Научная статья на тему 'THE INVESTIGATION OF FIRE EXTINGUISHING ABILITY OF THE POWDER MATERIALS BY EXTENDED EXTINGUISHING AND SUPPRESSION OF EXPLOSIONS OF GAS-AIR MIXTURES'

THE INVESTIGATION OF FIRE EXTINGUISHING ABILITY OF THE POWDER MATERIALS BY EXTENDED EXTINGUISHING AND SUPPRESSION OF EXPLOSIONS OF GAS-AIR MIXTURES Текст научной статьи по специальности «Химические технологии»

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Ключевые слова
SUPPRESSION / EXTINGUISHING POWDER / DOLOMITE / AMMOPHOS / GAS-AIR MIXTURE

Аннотация научной статьи по химическим технологиям, автор научной работы — Sapargalieva B., Naukenova A., Illari Javier Rodrigo, Egeubayeva A., Aubakirova T.

Currently, the production of chemical foam fire extinguishers has been canceled, and the main emphasis is on the development of effective powder flame retardant compositions. The standard formulations used are very expensive, so it is promising to study dust-like waste industry due to their low cost, low cost of finalization and the possibility of their utilization. Explosion suppression efficiency of dust waste was determined as follows: the weight of dust fraction < 0.05 mm was weighed on an electronic balance accurate to the fourth digit, and placed in a spray bottle. Further, in the mixer, in a different ratio, a mixture of propane-butane with air is prepared. Then, through the intermediate cylinder, with the help of an electromagnetic valve, the air pulse shoved the canopy and carried the air-gas mixture into a pre-vacuumed reaction tube. Then, with the help of high-voltage inductor an electric discharge voltage of 1,000 to set to the mixture have been fire.

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ИССЛЕДОВАНИЕ ОГНЕТУШАЩЕЙ СПОСОБНОСТИ ПОРОШКОВЫХ МАТЕРИАЛОВ ПРИ ОБЪЕМНОМ ТУШЕНИИ И ПОДАВЛЕНИИ ВЗРЫВОВ ГАЗОВОЗДУШНЫХ СМЕСЕЙ

В настоящее время выпуск химически-пенных огнетушителей отменен, и основной упор делается на разработку эффективных порошковых пламеподавляющих составов. Применяемые стандартные составы очень дороги, поэтому перспективно изучение пылевидных отходов промышленности в связи с их дешевизной, малыми затратами на окончательную доработку и возможностью их утилизации. Взрывоподавляющую эффективность пылевидных отходов определяли следующим образом: навеску пыли фракции < 0,05 мм взвешивали на электронных весах с точностью до четвертого знака, и помещали в распылитель. Далее в смесителе, в различном соотношении, готовили смеси пропан - бутана с воздухом. Затем через промежуточный баллон, с помощью электромагнитного клапана, импульсом воздуха взвихряли навеску и увлекали газопылевоздушную смесь в предварительно вакуумированную реакционную трубку. Потом, с помощью высоковольтного индуктора, электрическим разрядом напряжением в 1000 В поджигали смеси.

Текст научной работы на тему «THE INVESTIGATION OF FIRE EXTINGUISHING ABILITY OF THE POWDER MATERIALS BY EXTENDED EXTINGUISHING AND SUPPRESSION OF EXPLOSIONS OF GAS-AIR MIXTURES»

B. Sapargalieva PhD student,

M. Auezov South-Kazakhstan State University

A. Naukenova candidate of technical science, docent M.Auezov South-Kazakhstan State University,

Javier Rodrigo Illari

PhD doctor of Universitat Politecnica de Valencia,

Spain, Valencia A. Egeubayeva

English teacher, deputy director for academic affairs, 69general secondary school T. Aubakirova

PhD doctor, docent M.Auezov South-Kazakhstan State University

Сапаргалиева Б.

PhD докторант,

Южно-Казахстанский Государственный Университет им. М. Ауэзова

Наукенова А. кандидат технических наук, доцент

Южно-Казахстанский Государственный Университет им. М. Ауэзова,

Хавьер Родриго Иллари PhD доктор политехнического университета Валенсии,

Испания, Валенсия Егеубаева А.

Учитель английского языка, заместитель директора по учебной работе,

69 общей средней школы Аубакирова Т.

