Научная статья на тему 'THE FEATURES OF FESTIVAL TOURISM AS A COMPONENT OF EVENT TOURISM'

THE FEATURES OF FESTIVAL TOURISM AS A COMPONENT OF EVENT TOURISM Текст научной статьи по специальности «Экономика и бизнес»

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festival tourism / event tourism / travel / event tourism / celebration / factors

Аннотация научной статьи по экономике и бизнесу, автор научной работы — Stavska Yu.

The article popularizes the festival movement in Ukraine in order to develop it to the international level. As this type of tourism abroad captures an increasing share of the market of tourist services, for our country, as well as for any other, the development of this industry is very promising. To do this, it is necessary to study the current level of development of festival tourism in Ukraine, to compare it with the world, as well as to develop a program for the national product to enter the international market.

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Текст научной работы на тему «THE FEATURES OF FESTIVAL TOURISM AS A COMPONENT OF EVENT TOURISM»

THE FEATURES OF FESTIVAL TOURISM AS A COMPONENT OF EVENT TOURISM

Stavska Yu.

Candidate of Economical Science, Associate Professor Head of the Department of international management, hotel and restaurant business and tourism,

Vinnytsia National Agrarian University

Abstract

The article popularizes the festival movement in Ukraine in order to develop it to the international level. As this type of tourism abroad captures an increasing share of the market of tourist services, for our country, as well as for any other, the development of this industry is very promising. To do this, it is necessary to study the current level of development of festival tourism in Ukraine, to compare it with the world, as well as to develop a program for the national product to enter the international market.

Keywords: festival tourism, event tourism, travel, event tourism, celebration, factors.

Main part. Festival tourism is a rather young and extremely interesting direction. It appeared relatively recently and took a significant place in the world tourist movement. This is a promising type of tourism that is developing dynamically. The target audience of festival tourism is well-off tourists with above-average income, as well as companies of tourists consisting of several pairs. This type of tourism is associated with the holding of folklore, usually costumed for the spectacle of holidays, carnivals and festivals. As a rule, the main purpose of the trip is timed to any event.

To date, very little attention has also been paid to festival tourism in Ukraine as a component of events. One can find only a few publications in industry journals about individual events of this nature, but they have no scientific value, and are only cultural and educational in nature. There is still no single systematic work on festival tourism in Ukraine. The most informative on this topic are Internet resources. Thus, for the largest festivals, own sites have been created, which contain information about the organizers, the program, the time of the celebration, the tourist infrastructure, the transport connection of the territory of the event, etc. But again, this information is not scientific in nature.

Tourism ranks third in the world for equal profitability. That is why the tourism industry is given a prominent place in the economy of Ukraine. This study is devoted to the analysis of the place of festival tourism in the set of directions of mass tourist movement.

The relevance of the study is to study festivals as a holistic social phenomenon, to identify the importance and impact of specific actions on the state of everyday life. Taking into account the urgency of the researched problem, a small amount of research on this topic, as well as taking into account the objective need to study the modern Ukrainian festival process, the choice of the topic of the diploma research was determined.

Analysis of recent research and publications.

The theoretical foundations of event tourism are described in the scientific literature very little. There are no Ukrainian-language publications in which this concept would be considered. Among the Ukranian-speak-ing should be mentioned the work of Babkin A.V. "Special types of tourism", in which one of the sections is devoted to event tourism. In particular, the author offers his classification of this type of recreation, as well

as describes the organizational features of its various areas.

The theoretical basis of the study of festival tourism are practitioners on the problems of formulating the terminology, structure and functions of the festival process M. Shved, A. Babkin, specific features of cultural, cognitive and event tourism of Ukraine O. Lyubitseva, O. Beidyk, M. Malska, M. Rutinsky. The analysis of the modern music festival process in Ukraine was performed in the research of O. Dyachkov, O. Zinkevych, L. Kiyanovska, S. Kravtsova, M. Shveda and others.

The purpose of the work is to substantiate the scientific principles and develop practical recommendations for the development of festival tourism, improving the organizational and economic mechanisms of the festival movement, identifying problems and justifying the prospects for its development.

The methodological basis of the work is a systematic approach to the study of socio-economic processes and phenomena of the functioning of festivals as part of regional economic complexes. The content of the concept of "festival" is specified by a method of scientific abstraction, as a part of tourist branch the classification of forms and kinds of its functioning at regional level is carried out. With the help of induction and deduction, analysis and synthesis, specific manifestations and generalized characteristics of the development of the festival movement in Ukraine were studied.

The concepts of "festival tourism" or "festival tour" are increasingly appearing in the list of tourist services offered and are gaining a wider audience. However, in the works of well-known domestic scientists of Ukraine and Russia, we have not been able to find appropriate interpretations of these terms. In the works of VF Kifyaka and the monograph "International Tourism" A.Yu. Alexandrova, we do not meet the concept of "festival tourism" at all. In the monograph M.P. Krachila "Geography of Tourism" we find such a type of tourism as cultural and entertainment, in which the author singles out entertainment trips to attend festivals and sporting events. M.B. The Swede [7] also singles out cognitive tours, the purpose of which is to attend festive events, concerts, exhibitions, but there is no such term as "festival" in his works. Festival-entertainment and sports-entertainment as subspecies of cultural and entertaining tourism are offered in the works of OO

Beidyk [3]. O. Topchiev and Ts. Van offer their sys-tematics of recreational activity. They classify it on the basis of recreational needs. There are entertainment needs, among which we meet festivals, carnivals and national holidays. After a long search among Internet sources, we found the term "festival tourism" [11], but here it was used as the name of travel. English economists Diane O'Sullivan and Marion J. Jackson have been studying the impact of festival tourism on the country's economy since 2002 [11].

