edges..................................................................3

2. Sepals of largest flowers in spike 3 cm long or longer........................................\.P. susannae

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3. Largest leaves less than 12 cm long; lip side lobes roundish-truncate at the apex; median lobe of the

- Largest leaves 12-20 cm long; lip side lobes acute at the apex; median lobe of the lip as long or shorter than

1. P. susannae (L.) Raf., Orch.: 60; Aver. etAveryanova, 2003, Updated Checklist

1837, FL Tellur. 2: 38; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Orch. Viet.: 50. - Orchis susannae L„ 1753, Sp. PL: 939. Bot. 114: 52; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam. Illustrations. D.Don, 1835, Bot. Mag., tab.

Fig. 56. Habenaria harderii (DKH 5491, type): a - flowering plant, b - flattened flower without lip and co lumn, c - flower, d - lip.

3374 (sub Habenaria gigantea); Wight, 1844-1845, Icon. PI. India Orient. 3, 2, tab. 920 (sub Platan-thera susannae); Lang, Tsi, 1976, Icon. Corm. Sinic. 5: 632, fig. 8094; Seidenf., 1977, Dansk Bot. Ark. 31, 3: 23, fig. 8; Comber, 1990, Orch. Java: 67; Seidenf., Wood, 1992, Orch. Penins. Mai. Sing.: 108, fig. 45, pi. 3 d; Phamh., 2000, Illustr. Fl. Vietnam 3: 770, fig. 10847; Pearce, Cribb, 2002, Orch. Bhutan: 172, fig 45.

Described from Java (“Ambonia”). Lectoty-pe - icon “Orchis Amboinensis floribus albis fim-briatis” (Hermann, 1698, Parad. Bat., tab. 209).

Stem thick, 0.6-1.2 m tall, with tubular basal sheaths, many distant leaves and large, cylindric underground tuber. Leaves ovate-oblong, sessile, acute, 6-15 cm long, sheathing at the base. Raceme laxy with (1)3-10 flowers. Floral bracts narrowly ovate, acuminate 4-6 cm long. Flowers white, lemon fragrant, 4-7 cm across. Pedicel and ovary narrowly-fusiform, 4-6 cm long. Sepals subsimilar, ovate to circular or rhombic, 2.5-4 cm long. Petals much shorter, cuneate, acute, 7-12 mm long. Lip 4-5 cm long and wide. Lip side lobes triangular, laci-nate, 2-3 cm long; median lobe oblong-ligulate, blunt,

2.5-4 cm long. Spur 10-12 cm long. Column to 1 cm tall, anther locules 8-9 mm long. Fig. 57 a; 61 f, g.

Ecology. Swampy primary grasslands and open Dipterocarpus woodlands on thin alluvial fer-ralite soils. 10-50 m. Fl. September - November. Very rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam (Tay Ninh). India, S. China, Myanmar, Indochina, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Malacca Peninsular, Indonesia.

Studied specimens. Tay Ninh, Tan Bien, HLF 5110 (HN, LE).

Note. Handsome and highly endangered species, which needs special protection.

2. P. henryi Schltr.,

1919, Feddes Repert. (Beih.) 4: 45; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 54; Aver., 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam. Orch.: 60; Aver, et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 49. - Platan-thera lacei Rolfe ex Downie, 1925, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew (1925): 422. - Habenaria bassacensis Gagnep., 1931, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 78: 67.

Illustrations. Seidenf., 1977, Dansk Bot. Ark.

31, 3: 24, fig. 9; Phamh., 2000, Illustr. Fl. Vietnam 3: 770, fig. 10846.

Described from southern China (“China: Pu-teng, South of Szemao (Yunnan), 3000 ft.”). Type (“Henry, 12534”) - K.

Stem 55-60 cm tall with 4-5 basal leaves. Leaves oblong to broadly lanceolate, acute, 8-10 cm long, 2.3-3.3 cm wide. Raceme with 4-7 subdense, erect, white flowers. Sepals oblong, obtuse, to 2 cm long; lateral sepals oblique. Petals ligulate-linear, obtuse, about 1.8 cm long. Lip 3-lobed; side lobes spread, divergent, lacinate along margin, about 2 cm long. Spur filiform, to 11 cm long. Anther loculi about 7 mm long, rostellum triangular, obtuse. Ovary about 4.5 cm long. Fig. 57 b.