PhD доктор, доцент

Южно-Казахстанский Государственный Университет Им. М. Ауэзова

THE INVESTIGATION OF FIRE EXTINGUISHING ABILITY OF THE POWDER MATERIALS BY EXTENDED EXTINGUISHING AND SUPPRESSION OF EXPLOSIONS OF GAS-AIR

MIXTURES

ИССЛЕДОВАНИЕ ОГНЕТУШАЩЕЙ СПОСОБНОСТИ ПОРОШКОВЫХ МАТЕРИАЛОВ ПРИ

ОБЪЕМНОМ ТУШЕНИИ И ПОДАВЛЕНИИ ВЗРЫВОВ ГАЗОВОЗДУШНЫХ СМЕСЕЙ

Summary: Currently, the production of chemical foam fire extinguishers has been canceled, and the main emphasis is on the development of effective powder flame retardant compositions. The standard formulations used are very expensive, so it is promising to study dust-like waste industry due to their low cost, low cost of finalization and the possibility of their utilization.

Explosion suppression efficiency of dust waste was determined as follows: the weight of dust fraction < 0.05 mm was weighed on an electronic balance accurate to the fourth digit, and placed in a spray bottle. Further, in the mixer, in a different ratio, a mixture of propane-butane with air is prepared. Then, through the intermediate cylinder, with the help of an electromagnetic valve, the air pulse shoved the canopy and carried the air-gas mixture into a pre-vacuumed reaction tube. Then, with the help of high-voltage inductor an electric discharge voltage of 1,000 to set to the mixture have been fire.

Key words: flame-extinguishing compounds, effectiveness of explosion, suppression, extinguishing powder, dolomite, ammophos, gas-air mixture, explosion

Аннотация: В настоящее время выпуск химически-пенных огнетушителей отменен, и основной упор делается на разработку эффективных порошковых пламеподавляющих составов. Применяемые стандартные составы очень дороги, поэтому перспективно изучение пылевидных отходов промышленности в связи с их дешевизной, малыми затратами на окончательную доработку и возможностью их утилизации.

Взрывоподавляющую эффективность пылевидных отходов определяли следующим образом: навеску пыли фракции < 0,05 мм взвешивали на электронных весах с точностью до четвертого знака, и помещали в распылитель. Далее в смесителе, в различном соотношении, готовили смеси пропан - бутана с воздухом. Затем через промежуточный баллон, с помощью электромагнитного клапана, импульсом воздуха взвих-ряли навеску и увлекали газопылевоздушную смесь в предварительно вакуумированную реакционную трубку. Потом, с помощью высоковольтного индуктора, электрическим разрядом напряжением в 1000 В поджигали смеси.

Ключевые слова: пламягасящие составы, взрывоподавляющая эффективность, огнетушащий порошок, доломит, аммофос, газовоздушная смесь, взрываемость

The statement of the problem is concluded in the investigation of fire extinguishing ability of the powder materials by extended extinguishing and suppression of explosions of gas-air mixtures and study of the fire-extinguishing ability of expired standard flame retardant powders.

The analysis of last researches and publications

shows that determined rational correlation of components in the many fire-extinguishing mixtures on the base of overdue powder with addition of dolomite and limestone dust on which fire-extinguishing efficiency; experimentally established indexes of the overdue powders, waste of metallurgic production and recommended fire-extinguishing mixtures.

The manuscript is intended for the following unresolved earlier part of general problem: determination explosion ability of fine-dispersion substances as slaked lime, standard fire extinguishing powder containing ammophos, sludge from the chemical unit (filtered) of the cold rolling plant of the steel sheet containing iron oxide, dolomite dust, baking soda (sodium bicarbonate), natural gypsum and the precipitate is neutralized by acidic effluent as well investigation the influence of foresaid substances on explosion of gas-air mixture.

The purpose of manuscript is investigation fire-extinguishing ability of powder material at the volumetric extinguishing as well suppression explosions of gas-air mixtures.

The presentation of main material. Powder formulations have well-known disadvantages, the main of which is their tendency to caking and balling. This loses the ability of powders to be transported through

pipelines, and form a fire extinguishing cloud.

Even in the manufacture of powder can absorb up to 5-10% of moisture from the humid air of the shop, if it is not protected from moisture absorption by special additives. When Packed in a fire extinguisher, it is subjected to shaking and vibration during transport or during its service on transport and equipment. Bahamas in such conditions, the powder must retain the fluidity of capacity (a good release). In solving this problem means a lot not only the chemical composition of the powder, ie. special additives to the base material, but also the technology of its manufacture, thermo and vibration resistance of the powder, its anti - traceability and a number of others [1-3].

The explosion spread flame to the top of the reaction vessel, the absence or the burst of flame was observed visually. The results of the research were recorded in the observation log (table 1).