Based on the philosophical concept of determinism, which studies the relationship of phenomena of the material and spiritual world, and the main position of which is the existence of dependence between phenomena [6, p. 26], we concluded that the existing classifications by their appearance were already on the verge of the emergence of others. We believe that the already conducted thorough classification summarizes the results of previous development of this industry and at the same time marks the beginning of a new stage of its development. Classification contributes to the movement of science from the degree of empirical accumulation of knowledge to the level of theoretical synthesis of this knowledge.

0.0. Lyubitseva suggested that the starting point for the development of modern tourism should be considered the end of World War II [4], and for festival tourism, in our opinion, in its modern sense, it began to develop later, although it has a deeper history. Therefore, in our opinion, festival tourism deserves to be allocated to a separate type of tourism.

Factors determining the development of festival tourism. Festival tourism is a complex phenomenon in which the needs and real activities of people, natural, technical and economic processes are intertwined. Based on the literature on festival tourism, we can identify six main groups of factors:

1. Socio-economic factors. These factors are fundamental and include: the nature of the socio-economic system; material well-being; labor activity; volume and structure of free time; cultural level, professional and educational structure of the population.

2. Demographic factors. These include: number; features of population distribution and its sex and age structure.

3. Political factors include: stability of domestic policy and foreign relations; expansion of international political, economic, scientific, cultural ties and cooperation; simplification of passport and customs regime; social policy of the state.

4. Socio-psychological factors. These include: the influence of traditions and the presence of certain stereotypes of behavior; religion; increasing the prestige and growth of the social status of the individual; media and advertising.

5. Cultural and historical factors reflect the richness of material and spiritual culture of peoples.

6. Material and technological factors are determined by the level of equipment and technology in the fields of transport, construction, communications, communications; in the media; system of utilities, trade and catering.

These groups of factors were characterized, first of all, in a positive way as contributing to the development of festival tourism. However, it is necessary to dwell on the factors that constrain and even inhibit its growth. Of the socio-economic factors, such as inflation, rising crime and unemployment, the crisis, the disruption of trade, and the lack of planning in the use of natural and labor resources is a deterrent them, such that negatively affect festival tourism [7].

Festivals of various scales and content take place in different countries quite often. However, theorists and practitioners in the field of tourism have not yet substantiated the concept of "festival tourism", its specific features. Given the growing interest in this type of recreational and tourist activities, attracting more and more people and resources, we consider it necessary to justify the affiliation of festival tourism.

The purpose of the thesis is to investigate the origins of folk festivals, which in recent years are actively transformed into a festival and attract a large number of tourists, in particular in Kiev, studying their current state, determine the prospects for further development of festival tourism was the main goal of our study.

Festival trips have all the hallmarks of tourism. Festival tourism has long been at the intersection of cognitive, entertainment and ethnographic tourism. We do not rule out the possibility of finding common features with other types of tourism, but this type has its own distinctive features, which makes it possible to identify the following 7 features of festival tourism:

- trips are short (average 3-5 days);

- have a clear spatial framework (festival venues);

- in recent years there has been a growing interest in festivals and holidays;

- there is a clear history of festivals;

- have a purpose that differs from the purpose of cognitive tourism;

- there are connections with other types of tourism;

- a system of classifications of this type of tourism has been created.

The word "festival" comes from the French word festival, which means "holiday". According to the definition of the encyclopedic dictionary, the festival is a mass celebration, musical performances, showing the achievements of pop, film and circus art [15, p. 125]. Linking festival activities with the growing tourist movement, as well as due to the strong connection with its components, we can give the following definition: Festival tourism - is the organization of short cognitive trips for 5-7 days to attend certain events (from concerts of modern Western music to religious celebrations, from ethnic carnivals to parades of modern subcultures), once a year.

According to the method of "Classification of tourism for travel" O.O. Beidyk [2], we have created our own system of links between festival tourism and other types of tourism (Fig. 1).

According to this scheme, the connections of festival tourism with cultural-entertaining, religious, cognitive, sports, and shop tourism are traced.

Festival tourism (thematic tourism, event tourism) - a type of tourism, the main purpose of which is dedicated to any event. Unique tours, combining traditional

recreation and participation in the most spectacular events on the planet, are gradually gaining more and more popularity.

Event tourism is a wonderful holiday atmosphere, individual conditions of rest and unforgettable impressions. The main feature of event tourism - many bright

unique moments. The target audience of thematic tourism is well-off tourists with above-average income, as well as companies consisting of several couples.

By festival tourism, researchers primarily mean short-term (not more than a week) cognitive trips to visit certain events (musical, cultural, religious, sports, once a year [9].

TOURISM

Fig. 1. The place offestival tourism in the structure of tourist activity [2]

Quite often festival tourism is considered not as a separate type of tourism, but as a component of event tourism or event tourism (the term was first used in 1987 by the New Zealand Department of Tourism) [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]. Event tourism is defined as a type of tourism that focuses on visiting a specific place at a specific time in connection with an event. Today, event tourism is a very promising type of tourism, which ranks second in popularity in Europe. Among the types of event tourism in the first place are primarily festivals, which differ in their thematic content [10, p. 246].

Festival trips have all the hallmarks of tourism. Festival tourism was at the junction of cognitive, entertainment and ethnographic tourism.