Ecology. ? Fl. ? Very rare (DD).

Distribution. Vietnam (Ninh Thuan). S. China, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos.

Studied specimens. E of Muong Man, Annam, Ev-rard 1562 (P); Vietnam, sine loc., Tixier drawing s.n. (P).

Note. Very rare plant reported for Vietnam by Dr. Seidenfaden (I.e.) on the base of two old French collections. Recent collections of this taxon from the area, probably, are not yet available. According to available data this plant is closely allied to P. susannae and may be regarded as its small-flowered race in rank of variety.

3. P. cambodiana (Gagnep.) Aver.,

1988, Prelim. List Vietnam. Orch. 2: 119; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 54, fig. 27; Aver, et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 49. - Parhabenaria cambodiana Gagnep., 1932, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. (Paris) 2 ser. 4, 5: 597.

Illustrations. Phamh., 2000, Illustr. Fl. Vietnam 3: 769, fig. 10844.

Described from Cambodia (“Mt. Kamchay, Kampot”). Type (“Chevalier 36463”) - P.

Stem 30-35 cm tall with distant narrowly ovate, acute leaves and few-flowered terminal laxy raceme. Floral bracts leaf-like, 5-7 cm long. Flowers to 4 cm across. Sepals broadly ovate to almost circular, 1.5-1.7 cm long. Petals narrowly cuneate, acuminate, about 1 cm long. Lip side lobes obovate, truncate, to 1.3 cm long, entire; median lobe ligu-late-oblong, to 1.3 cm long, distinctly longer than lateral lobes. Spur to 5 cm long. Column to 8 mm tall. Ovary sessile, 3-3.5 cm long. Fig. 57 c, d.

Ecology. ? Fl. ? Very rare (DD).

Distribution. Vietnam ? Cambodia.

Note. Species was reported for Vietnam by N.T. Tich (2001), however, published drawing of his plant fits certainly much better with description of P. cochinchinensis. Voucher specimens were not, probably, preserved and their detailed analysis is hardly possible. Occurrence of this plant in Vietnam needs confirmation.

Fig. 57. Pecteilis susannae (HLF 5110): a - flower; P. henrvi (GT 5233, NW. Thailand): b - flower; P. cambodiana (Chevalier 36463, type): c - flowering plant, d — flower; P. cochinchinensis (N.T. Tich s.n.): e - flowering plant, /- lip, sagittal section.

Fig. 58. Habenaria rhodocheila: a (HLF 5461), b (Averyanov s.na.2005); H. parageniculata: c, d (HAL 8628): H. dentata: e, f (HAL 8627): H. rumphii: g-i (HLF 5107).

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4. P. cochin chin en sis (Gagnep.) Aver.,

1988, Prelim. List Vietnam. Orch. 2: 119; Sei-denf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 54; Aver., 1994, Iden-tif. Guide. Vietnam. Orch.: 60; Aver, et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 49. - Parha-benaria cochinchinensis Gagnep., 1950, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. (Paris) 2 ser. 22, 5: 633. - Pecteilis cam-bodianct auct. non (Gagnep.) Aver.: N.T. Tich, 2001, Orch. Vietnam: 242.

Described from southern Vietnam ("Cochin-chine: Nui-chua-chuan"). Lectotype ("Simond. pi. 9Г) - P.

Stem about 35 cm tall with 5 leaves. Leaves broadly lanceolate, 14-20 cm long, 1.8-2.4 cm wide, acute. Raceme few-flowered. Flowers white. Sepals suborbicular, 1.6-1.7 cm long, lateral sepals oblique. Petals narrowly triangular, acute, 8-9 mm long. Lip orbicular, about 2.2 cm across, 3-lobed. Side lobes semi-circular, as long as lateral lobes, 3 mm wide, to late anthesis decurved. Spur greenish, to 5 cm long. Fig. 57 e, f.

Ecology. ? FI. ? Very rare (DD).

Distribution. Vietnam (Dak Lak, Dong Nai).