Explosion as the shaded point - o , its absence as a shaded point- • In the objects of study were taken the following fine-dispersion substances:

- slaked lime;

- standard fire extinguishing powder containing ammophos;

- sludge from the chemical unit (filtered) of the cold rolling plant of the steel sheet containing iron oxide;

- dolomite dust;

- baking soda (sodium bicarbonate);

- natural gypsum;

- the precipitate is neutralized by acidic effluent.

The results of experimental studies on the adopted

methodology are given in table 1.

Table 1-results of experimental studies

Appellation Humidity t,°C P, mm.Hg. St. %, gas Weight of samples The result of samples

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

600 0

Natural gypsum 70 19,5 720 5 700 0

800 0

1000 0

1100 0

8 1000 0

2000 0

3 3000 0

600 0

900 0

1500 0

3000 0

3 1500 0

75 19,5 719 2000 •

2000 0

Baking soda 5 4000 •

4500 •

3000 0

7 4000 •

4200 •

2000 •

9 1500 •

1000 0

3000 •

5 1000 0

85 20 713 2200 0

Slaked lime 2600 0

1000 •

3 900 •

500 •

100 0

200 0

2500 •

7 2000 •

1900 0

1800 0

1800 •

9 1000 •

500 0

2000 •

Sludge from the chemical unit 80 26 714 3 1000 0

1500 •

1300 •

3000 0

5 3500 0

1100 •

1200 0

8 1700 0

2000 0

2500 •

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3000 •

500 •

9 1000 •

1100 •

1500 0

Dolomite 85 25 715 3 2000 0

3000 •

3500 •

2000 •

6 3000 0

4000 0

5000 0

1500 0

9 2000 0

3000 •

2500 •

1500 0

2000 0

7,5 3000 0

4000 0

2000 0

4 3000 0

4000 0

5000 •

80 26 727 3 400+400 •

Amophos+dolomite (1:1) 500+500 •

200+200 0

100+100 0

600+600 0

6 1000+1000 0

1100+1100 •

1250+1250 •

7,5 1250+1250 •

1000+1000 •

500+500 •

100+100 0

1000+1000 •

9 500+500 •

100+100 0

500+500 •

Amophos+limeston (1:1) 75 20 720 300+300 •

3 200+200 0

100+100 0

800+800 •

1000+1000 •

5 1200+1200 0

1300+1300 0

1250+1250 0

1000+1000 0

7 500+500 •

300+300 •

100+100 •

1250+1250 0

1000+1000 0

9 800+800 •

500+500 •

100+100 •

The results of experimental studies on the efficiency of dust-like substances are shown in figures accepted method of determining the explosive 1 - 6.

Fig.1 - the Influence of ammonium phosphate on explosion ability of the gas mixture

Ul

Fig.2 - Impact of dolomite dust figure

Fig.3 - Effect of slaked lime-gas-air mixture explosion

b

< - -v-<

/

/ . < \ !

• / /( »/ \ V

/ \ *

H

A i \

i i

1

3 -I 5 6 7 S

CoaeJKfcmile ra'i0B»5O>iuHoii .'H'-ll %

a

Fig. 4-effect of soda (a) and gypsum (b) on explosiongas-air mixture a b

J :

j \

r ~

}-- \ L

j

1 !

1 \

* ! i l

cl soft

Coatpv^aHiie ra joBOi^vuiHon CM«CII, a/o

rtjOErt'ijyiiiHofr civietn, '

Fig.5-Effect ofprecipitation of neutralized acidic runoff (a) and iron oxide (b) gas-air mixture explosion

Content of gas-air mixture, % 1-Standardpowder P - 2AP, containing ammophos; 2-dolomite; 3 - slaked lime; 4-soda; 5-Gypsum;

6-Precipitation of neutralized acid waste streams;

7-iron Oxide formed during regeneration of spent

the etching solution Fig.6 - the Effect of pulverized additives substances on vzryvaet gas mixture

o - i ;

L i i 1

; : 1 1

1

The results of more than a hundred experiments have shown that the efficiency of a standard powder is much higher than that of the other samples studied [46]. Its extinguishing concentration is-350 g/m3, while dolomite - 1280 g/m3, slaked lime - 1470 g / m3. The rest of the samples in the batches of test substances to 2000 g/m3 failed to create a fire extinguishing concentration of the most volatile compounds of the mixture, but the dynamics of the curves traced the following efficiency range:

Fe20s<CaS04^ 2H20 <

Ca(0H)2<(Ca,Mg)C03<NH4H2P04+( NH4)2HP04

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It follows from the obtained data that dolomite and lime with an explosive capacity of 1.28 and 1.47 kg/m3, respectively, can become acceptable for the development of explosive compositions [7-10]. Experimental

data are correlated with the calculated data where dolomite with AH" about 140 kJ/mol, more efficient

lime AH298 equal to 108 kJ/mol. However, their effectiveness is 3.7-4.2 times lower than that of ammophos.