We do not rule out the possibility of finding common features with other types of tourism, but this type has its own distinctive features, which makes it possible to identify the following features of festival tourism: travel is short (average 3-5 days); have a clear spatial framework (festival venues); in recent years there has been a growing interest in festivals and holidays; a clear history of festival development can be traced; have a

purpose different from the purpose of cognitive tourism; there are connections with other types of tourism; created a system of classifications of this type of tourism [2].

It is difficult to draw the line between event tourism and festival tourism. So event tourism includes such excellent attractions as: military parades, conferences, forums, symposiums, round tables; educational activities: seminars, trainings, advanced training courses; film screenings, celebrations; trade shows, presentations, business openings, receptions, events related to brand promotion, auctions, air and car showrooms, etc. [9].

Festival tourism is one of the most popular types of cognitive tourism.

The essential classification of festival tourism aims to establish the general principles and patterns of establishment of classes. To do this, we considered the whole set of factors by which festivals can be classified, identified the most significant of them and gave a meaningful interpretation to all possible classes of the object under study. Consider the possible typification of festival tourism (Fig. 2).

Fig. 2. Typification of festival tourism [9]

Ethnic festivals include:

- Various holidays associated with pagan beliefs (African festivals, Ivan Kupala, Malanka);

- celebration of Christian rites and holidays (Shrovetide);

- holidays that were started in pre-Christian times, but under the influence of religion have changed somewhat, acquiring the status of Christian (Venice Carnival);

- New Year's celebration in different nations;

- modern "national" ethnic festivals ("Folklorum" Germany).

Religious festivals include:

- festivals related to world religions (Christianity, Buddhism, Islam);

- festivals related to national religions (Judaism, Zoroastrianism, Hinduism);

- Festivals related to local beliefs (toteism, fetishism, magic, belief in ancestral spirits, etc.).

- music festivals include:

- festivals (concerts) of ethnic music;

- festivals (concerts) of classical music;

- festivals (concerts) of modern music.

Festivals of modern subcultures include:

- festivals and parades of representatives of non-traditional sexual orientation;

- festivals of love;

- various festivals of subcultures (Hippie, Punk, Rock, etc.);

- film festivals;

- festivals (shows) of modern fashion.

Gastronomic festivals include:

- Harvest festivals (Grape Festival);

- Festivals associated with a particular national dish (Brynza Festival);

- festivals dedicated to a certain drink (Oktoberfest, Young Wine Festival (Georgia)).

Sports festivals include:

- festivals related to the celebration of sporting events (opening - closing of the Olympic Games);

- holding various championships (World Championships in football, hockey, etc.).

Consider the classification of festivals vertically (Table 1). We have considered the method of spatial taxon objects.

Table 1

Classification of festival tourism by scale

Class name Features Names of festivals

International festivals Arrival of tourists from 3 and more countries. Significant advertising. The scale of tourist coverage. Carnival in Rio de Janeiro, Venice Carnival, Olympic Games, Bullfighting, Tomato Fights, New Year in China and Thailand, etc.

National festivals Festivals are held within one country. Advertising in the national media. Attracting tourists from their country. Oktoberfest (Germany), Stanford Festival (Great Britain), Sorochyn Fair (Ukraine), etc.

Regional festivals Holidays held in several villages or in one city. Ads only in the district or regional and newspaper. Little-studied and little publicized events among tourists from other regions and other countries. "Temple holidays" in the villages. Lightning. City days. Fairs.

The generalizations give grounds to consider festival tourism as a separate type, which confirms the isolation of its specific features and analysis of the place of festival tourism in the structure of recreational and tourist activities. An attempt to typify and classify festival tourism provides an opportunity for promising research in this area.

This approach to the concept of "festival tourism" will expand existing types of tourism, develop a concept for further development of tourism and the place of festivals in the economy of the regions where they are held.

Today, the world is growing interest in festival tours, which are gradually displacing the traditional

bathing and beach recreation. This area of tourism allows you to solve many socio-economic problems inherent not only in the tourism industry. Festivals attract additional tourists to the country, which, in turn, increases foreign exchange earnings. In addition, festival tourism helps to solve the problem of seasonality, which is especially evident in countries with subtropical climates that develop beach holidays, as well as for countries that develop ski tourism. In addition, it creates additional jobs and provides employment.

The main feature of event tourism - many bright unique moments. This is a promising and dynamically developing type of tourism.

Event tourism is multifaceted and diverse, it is inexhaustible in content, every year it is replenished with new event tours, which from random, become regular [2].

Event tourism can be classified by the scale of the event and the theme of the event.

The scale of the event can be divided into events at the regional (local), national, international and global (global) levels. However, this division is not constant, as small insignificant events can gradually develop and move to a higher level. Local level events are events that are important for a certain micro-region (city, administrative district). Such events include, for example, the celebration of the city day. Events at the national level include events that are important for the entire state. For example, such festivals as the All-Ukrainian Variety Song Contest and the Taras Bulba All-Ukrainian Festival of Popular and Rock Music are held annually in Ukraine. International events include the Yalta International Film Festival "Kino-Yalta", the Ukrainian ethnic music festival "Dreamland". World or global events are events that are known and popular all over the world and attract the largest number of tourists. These include such sporting events as the Olympics -the Summer and Winter Olympics, Formula 1 racing; carnival events - Venetian, Brazilian carnivals; beauty contests - "Miss World"; festivals - Cannes Film Festival, Dutch Flower Festival and others. Of interest are also natural events and phenomena, such as solar or lunar eclipses [3].

One of the types of event tourism is festival tourism.

Festival tourism has appeared relatively recently and has taken a significant place in the world recreational movement. Festivals are held in almost all countries of the world, they are different in content and meaning.