Studied specimens. Insufficiently known species based only on 2 drawings (Simond, 94; Almeida 73/1915) housed at P and drawing published by N.T. Tich (I.e.: 243 under the name P. cambodiana.

Note. Questionable species, which should be compared with P. cambodiana (Gagnep.) Aver., which at the same time has very close relation to Himalayan P. triflora (D. Don) Tang et F.T. Wang (= P. Candida (Lindl.) Schltr).

Diplomeris D. Don,

1825, Prodr. FI. Nepal.: 26

Type: Diplomeris pulchella D. Don.

Miniature lithophytic and terrestrial tuberife-rous sympodial herbs with 1-2 radical leaves and

1-2 small tubers. Scape erect, leafless, with 1-2 large white resupinate widely opening flowers. Sepals free, subsimilar, spreading, concave. Petals larger than sepals. Lip spurred, flat, entire to emar-ginate; spur slender very long. Column short, with very large, erect rostellum and 2 elongated, parallel, forward directed stigmas. Anther locules parallel, at the base elongated and pointing forward. Pollinia 2, sectile, with caudicle and viscidium.

4(1) species. Bhutan, Nepal, N. India, Myanmar, S. China, Vietnam.

1. D. pulchella D. Don,

1825, Prodr. FI. Nepal.: 26; Seidenf., 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 44, fig. 21; Aver., 1994, Identif.

Guide. Vietnam. Orch.: 61; Aver, et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 31.

Illustrations. Lindl., 1832, Bot. Reg. 18, tab. 1499 (sub Diplochilos longifolium); Griff., 1851, Icon. Pl. Asiat. 3, tab. 338, 2 (sub Habenaria uniflora); Gagnep., 1934, FI. Gen. Indochine 6, 5: 626, fig. 60, 1-6; Seidenf., 1977, Dansk Bot. Ark. 31, 3: 138, fig. 88; Phamh., 2000, Illustr. FI. Vietnam 3:

778, fig.10879.

Described from NE. India ("Khasia. Sylhet"). Type (“Wallich, 7064 ”) - K? ”

Lithophytic and occasionally terrestrial herb

4-7 cm tall. Leaves 1-2, erect, oblong-lanceolate, conduplicate, acute, 2-6 cm long. Scape erect, glabrous, 2-4 cm long, with 1 small, sterile bract and 1 flower 2-2.5 cm across. Floral bract broadly ovate, conduplicate, apiculate, 1-1.2 cm long. Sepals similar, ovate, concave, acute, 10-12 mm long. Petals broadly ovate, 12-15 mm long. Lip 12-16 mm long, broadly obovate, emarginate, with small median dent and slender spur 2.5 3 cm long. Column 2-3 mm tall, with long, forward directed stigma lobes and bases of anther locules. Rostellum erect, 4-5 mm long. Fruit ovoid capsule 1-1.3 cm long, 3.5-4 mm wide. Fig. 60.

Ecology. Broad-leaved evergreen forests, usually along rocky river valleys on silicate rocks. 7501250 m. Fl. September - November. Very rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam (Ha Giang, Lao Cai). NE. India, Myanmar.

Studied specimens. Col de Loquiho, Chapa, Petelot, s.n. (P); Ha Giang, Yen Minh, Ching-IPeng 20202 (HAST, HN, LE); Lao Cai, Van Ban, NTH 5081 (HN, LE).

Fig. 60. Diplomeris pulchella (Peng 20202): a -flowering plant, b - flower.

SUPPLEMENT

Supplement includes novelties that were discovered and described after publication of first part of this monograph and should be included logically into already published treatment. They are listed below as follow:

Paphiopedihim canhii Aver, et O. Gruss, sp. nov.

“Paphiopedilum canhii” Aver, et O. Gruss, 2010, Orchids, Mag. Amer. Orch. Soc., 79, 5: 288, nom. invalid. (Art. 8.1 & 8.2 oflCBN).

Illustrations. d-EXSICCATES OF VIETNAMESE FLORA 0170/CXC 101 (HN); HAL 12907 (LE).

Described from NW. Vietnam (“NW. Vietnam, Son La prov.”). Holotype (“Chu Xuan Canh CXC 101, 14 Nov. 2009”, in fruit) - HN; epitype (designated here: “Phan Ke Loc HAL 12907 22 March 2010”, in flower) - LE.