To improve their explosive power, it was decided to mix them with expired standard powders.

The conclusions of investigation and perspectives of further development:

There is experimentally established fire-extinguishing ability rising on the link:

Fe20s<CaS04^ 2H20 <

Ca(0H)2<(Ca,Mg)C0s<NH4H2P04+( NH4)2HP04

Theoretically determined meanings of endother-mic effects for decomposing reactions of powders on

the base components of fire-extinguishing powders with relative fire-extinguishing ability on established order are correlated.

References

1 Effect of inorganic additives on the explosion hazards of coal dust. J. Corecld, T. Szkred //Proc. Shenyang Int. Symp. Dust Explos, henyang. Sept. 14-16, 1987. - Snenyabg, 1987. - P. 528-538.

2 Plotnikov V. M., Belyaev V. V. Destructive and damaging effects from an accidental explosion. - Almaty, 2001. - 98 p.

3 Govorov V. I., Chernyshev A. A., Chernyshova T. P., Prokhorenko N. New prospects of utilization of metallurgical wastes //Mat-ly Republican. scientific. scient. Conf. "Innovations in ecology". - Kokshetau, 2004. - P. 157-160.

4 Govorov V. I., Chernyshev A. A. On directions in the prevention of explosions of powder materials // Technology of metals: collection of scientific works.Tr. Carmate. - Almaty, 2000. - Pp. 171-172.

5 Guidance on operation and application of automated systems vzryvopodavlenija - localization of explosions (ASVP - LV) in underground excavations of coal mines, hazardous gas and dust. The Department of coal industry of the Ministry of energy. Introduced

20.11.03. - M.,2003. - 25 P.

6 Govorov V. I., Chernyshev A. A., O. S., Kriv-enko T. S. Method of evaluation of efficiency of fire extinguishing powder waste // Technology of metals and secondary materials: collection of scientific works.Tr. Carmate. - Temirtau, 2004. - P. 166-169.

7 Kim A.V., Chernyshev A. A. Criteria of fire and inflammation of industrial dusts // national center for scientific and technical information. Karaganda, 2007. - 21 S.

8 Kuduk V. A., Markin A. M., Dolgopolov A. V. Problems of methodology of determination of fire extinguishing ability of the powder means for unattended installations //Large fires: prevention and extinguishing/ Materials of scientific conference. - M.: VNIIPO, 2001. - Pp. 180-183.

9 Chernyshev A. A. On the possibility of using dolomite dust in fire-extinguishing compositions, Proc. international. Rauch. scient. Conf. "Scientific - technical progress in metallurgy". - Karaganda, 2007. - S. 365-368.

10 Dushebaev K. M., Govorov V. I., Chernyshev A. A. On the use of fine waste in fire-extinguishing compositions // Nauch. - tekhn.SB. "News of science of Kazakhstan". - Almaty, 2007. - No. 4. - P. 49-54

Novskiy А. V.

Ph.D., Professor, Odessa State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture Novskiy V.A., Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Odessa State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture

Voitenko I.V.

Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Odessa State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture НовскийАлександр Васильевич кандидат технических наук, профессор кафедры оснований и фундаментов Одесской государственной академии строительства и архитектуры

Новский Василий Александрович

кандидат технических наук, доцент кафедры оснований и фундаментов Одесской государственной академии строительства и архитектуры Войтенко Инга Владимировна

кандидат технических наук, доцент кафедры оснований и фундаментов Одесской государственной академии строительства и архитектуры

SPECIAL PROPERTIES OF LIMESTONE OF THE ODESSA REGION ОСОБЫЕ СВОЙСТВА ИЗВЕСТНЯКА-РАКУШЕЧНИКА ОДЕССКОГО РЕГИОНА

Abstract: the technique and results of studies of anisotropic properties of limestone-shell rock are described. It is found that the anisotropy coefficient depends on the type of load in determining the different strength characteristics and is in the range of 1.89 - 0.86. Softness in humidification also depends on the type of load and is in the range of 0.75 - 0.90. Therefore, when considering anisotropy and softness it is necessary to consider a type of loading of limestone - shell rock.

Keywords: limestone-shell rock, anisotropy, stratification, tensile strength, shears resistance, structural strength, softness.

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