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Festivals can pursue different goals: political, economic, social, educational. In the end, the festival events promote the country, region, city, specific place (destination), attracting significant tourist flows.

Modern PR-managers are increasingly organizing festivals that pursue image and commercial goals. In principle, if we compare festivals that have gone down in history as part of cultural life with modern ones, they can also reveal PR components. For example, any international festival of folk crafts, dances, songs, etc. This is primarily to attract interest to the representative country, and secondly - to its culture and individuals, organizations that support it. This phenomenon has survived to this day, only the goals have become more, and, accordingly, increased the arsenal of tools, instruments, technologies. Therefore, at the moment we can identify many varieties of festivals, and their number continues to grow [1].

We can assume that the modern festival movement dates back to ancient Greece. This is where the Olympic Games originated - the oldest and most popular all-Greek celebrations and competitions, which were held in honor of Zeus in Olympia once every four years (according to tradition from 776 BC). The Olympic Games attracted a large number of participants and spectators [4].

The second most important after the Olympic Games were the Pythian Games - all-Greek celebrations and competitions at the temple of Apollo of Pythia in Delphi (according to legend, founded by Apollo in honor of the victory over the serpent Python). Initially, the Pythian Games consisted of music competitions, which brought together participants and spectators from all over the Greek Ecumenical. The prize for the winner was a laurel wreath (laurel - a tree dedicated to Apollo) [5].

The ancient Greeks had many different holidays. In Athens, the biggest holidays were traditional, strictly regulated and lasted for several days. The festivities included pre-planned cult ceremonies, ceremonial processions, choral, musical, gymnastic and other competitions with the awarding of prizes to the winners, as well as folk festivals.

Theatrical performances in honor of the god of winemaking Dionysus were also popular in ancient Greece. Every year before this holiday songs were performed by the choir accompanied by dancers. Prizes were awarded for the best performance. Initially, the choirs performed in the market squares, and later an open-air theater was built for spectacles on the slope of the Acropolis, near the temple of Dionysus. Then theaters for a large number of spectators began to be built throughout Greece [6].

Thus, many traditions of modern festivals have their roots in the history of ancient Greece. Carnivals occupy a special place among the events that are important for the development of festival tourism.

The origin of the word "carnival" in Italy (from the Italian Carne vale - "goodbye meat" or from the Latin Car val - "ship of clowns") is associated with the feast of gluttony on the eve of 40 days of Christian fasting before Easter, when you can eat meat, drink wine and have fun. This tradition occurs in many Christian nations (in Russia - Shrovetide, in France - Fat Tuesday). One week before Lent, carnivals are held in almost all major cities in Latin America and Europe. The first carnivals took place in Italy, where large independent cities appeared earlier than in other countries. Later, carnivals appeared in France, and then in Germany: in Mainz, Dusseldorf and Cologne. Folk festivals usually made up the second, unofficial half of the holiday, while the first was associated with the performance of certain church rituals. Only in the XVIII and XIX centuries. they split up, and carnival began to exist as a form of mass entertainment. Carnivals have historically meant emancipation in entertainment. Hence the widespread use of masquerades at carnivals - men and women wear whimsical costumes and masks, striving to be attractive and unrecognizable. In the Middle Ages, the French established the tradition of carnival as a common holiday with dancing and love games, and political parties used the holiday to humorously criticize the government. In Italy, carnival parades took place on the streets of Rome, Naples and other cities. Guests from many countries came to see the Italian masquerade. The most complex intertwining of human destinies, comedic, sublime and tragic in connection with carnivals and masquerades, has been the subject of many outstanding literary works.

The first "festivals" to appear in Britain were musical and were associated with church music. Their appearance is attributed to the beginning of the XVIII century. From the 2nd floor. XVIII century., They were held in many Central European countries, but mainly in Germany.

One of the oldest European festivals is the Oktoberfest in Munich. The festival began with a celebration in honor of the marriage of Crown Prince Ludwig of Bavaria and Princess Teresa of Saxony -Hildburghaus on October 12, 1810. Since the XX century. international festivals are becoming popular. It is with the development of international festivals that we can talk about the emergence of festival tourism.

Modern festival tourism is a type of tourism associated with visits to national and international festivals and competitions, spectacular costume festivals, sports competitions, etc.

Festival tourism, as a direction of world tourism, is relatively young and very promising. It appeared recently, but is developing dynamically and already occupies a significant place in the world tourist movement.

Film festivals. Film festivals are usually accompanied by a public screening of films and the arrival of their authors. During most festivals, a film competition is held, based on the results of which prizes are awarded (Grand Prix, Audience Choice Award, etc.).

In total, there are about 80 film festivals in the world. The most popular and prestigious film festivals are those that have received FIAPF accreditation (fr. Federation International des Associations de Producteurs de Films). To date, FIAPF is accredited by 13 international competitive film festivals of feature films: Berlin Film Festival (Germany), Warsaw Film Festival (Poland), Venice Film Festival (Italy), Cairo Film Festival (Egypt), Cannes Film Festival (Vane), France (France). ), Locarno Film Festival (Switzerland), Mar del Plata Film Festival (Argentina), Montreal Film Festival (Canada), Moscow Film Festival Val (Russia), San Sebastian Film Festival (Spain), Tokyo Film Festival (Japan), Shanghai Film Festival (China).

In addition, among the prestigious world festivals are Sochi "Kinotavr" - a Ukranian film festival; Rotterdam Film Festival (Netherlands). Festivals that do not have a competitive program have also received FIAPF accreditation: the Tokyo Film Festival (Japan) and the London Film Festival (Great Britain).