Planta rosularis, terrestris; foliis 3-4(5) oblon-gis, acutis, 5-7 cm longis, 1.5-2(2.5) cm latis, supra manifeste tessellatis, subtus atroviolascentibus. In-florescentia erecta, uniflora, (6)8-10 cm longa, pu-bescens. Flores 6-8 cm in diametro. Sepalum dor-sale ovatum, acutum, album, nervis 5-7 purpureis. Petala patula, anguste cuneata, acuminata, dilute viridia ad roseola, striis 7-9 purpureis, margine ci-liata. Labellum opaco-viride, intus basi dense pilo-sum. Columna laete viridis. Staminodium magnum, integrum, late ovatum vel ovato-ellipticum, planum, album ad dilute virescentium, nervis irregularibus vires centibus.

Terrestrial sympodial rosulate herb with 3-4(5) leaves. Leaves elliptic to oblong, 5-7 cm long,

1.5-2(2.5) cm wide, slightly emarginate and shortly apiculate at the apex, distinctly tessellated light and darker green above, pale green and heavily marked with dark dirty-violet below. Inflorescence erect, one-flowered; peduncle (6)8-10 cm long, slender, dark green, sometimes with violet tint, pubescent with dirty olive-violet hairs. Bract narrowly ovate-elliptic, acute, 1.2-1.4 cm long, 0.5 cm wide, green, olive-violet pubescent. Flowers 6-8 cm across. Dorsal sepal ovate to broadly ovate, acute; 2-3 cm long, 1.5-1.8 cm wide; white, slightly greenish at the base, in lower half veined with 5-7 purple nerves; densely hairy outside. Synsepal narrowly ovate, acute; 1.5-2 cm long, 0.6-1 cm wide; light uniformly dull green; hairy outside. Petals 3-4 cm long, 0.5-0.7 cm wide at the base; spreading, more or less horizontal; cuneate, narrowing from broad base to elongate, acuminate apex; background light

green to pinkish-green, brightly deep green toward base, dull purple-violet to the apex; with 7-9 dark purple-violet longitudinal stripes along nerves; long white ciliate along irregularly slightly undulate margin; petal base with dense tuft of long dark violet papillae at lower margin faced to lip entrance. Lip slipper-sac-like; 2-2.5 cm long, 0.8-1.4 cm wide, light dull green, with light brownish-purple tint on smooth and glossy incurved side lobes; inside at the base densely haired with long white glassy papillae, dark violet at apex. Column short and broad,

3-4 mm long, brightly green. Stamens with elongate acute filament apices; filaments green; anther spherical, yellow to orange. Stigma white to light greenish. Staminode large, 1.2-1.6 cm long, 0.6-0.8 cm wide; entire, glossy, broadly ovate to ovate-elliptic, flat, hardly indistinctly emarginate and grooved at apex; white to light greenish, with irregular washy yellowish-green or greenish veins. Pedicel and ovary

2-3 cm long, dark green, densely pubescent with dirty olive-violet hairs. Fruit dry narrowly ellipsoid, ribbed, shortly beaked capsule about 2 cm long and

4-5 mm in diameter. Fig. 62.

Ecology. Mixed coniferous and broad-leaved primary forests on rocky limestone at elevations about 1500 m a.s.l., shady places at the base of vertical limestone cliffs on deep soils rich in humus near tops of ridges. FI. March - April. Very rare (CR).

Distribution. Vietnam (northwestern part). Endemic.

Note. Species known from the type locality only. Critically endangered taxon of an isolated taxonomical position morphologically intermediate between species of section Parvisepalum Aver. et P.J. Cribb (subgenus Parvisepalum Karas. et Saito) and section Barbata (Kraenzl.) V.A. Albert & Boerge Pett. (subgenus Paphiopedilum). It may deserve placement in a separate subgenus most close to subgenus Paphiopedilum, sect. Barbata.

Hayata Aver.,

2009, Taiwania, 54, 4: 311.

Type: Hayata tabiyahanensis (Hayata) Aver. ( = Zeuxine tabiyahanensis Hayata).