Music festivals and competitions of various musical directions and styles (vocal, instrumental music, classical, ancient, folk music, pop music, blues, jazz, country, reggae, rock, etc.)

Music festivals are cycles of concerts and performances, united by a common name, a single program and held in a particularly solemn atmosphere. Music festivals vary in duration (from a few days to six months) and content. There are monographic music festivals (dedicated to the music of one composer), thematic (dedicated to a certain genre, epoch or stylistic direction), performing arts and other music festivals are held regularly (annually, every 2-4 years) or in connection with any solemn events.

They are usually arranged in cities that are famous for musical traditions, or related to the life and work of famous musicians [6, p. 87].

Famous music festivals are the Jazz Festival in Montreux (Switzerland); Verona Opera Festival (Italy); Eurovision Song Contest; international music competition "New Wave" in Jurmala (Latvia); music competition named after P.I. Tchaikovsky in Moscow (Russia) and others.

Theater festivals of various types and genres, for example, in Zurich "Stromereien" (Switzerland), the international festival "NITRA" in Nitra (Slovakia) and others.

Theatrical and circus shows, such as, for example, the Circus of the Future festival in Paris (France); Lord of the Dance show (UK); holiday on ice, show "Mystery" (Germany); holiday on ice, show "Romanza", Vienna (Austria), etc.

Festivals and competitions of dances of different directions and styles (ballet, ballroom dances, historical, dances of Latin America, Ukranian folk dances, ritual, erotic, modern dances, etc.). For example, the Rudolf Nuriev International Classical Ballet Festival in Kazan (Russia); youth ballet competition "Youth America Grand Prix" (USA); Tokyo International Ballet Festival (Japan); International Dance Festival in Birmingham (UK) and others.

Festivals of fine arts in various arts (sculpture, painting, graphics, photography, digital painting, computer graphics, arts and crafts, microminiature, calligraphy, design). For example, the International Festival of Sand Sculptures in Melbourne (Australia), Blankenberg (Belgium), "Sandsation" in Berlin (Germany); Ice Sculpture Festival in Bruges (Belgium); The Harbin International Ice and Snow Festival in Harbin, China; snow sculpture festival in Quebec (Canada), etc.

Gastronomic festivals include presentations, culinary tastings, and workshops. Gastronomic festivals are often accompanied by shows and entertainment programs. Many gastronomic festivals are held on the basis of national cuisine, providing an opportunity for foreign tourists to get acquainted with the cuisine, as well as with the traditions and culture of the people.

Examples of gastronomic festivals are the Oktoberfest International Beer Festival in Munich, Germany, the world's largest beer festival; Beaujolais Nouveau young wine festival (France); Parisian chocolate salon (France), etc.

Flower festivals and exhibitions are usually held in countries during a certain period associated with the flowering of any type of flower. The climate is one of the main factors influencing the geography and period of such festivals. For example, a flower show in Chelsea, London (UK); chrysanthemum festival (Japan); exhibition of tulips (Netherlands); bonsai festival, Nara (Japan); Rose Festival, Kazanluk (Bulgaria) and others.

Fashion shows, fashion festivals (for example, "Men's Fashion", Paris (France); "Ready to Wear", Paris (France); "Milano Moda Bouna", Milan (Italy), etc.).

Humor festivals (for example, "Cat Laughs", Kilkenny (Ireland); humor festival in Gabrovo (Bulgaria);

festival of humorous programs "Jurmalina" in Jurmala (Latvia)).

National festivals and holidays (eg St. Patrick's Day Festival in London (UK); St. Patrick's Day Festival in Dublin (Ireland) Festival of Cultures in Berlin (Germany)).

Ethnic festivals can be divided into a separate group. Sports events (for example, Olympics and international sports competitions; Formula 1 car races; NASCAR car races, USA).

Unusual festivals (eg Kite Festival in Thailand; Pirate Festival, Georgetown (Cayman Islands); Twins Festival, Twinsburg, (Ohio, USA); Pride Amsterdam Sexual Minority Parade in Amsterdam (Netherlands); Military Tattoo Parade in Edinburgh Great Britain)).

Carnivals are a special group of festivities with disguises and ceremonial processions, theatrical games. The carnival movement in the world is experiencing a real renaissance today: carnivals appear even in such "non-carnival" countries as, for example, Japan or Finland. Modern carnivals develop in two historically formed directions: European (traditions of the oldest carnivals in Europe) and Caribbean (carnivals that arose on the basis of European under the influence of African culture). In general, experts distinguish 11 different types of traditional carnivals. The largest carnivals using grand allegorical structures and giant platforms are held in Viareggio and Putignano (Italy), as well as in Malta and Nice (France). The most grandiose Mardi Gras - carnivals are held in New Orleans (USA), Patras (Greece), Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain), Colony (Germany), Den Beauche (Holland), Alost (Belgium), risks (Croatia), in Basel and Zurich (Switzerland), Dunkirk (France). The most colorful Caribbean and sambo - carnivals - in Rio de Janeiro and El Salvador de Bahia (Brazil), Trinidad and Tobago, Netting Hill (England), Curacao (Antilles), Corrientes (Argentina) and Baranquillo (Colum). The most famous carnivals are held in Venice (Italy), Pernik (Bulgaria), Itue (Slovenia) and Strumica (Macedonia).

In 1980, the Foundation of European Carnival Cities (FESS) was founded.

The basic goals of FESS are to preserve and promote carnival traditions as an important part of the cultural heritage of mankind, to promote the development of the carnival movement in Eastern Europe. The activities of the Association have been highly praised by the European Commission, and since 2000 the FESS has been under the auspices of the European Commission's Committee on Education and Culture [17].

Today, there is a growing interest in festival tours around the world, combining festival visits and sightseeing programs with sightseeing, as well as combining visiting or participating in a festival with traditional bathing and beach recreation [1].

Festival tourism is an important component of event tourism. The organization of festival tourism has its own peculiarities. This area of tourism can solve many socio-economic problems inherent not only in the tourism industry. Festivals are a powerful stimulator of tourist flow. They attract more tourists to the country, which in turn increases foreign exchange earnings.

In addition, festival tourism helps to solve the problem of seasonality, attracting tourists in the offseason. Thus, entrepreneurs receive a profit in the "low season", infrastructure facilities are not idle - their operation becomes cost-effective, and the load on the tourist infrastructure becomes more uniform [19].

This may be especially relevant for countries with a clear specialization in a particular type of tourism. For example, for countries with subtropical climates, in which mainly beach holidays are developed, or for countries where ski tourism predominates.

The development of festival tourism contributes to the creation of new additional jobs and employment. The potential of festival tourism is inexhaustible. Almost every country has a resource for its development.

However, the use of the European experience in the conditions of the Ukrainian reality is possible only partially, as there are many problems connected with the purely Ukrainian reality - the economic, political situation. One of such problems is the insufficient attention of state bodies to the festival movement (as well as to cultural life in general).

The concepts of "festival tourism" or "festival tour" are increasingly appearing in the list of tourist services offered and are gaining a wider audience. However, in the works of well-known domestic scientists of Ukraine and Russia, we have not been able to find appropriate interpretations of these terms. I.M. The school also provides educational tours, the purpose of which is to attend festive events, concerts, exhibitions, but there is no such term as "festival" in his works. Festival-entertainment and sports-entertainment as subspecies of cultural and entertaining tourism are offered in the works of OO Beidyk [2]. O. Topchiev and Ts. Van offer their systematics of recreational activity. They classify it on the basis of recreational needs. There are entertainment needs, among which we meet festivals, carnivals and national holidays. After a long search among Internet sources, we found the term "festival tourism" [16], but here it was used as the name of travel. British economists Diane O'Sullivan and Marion J. Jackson have been studying the impact of festival tourism on the economy since 2002.

Based on the philosophical concept of determinism, which studies the relationship of phenomena of the material and spiritual world, and the main position of which is the existence of dependence between phenomena [7], we concluded that the existing classifications were already on the verge of others. We believe that the already conducted thorough classification summarizes the results of previous development of this industry and at the same time marks the beginning of a new stage of its development. Classification contributes to the movement of science from the degree of empirical accumulation of knowledge to the level of theoretical synthesis of this knowledge.

N.V. Kornilova suggested that the starting point for the development of modern tourism be the end of World War II [9], and for festival tourism, in our opinion, in its modern sense, it began to develop a little later, although the history is deeper.

Therefore, in our opinion, festival tourism deserves to be allocated to a separate type of tourism. The

basis of festival tourism in Ukraine is preserved ethnic and religious traditions, which is the subject of a number of publications [2-6, 10]. Any event develops under the influence of certain factors. Festival tourism is no exception, which can be considered as a temporary departure of persons from the place of permanent residence for entertainment and educational purposes to take part in the festival event. According to their influence on the formation and development of festival tourism, all factors can be divided into direct and indirect. Factors of direct influence - inherent in the territory and its population.

Therefore, areas with a rich historical and cultural heritage have important prerequisites for organizing festivals. Indirect factors include those related to the political and economic situation in the country (state support and funding for the development of festival tourism, their support from international organizations, the presence of sponsors or other stakeholders). Prerequisites for the development of festival tourism in Ukraine are both external and internal factors. The main internal (endogenous) factors include infrastructure and technical support, seasonality, promoting the development of local crafts and creative ethnic groups, the activity of tourism businesses, increasing consumer awareness and changing their preferences, increasing the importance of media in advertising and promoting cultural media. events and target ethno-festival tours, provision of qualified personnel, increasing the role of coordination of activities in the field of tourism and culture. External (exogenous) factors are historical-geographical, ethno-geographical, economic and socio-ge-ographical, demographic, informational and integration (globalization and principles of preservation of eth-nocultural diversity), ecological and legal.

The organization of festivals and fairs, as cultural and mass events, is related to sightseeing, local lore and museum studies. The phenomenon of the festival foreign researcher AA Squeaker was considered a unique communication channel [6]. The festival in the context of the theory of the holiday was studied by K. Zhigulsky, emphasizing its essential feature - "artificial substitute for the holiday"; J. Bojn-Garnier and J. Shabo emphasized the festival's performance as a cultural center capable of attracting many visitors and promoting the city's cultural infrastructure. Yesterday Yu. Grabovsky, Oyu Skaliy, T. Skaliy believe that important aspects of providing tourist services are active recreation, in the process of which there is a spiritual, cultural and social development of the individual, meeting his recreational needs. Many historians, geographers and educators in their work popularize historical and local lore knowledge about certain areas through thematic tours, for example: L.P. ^o6poBCbKHH, n.A. Tutkovsky, O.Ya. Yanata, M.V. Pakharevsky, P.Ya. Armashevsky [8].