Terrestrial, lithophytic or epiphytic sympodial herb with erect or ascending leafy floriferous stem. Rhizome leafless, thick, short or long, creeping, at nodes with well developed or short, rudimentary roots densely cowered with root hairs. Floriferous stem erect or ascending, thick, juicy, to 20 cm tall, with 2-6 leaves at the base; in upper part covered with 2-4 broad membranaceous light green to whitish cuneate, acuminate sterile bracts; stem glabrous

Fig. 61. Habenaria rostellifera: a-c (HLF5109): H. tonkinensis: d, e (HAL 1336): Pecteilis susannae: f, g (HLF 5110): Hayata glcmdulifera: h, i (HAL 12692, type).

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Fig. 62. Digital herbarium specimen of Paphiopedilum canhii (Chu Xuan Canh, CXC101, holotype and Phan Ke Loc, HAL 12907, epitype).

at the base, densely hairy above. Leaves convolute, petiolate; leaf blade, oblique elliptic, acute to acuminate, more or less attenuate at the base, uniform green. Scape short or long, tomentose, bearing 1-10 lax flowers. Floral bracts triangular-cuneate, conduplicate, acuminate, sparsely hairy at the base, glabrous to the apex. Ovary erect, pubescent. Flowers, campanulate, 8-10 mm long, at right angle to ovary, resupinate, sessile. Sepals free, sparsely hairy at the base, all forward directed, parallel to the floral axis. Dorsal sepal ovate, concave, acuminate, with slightly upward attenuate apex. Lateral sepals oblong, obtuse, hardly oblique. Petals glabrous, strongly oblique, half circular-spatulate, to the apex densely connivent and forming broad hood with the dorsal sepal. Lip divided into hypochile, mesochile and epichile. Hypochile boat-shaped, adnate to the column base at basal half; inside with papillose keel, or not keeled, with large sea-anemone-like bunch of papillae on each sidewall; free distal part with slightly upturned margins. Mesochile, with 2 fleshy connivent entire lobes forming short massive tube. Epichile with narrow base, 2-lobed; the lobes spreading at right angle, rectangular or subquadrate, serrate to irregular dentate along distal margin. Column forward directed, ovate, with 2 lateral convex hemispheric irregularly tuberculate stigmas; at front with 2 forward directed fleshy stelidia, hooked at apex; rostellar arms forward directed, obliquely-lanceolate, with narrow base, widening to spatulate apical part. Anther large, papillose. Pollinia 2, sec-tile, with stipe and small viscidium. Fruits dry ellipsoid capsules.

3(1) species. S. Bhutan, Taiwan, N. Vietnam.

Note. The genus Hayata has relation to such genera as Cheirostylis Blume, Goodyera R. Br., Rhomboda Lindl. and Zeuxine Lindl., but can not be associated with any of them according to their morphology. It differs from Goodyera in 2 separate stigmas; in not hairy hypochile; in massive, knob-like mesochile and in large 2-lobed, dentate epichile. From Cheirostylis it differs in large flowers with completely free sepals (newer forming tube); in peculiar bunches of capitate glands on lateral walls of hypochile and in not swollen succulent rhizome forming normal adventitious roots, not modified into root hair ridges or pillows. From Rhomboda this genus differs in absence of any keels on the lip; in specific papillae bunches inside hypochile and in not winged column. Hayata may be most close to Zeuxine, from which differs in plant habit, large flowers, large dentate lobes of epichile and in specific shape of stelidia and rostellar arms. Straight

forward directed fleshy stelidia, hooked at apex and forward directed, obliquely-spatulate rostellar arms are very characteristic for species of Hayata, which do not fits well with any known genera of subtribe

H. glandulifera Aver.,

2009, Taiwania, 54, 4: 312, 314, fig, 1, 2.

Deascribed from N. Vietnam (“Vietnam, Phu Tho Province, Tan Son District, Xuan Son Municipality, Du village (Xuan Son national park), around point 21°06’57”N 104°57’17”E...”). Holotype (“Z. Averyanov, P.KLoc, N.T. Vinh, L.T. Son, HAL 12692

16 February 2009”) - LE.

Terrestrial or lithophytic herb with creeping rhizome and ascending leafy floriferous stem. Rhizome, to 25 cm long and 5 mm wide, light green, thick, at nodes with more or less short rudimentary roots. Floriferous stem, 10-15 cm tall, with (2)3(4) leaves at the base; in upper part covered with 3-4 sterile bracts. Leaves petiolate; petiole and sheath to

5 cm long, 4-6 mm wide at the base; leaf blade thick, slightly succulent, 4-8 cm long, 1.5-3 cm wide, uniform glossy green, with indistinct dark green reticulate network of nerves. Scape to 5 cm long, densely tomentose with soft simple hairs bearing 1-2 (or more?) lax flowers. Floral bracts white, subhyaline, with 3 light green nerves, 1.5-2 cm long, 3-5 mm wide, longer than ovary. Ovary 1-1.2 cm long, 2-3 mm broad, densely pubescent with soft simple hairs. Flowers odorless, not widely opening, campanulate,

9-10 mm long. Sepals white with green tint along mid-vein. Dorsal sepal 8-9 mm long, 5 mm wide. Lateral sepals 8-9 mm long, 3.5-4 mm wide. Petals white, 9-10 mm long, 4-4.5 mm wide, undulate along lateral margin, free at the base, to the apex densely connivent and forming broad hood with the dorsal sepal. Lip white, with yellow spot at the center (yellow distal margin of connivent lobes of mesochile), 10-13 mm long from base to apex of epichile. Hypochile 4-4.5 mm long, 3-4 mm wide; adnate to the column base in basal half; in free distal part with slightly upturned margins; inside on each lateral wall with sea-anemone-like bunch of 6-7 large capitate, arc-divergent glands 1-1.2 mm long; bottom of hypochile with low longitudinal thickening. Mesochile 1.5-2 mm long. Epichile lobes rectangular or subquadrate, each 4.5-5.5 mm long, 4-5 mm wide, with 4-6 large irregular dents along distal margin. Column 4.5-5 mm long, 2.5-3 mm wide; stelidia 2-2.5 mm long, rostellar arms 1.8-2 mm long. Anther large, subquadrate to indistinctly obo-vate, 1.8-2 mm long and wide. Fig. 61 h, i; 63.

Fig. 63. Havatia glandulifera (HAL 12692, type): a - flowering plant, b - ovary and flower, side view, c -flower, frontal view, d - flattened sepals and petals, e - column and flattened lip, view from above, f - flattened lip, view from above, g - column and lip, side view, h - column, side view, i - bunch of glands rising on each internal side wall of hypochile.

Fig. 64. Cheirostvlis cristata (HAL 12692a, type): a - flowering plant, b - floral bract, c - flattened sepals and petals, d - flattened sepals, e, f - flattened lip, view from above, g - column, side view, h - ovary.

Ecology. Broad-leaved closed evergreen humid forests on rocky limestone at elev. 400-500 m a.s.l., creeping terrestrial or lithophytic herb on shady slopes, usually along small forest stream valleys on wet mossy substrate. FI. February. Very rare (CR).

Distribution. Vietnam (Phu Tho). Endemic.

Note. Species known by alone type collection. Like recently discovered monotype genera -Vietorchis and Zeuxinella it represents element of lowland highly endangered flora typical for wide limestone areas of northern Vietnam in prehistoric ages and now nearly extinct.

Cheirostylis cristata Aver.,

2010, Taiwania, 55,2: (in print), fig, 1,2.

Deascribed from N. Vietnam (“Vietnam, Phu Tho Province, Tan Son District, Xuan Son Municipality, Du village (Xuan Son national park), around point 21°06’57”N 104°57’17”E...”). Holotype ("L. Averyanov, P.K.Loc, N.T.Vinh, L.T.Son, HAL 12692a 16 February 2009”) - LE.