The origin of festivals and fairs has its roots in ancient times - the times of ancient Greece and the Roman Empire. In many works of art and history you can find a detailed description of fairs and festivals, mostly held in well-protected places (castles, monasteries), at the crossroads of trade routes, on the eve of religious holi-

days, after harvest, dedicated to changes in state character and more. permission for the fair was given by high-ranking officials, such as the king or count, guided by city or market law. During the Middle Ages, fairs were one of the most important events in society, primarily because of the large concentration of people, merchants, meant their long stay at the venue, the use of accommodation, food, entertainment - positively contributed to economic development.

Equally important was the exchange of news, culture, the opportunity to communicate with visitors from remote areas to share experiences and more. The successful holding of fairs and festivals was accompanied by the sale of goods, services, loud celebrations, games, spectacles, the conclusion of various trade and business deals, was entertaining and cultural.

The historical origins of modern festivals can be traced back to the very beginning of human culture, in ritual and ceremonial actions, festive religious ceremonies, mysteries, carnivals. With the gradual separation of church and secular life, the festivals came closer to their modern understanding. The first music festivals appeared in England in the 18th century. and were devoted to church music. Since then, festivals have been held in many Central European countries, mainly in Germany. But they became especially widespread in the twentieth century, beginning in the 1940s.

The first festivals appeared in the UK and were of a musical nature. Since the twentieth century. festivals go beyond domestic and become international, the theme is also greatly expanded from youth, history, music to cinema. According to O. Dyachkova, festivals and fairs, as a form of existence of musical art, culture and popularization of folk crafts, form a kind of calendar or "festival circle". Festivals and fairs become a factor in attracting the city as a full-fledged cultural entity to the world cultural space, and the festival itself becomes a mandatory attribute of the cultural center.

For a long time, festivals existed exclusively as an artistic phenomenon, and their social significance, respectively, was determined by the importance of this art form. Only in the twentieth century, and most of all - in the age of the information society, it became possible and necessary to talk about festivals as a social phenomenon.

In the USSR, the first music festivals were held in the 30's. In Leningrad. From the end of the 50's they became widespread: festivals of Soviet music of Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia, "Transcaucasian Spring", since 1962 - All-Union Festival of Contemporary Music in Gorky, since 1964 - music festival " "Moscow Stars" and "Ukranian Winter" in Moscow, "White Nights" in Leningrad.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia defines a music festival as a series of concerts and performances united by a common program that takes place in especially solemn circumstances. Their duration varies from a few days to six months, the content is also diverse: monographs are devoted to the music of a particular composer, thematic - a particular genre, epoch or stylistic direction, performing skills, etc .. Festivals are organized by state and local authorities, philharmonics and

music societies countries - also companies and individuals. The music festival is held regularly (annually, every 2-4 years) or in connection with any solemn events. They are usually arranged in cities that are famous for their musical traditions or are associated with the life and work of great musicians "[2].

Since 1947, the World Festival of Youth and Students is held - an irregular festival of left-wing youth organizations. Its organizers are the World Federation of Democratic Youth and the International Students' Union. Since 1947, the festivals have been held under the slogan "For Peace and Friendship", since 1968. -under the slogan "For solidarity, peace and friendship" (later - "For anti-imperialist solidarity, peace and friendship"). In 1957 and 1985 the festival was held in Moscow. This large-scale event, not related to a specific artistic theme, was instead of great importance for the development of intercultural interactions.

The intensification of the festival movement in Ukraine began around independence: Kyiv Music Fest, held in 1990, for the first time represented Ukrainian music as an independent phenomenon, free from the prevailing ideological guidelines of the time, and opened its doors to Ukrainian diaspora composers. His concept (under the motto "Music and the World -World and Music") was the presentation of Ukrainian music in a global context. Within the framework of the festival, creative meetings, master classes, round tables were started halls, lectures and seminars, which have become mandatory attributes in the life of the festival. Next to Kyiv as the largest cultural center of the country in the festival movement appeared Lviv (since 1995, the festival of contemporary music "Contrasts"); Odessa (festival "Two days and two nights of new music"); Kharkiv ("Kharkiv Assemblies") [4, p. 24].

Gaining independence contributed to the expansion of international contacts and bringing foreign experience of festivals to Ukraine. At the same time, the audience of festivals is expanding: in addition to classical music festivals, there are festivals-competitions of pop art designed for a more mass audience ("Chervona Ruta", "Tavriya Games", "Pearls of the Season").

They expand their topics, including in addition to music competitions for young theaters, artists, novice journalists, humor and satire. I.Yu. Chubey emphasizes that "in the atmosphere of a mass holiday there is a process of socialization of the individual (which begins instinctively and passes spontaneously), which affects the formation of tastes (musical, aesthetic, etc.), helps to instill and" consolidate "moral values" [7, p. 38].

The first festivals-competitions of pop art in Ukraine gradually began to be associated with show business - commercial activity in the field of various arts. Its features such as mass and popularity are steadily growing with the expansion of the festival's audience. The growth of the commercial component of the festival is partly due to the reluctance of government agencies to finance it and may negatively affect the semantic content of the event. The festival is often called a large-scale concert with the participation of popular performers (for example, "Seagull" in Kiev), which takes place once in a while.

The last decade has been marked by the growth of summer open-air festivals in Ukraine, which provide for several days of participants in the territory, thus ensuring their maximum inclusion in the festival space ("Pidkamin", "Fort Mission", "Art Field").

Festival tourism in general is facilitated by the geopolitical location of Ukraine, the ethnic composition of the population, the richness of folk culture, features of traditions and rituals. The most favorable conditions for the development of event tourism have developed in the territories of Lviv, Zakarpattia, Poltava, Kyiv and other regions. There are whole districts where traditional festivals and other events are held annually, namely: "Sorochyn Fair" in Poltava region, "Zaxid-Fest" in Lviv region, ethno festival "Dreamland" in Kyiv, which contribute to the creation of creative territories.

The Transcarpathian region as a border region is especially unique in this context. Transcarpathian region is one of the important regions of Ukraine, where the tourism industry has all the conditions for priority development. Active development of tourism is possible due to the availability and use of unique natural, historical, cultural and socio-economic resources, which are complemented by favorable economic and geographical location, original history and culture of the region.

Wine festivals in Transcarpathia are very popular. The most popular, which have received the status of a business card of the region are: "Red wine", "White wine", "Sunny drink", "Ugochanska vine", "Transcarpathian Beaujolais". The main principle of wine festivals is their holding in places of production (Berehiv, Uzhhorod, Mukachevo and Vynohradiv districts).

The authority of the Transcarpathian festival-tourist product is evidenced by the number of tourists visiting the region (according to Turinform Zakarpattia, more than 150,000 tourists come to wine festivals every year).

Chronologically, the season of wine festivals opens with the Red Wine Festival, which takes place on St. Basil's Day for the old New Year in Mukachevo. This is one of the first festivals in the region, which was launched in 1995 as a competition for the best wine-makers in the Transcarpathian region. The continuation of wine festivals is the White Wine Festival (Beregovo, February). In the program of the festival, in addition to tasting the best white wines, there is a dedication to the Knight's Wine Order of St. Wenceslas of new members, tasting of Hungarian traditional dishes, competitions, entertainment. The organizers of the event started a new tradition - a trip to the festival by narrow-gauge retro train.

The Wine Festival "Sunny Drink", which is traditionally held in Uzhgorod on May holidays, attracts tourists and fans of wine drink. The festival is gaining international status, where quality wine products are tasted. Transcarpathian winemakers, winemakers from other regions of Ukraine, guests from Slovakia and Hungary present their products at various festivals, and the best products are awarded with "gold", "silver" and "bronze" awards. The series of wine festivals closes with the autumn festival of young wine in the regional

center "Transcarpathian Beaujolais", which according to the results of "Tor-Fest: rating of festivals" is recognized as the best wine festival in Ukraine [6, p. 28].

Event tourism in Ukraine today is seen as a resource for improving the global image of the state and a source of economic well-being of individual regions and cities. It creates a basis for significant growth and diversification of employment, creating the ground for improving the material well-being and cultural level of the population. Diversification of the geographical location of events of different levels will create mental resources for the development of recreational centers and creative areas.

Ukraine, which is the largest European country and the fifth most populous, a territory with deep eth-nocultural traditions and a unique historical past, has significant prospects for the development of festival tourism. Naturally, the development of the festival segment of cultural and entertainment tourism has a number of problems (lack of funding; imperfect management system; lack of professional managers; low level of tourist infrastructure; insufficient publicity of festival attractions both abroad and in Ukraine) and unresolved issues. At the same time, the axiom that festivals make Ukrainian regions more attractive to tourists remains unchanged. Although the regions themselves, with the exception of the western ones, have not always ready. The number of festival goers doubles every year. Last year, ArtPole was visited by 30,000 to 50,000 people during the week. Kyiv's GogolFest was visited by 120,000 spectators in 17 days.

Here are some must-haves for any festival. First, (based on its definition) is its semantic, thematic component (art form, social group, subculture, product, etc.), which is embodied in the presentation part. Secondly, the festival should contain an element of festivity and solemnity, designed to draw attention to the theme, to emphasize its importance. Third, as already mentioned, the festival should have an organized structure, a coordinating apparatus of several people, with formally or informally defined functions [10, p. 87].

Also part of the festival is the material base, which includes a certain space where the festival events take place, as well as the necessary technical means. In most

cases, the material base requires the involvement of interested governmental or non-governmental organizations, sponsors.

References

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2. Beidyk OO Recreational resources of Ukraine: textbook. 2010. - 404 p.

3. Litovka O. Ukrainian festivals: a step into Europe or evidence of one's own primitivism? All-Ukrainian culturological weekly "Word of Enlightenment". 2011. URL: http://slovoprosvity.org/2011/06/03/

4. Lyubitseva O.O. Travel services market. K.: Al-terpres, 2006. -- 436 p.

5. Makhovka VM, Gerasimenko KO, Titenko DV Development of festival tourism as a kind of specialized tourism. URL http://77.121.11.9/bit-stream/PoltNTU/1020/1B8.pdf

6. Medvid L. Festival tourism of Transcarpathia: current state and prospects of development. Scientific Bulletin of Chernivtsi University. 2013. №614. Pp. 8689.

7. Melnychenko OA, Shvedun VO Features of development of the tourism industry in Ukraine: monograph. Kharkiv: NUTSZU Publishing House. 2017. -153 p.

8. Oliynyk VV, Shikina OV Current state and prospects of event tourism in Ukraine. Global and national economic problems. 2016. №14. Pp. 487-490.

9. Onatsky M.Yu. Current state and prospects of festival tourism development in the city of Kharkiv. Economy. Local lore. Tourism". 2016. №5. Pp. 145150. URL: / http://tourlib.net/statti_ukr/pet-ranivsky4.htm

10. Topornytska M. The place of festival tourism in the classification scheme of mass types of tourism. Bulletin of Lviv University. 2012. №29. Pp. 246-253.

11. Ustimenko LM Event tourism as a historical and cultural phenomenon. Culture and modernity. 2013. № 1. pp. 88-92. URL: http://nbuv.gov.ua/UJRN/Kis_2013_1_17

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