Terrestrial or lithophytic herb with creeping rhizome and ascending leafy floriferous stem. Rhizome leafless, to 15 cm long and 1 cm wide, light dull yellowish-green, fleshy, succulent, irregularly swollen at nodes, with warty pillows densely cowered with root hairs. Floriferous stem erect, 14-

17 cm tall, with 2-4(5) leaves at basal part; in upper part with 3-4 small, green to membranaceous, cu-neate, acuminate sterile bracts; sparsely hairy with soft simple hairs. Leaves shortly petiolate; petiole and sheath 1-2 cm long; leaf blade rather thick, elliptic, to triangular-ovate, acute, 2-6 cm long, 1-3 cm wide, uniform green. Scape to 12(15) cm long, sparsely tomentose with soft simple hairs bearing

3-6 flowers in subdense spice. Floral bracts whitish, subhyaline, triangular-cuneate, acuminate, 8-9 mm long, 3-6 mm wide, sparsely hairy, longer than

ovary. Ovary suberect, 2.5-3 mm long, 2 mm wide, densely pubescent with simple multicellular hairs. Flowers, hardly opening, tubuliformis, 5.5-7 mm long, resupinate, sessile. Sepals subsimilar (median sepal slightly broader), outside sparsely pubescent, light olive-green, narrowly ovate to ovate, obtuse,

5.5-7 mm long, 1.5-2.5 mm wide, joined on 1/2— 2/3 of their length into broad tube. Petals white, very thin, almost hyaline, oblong, connivent at the apex to median sepal forming hood, 5.5-7 mm long, 1-1.2 mm wide. Lip white, 10-12 mm long, divided into distinct hypochile, mesochile and epichile. Hypochile concave, 3.5 mm long, 2.5 mm wide, basally with linear ridge of numerous small glands on each side along lateral vein. Claw short, bended. Epichile with narrow base, entire (with irregularly-crenate margin) to 2-lobed (with the lobes spreading at right angle, rectangular, each 2 mm long, 1.5 mm wide, with 3-5 irregular-erose dents along distal margin). Column forward directed, ovate, 3.5 mm long, 1.5-2 mm wide; with 2 lateral convex stigmas; at front with 2 forward directed finger-like stelidia and 2 subulate rostellar arms, 1.5 mm long. Anther large, half-ovoid, 1.6-1.8 mm long. Pollinia 2, sec-tile, with linear stipe and small viscidium. Fig. 64.

Ecology. Broad-leaved closed evergreen humid forests on rocky limestone at elev. 400-500 m a.s.l., creeping terrestrial or lithophytic herb on shady slopes, usually in humid karstic depressions. Fl. February - March. Very rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam (Phu Tho). Endemic.

Note. Species may be close to C. bipunctata Aver, and C. chinensis Rolfe, that has similar papillae structure inside hypochile, but distinctly differs in broad, subentire, crenate to 2-lobed, irregularly erose-dentate epichile. All three species are endemics of rocky limestone areas of southern China and northern Indochina.

LITERATURE

Averyanov L. The orchids of Vietnam. Illustrated survey. Part 1. Subfamilies Apostasioideae, Cypripedioideae and Spiranthoideae. //Turczaninowia, 2008. - Vol. 11, № 1. - P. 5-168.

INDEX OF LATIN NAMES

angustifolia............................................24

Acianthus...................................................8

Amitostigma............................................... 17

keiskeoides.................................... 19, 20, 30

Androcorydinae............................................ 11

Barbata..................................................92

Brachycorythis........................................... 16

galeandra......................................... 16,17

heli'eri................................. 16, 17, 18, 30

henry i........................................... 16, 17

ovata.................................................16

thorelii..............................................17

chinensis...............................................98

cristata..............................................98

lacertiferum............................................33

annamensis........................................8, 9, 30

Cryptostylis................................................8

arachnites........................................ 10, 30

Diplochilos longifolium....................................91

Diplomeris.................................................91

pulchella.............................................91

Gymnadeniinae............................................24

Habenaria................................................34

acuifera....................................... 38, 75, 77

amplexicaulis.....................................42, 44

apetala........................................ 38, 75, 80

chapaensis..............................................26

ciliolaris..................................... 37, 53, 55

cirrhifera............................................38

clovisii..............................................55

columbae..............................................67

commelinifolia................................ 37, 48, 51

constricta..............................................26

cylindrocalyx.........................................26

dankiaensis...........................................33

dentata......................... 5, 38, 39, 57, 62, 67, 69

digitata..............................................44

erostrata...................................... 38, 82, 83

evrardii..............................................33

finetiana...............................................67

galeandra var. annamica................................ 16

geniculata..........................................39, 67

geniculata var. ecalcarata............................39

geoffrayi.............................................32

gigantea................................................87

godefroyi..................................... 37, 47, 48

goodyeroides..........................................27

graminifolia........................................... 70

harderii...................................... 38, 84, 86

hosokawae.............................................42

keiskeoides.............................................19

khasiana....................................... 38, 70, 73

langbianensis...........................................32

laotica................................................ 17

latifolia.............................................67

limprichtii.................................... 37, 47, 48

lindleyana.................................... 38, 67, 71

linearipetala.........................................44

linguella...................................... 38, 75, 78

longidenticulata........................................38

macroptera............................................67

maingayi..............................................32

malintana................................. 37, 39, 57, 64

malleifera............................ 37, 50, 53, 54, 59

mandersii...................................... 37, 62, 66

medioflexa................................ 37, 47, 49, 59

militaris.........................................53, 55

monticola...............................................34

myriotricha............................... 37, 47, 48, 50

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myriotricha var. confluens............................47

pantlingiana.......................... 37, 38, 40, 44, 58

parageniculata.................. 37, 39, 57, 62, 65, 89

parishii..............................................27

passerina.............................................33

peristyloides.........................................33

petelotii................................. 37, 42, 43, 59

poilanei....................................... 37, 56, 63

polytrichia...........................................38

polytrichoides........................................38

praetermissa................................... 37, 63, 68

prainii...............................................26

reniformis.................................... 37, 55, 62

rhodocheila....................... 37, 53, 56, 59, 89, 90

rostellifera............................. 38, 79, 81, 93

rostrata...................................... 38, 79, 82

seshagiriana.........................................38

stenopetala........................... 37, 39, 44, 46, 59

uniflora.............................................91

Hayata..............................................92, 95

glandulifera................................. 93, 95, 96

tabiyahanensis.......................................92

Hemipilia................................................. 19

calophylla.................................... 20, 22, 31

cordifolia...........................................19

discolor...................................... 20, 22, 31

Herminium...............................................24

goodyeroides.........................................27

lanceum..........................................24, 31

monorchis............................................24

Listera reniformis......................................55

Malaxis subulata............................................8

Ophryinae................................................. 11

Orchideae..............................................8, 10

Orchidinae.............................................. 10

Orchis ............................................8, 10, 11

viri diflora........................................... 70

Paphiopedilum........................................... 7,92

Pecteilis..............................................84

cambodiana................................ 84, 87, 88, 91

cochinchinensis........................... 84, 87, 88, 91

henryi......................................... 84, 87, 88

susannae.................................. 84, 87, 88, 93

Peristylus.............................................25

aristatus..................................... 26, 33, 35

holttumianus................................... 26, 32, 35

holttumii............................. 26, 32, 33, 35, 58

langbianensis...........................................32

maingayi....................................... 25, 29, 32

parishii....................................... 25, 27, 29

prainii....................................... 25, 26, 28

tentaculatus................................... 26, 34, 36

Phyllomphax henryi...................................... 16

Platanthera............................................... 11

angustata.......................................11, 12, 14

angustata var. singgalangensis....................... 12

bifolia................................................ 11

epiphytica..................................... 11, 13, 30

rumphii.............................................. 74

Serapiadinae...............................................11

Silvorchis colorata........................................24

Thelymitra malintana...................................57

Vietorchis...........................................21,98

aurea...........................................21, 23, 31

INDEX OF NEW NAMES AND COMBINACIONC IN THE ISSUE INDEX ALPHABETICUS TAXORUMNOMINUM NOVORUM АЛФАВИТНЫЙ УКАЗАТЕЛЬ НОВЫХ НАЗВАНИЙ ТАКСОНОВ

Amitostigma bidupense (Aver.) Aver., comb. nov.......................................... 19

Habenaria dentata var. parageniculata (Tang et F T. Wang) Aver., comb, nov..............62

Sect. Mecosa (Blume) Aver., stat. et comb. nov........................................... 11

Paphiopedihim canhii Aver, et O. Gruss, sp. nov.........................................92

CONTENS

SUPPLEMENT..............................................................92

LITERATURE..............................................................98

INDEX OF LATIN NAMES....................................................99

INDEX OF NEW NAMES AND COMBINACIONC IN THE ISSUE.......................101

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