Научная статья на тему 'The features of coping-behavior and frustrating reactions of teenagers'

The features of coping-behavior and frustrating reactions of teenagers Текст научной статьи по специальности «Фундаментальная медицина»

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Ключевые слова
FRUSTRATION REACTIONS / COPING BEHAVIOR / COMMUNICATION / PERSONALITY

Аннотация научной статьи по фундаментальной медицине, автор научной работы — Shamne Anzhelika Vladimirovna

The paper presents the results of the study of relations between coping-behavior and frustration reactions of 15-16 year-old teenagers with different styles of interpersonal relations

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Текст научной работы на тему «The features of coping-behavior and frustrating reactions of teenagers»

Section 8. Psychology

10. Interview with John Nash: The Nobel Prize - and the Future (Video) [Web site]. -Access mode: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/nash/sfeature/sf_nash_15.html.

11. People & Events: John Nash [Web site]. - Access mode: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/ amex/nash/peopleevents/p_jnash.html.

12. Zinger Kara. Biography forJohn Forbes Nash [Web site]. - Access mode: https://se-cureapps.libraries.psu.edu/PACFTB/bios/biography.cfm?AuthorID=7234.

13. John Nash: A Brilliant Madness (Documentary)/Open Culture, June 13th, 2012 [Web site]. - Access mode: http://wwwopenculture.com/2012/06/john_nash_ia_bril-liant_madnessi.html.

Shamne Anzhelika Vladimirovna, doctoral student, G. S. Kostiuk Institute of Psychology of the National academy of pedagogical sciences of Ukraine, oandidate of Psychological Science E-mail: Shamne@ukr.net

The features of coping-behavior and frustrating reactions of teenagers

Abstract: the paper presents the results of the study of relations between coping-behavior and frustration reactions of 15-16 year-old teenagers with different styles of interpersonal relations

Keywords: frustration reactions, coping behavior, communication, personality.

The study of psychological adaptation to difficult life situations is one of the important social and psychological problems.

The experience of overcoming stress and frustration situations is vital for human, as such features of personality as a willingness to work under difficult conditions, responsibility, duty, justice, etc. are formed because of it, especially for the ending period of adolescence, when the psychosocial identity is actively formed. So, the topic of our research is the actual direction of studying psychosocial issues of identity formation in adolescence.

The aim of the study was to clarify features of coping behavior and frustration reactions of the older adolescents depending on the style of interpersonal relationships and attitude to himself. We assumed that in the end of adolescence psychological features of the response in difficult stress and frustrating situations are determined with the inherent personality style of interpersonal relations.

In our psychology the coping behavior is regarded as a conscious rational behavior, which is directed to the eliminating of stressful situation (I. M. Nikols-

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kaya, R. M. Granovskaya, L. I. Antsyfyerova, S. Norman, D. A. James, M. I. Parker, T. A. Kryukova, E. B. Klubova, etc.). The condition of coping is stress — a human condition, nonspecific response to physiological, psychological and behavioral level that emerges in response to negative events, which play the role of irritant. Psychological significance of coping is to adapt human effectively to the needs of people in different situations, allow to overcome them, weaken and alleviate those needs, to extinguish the stress response to irritating situation.

Frustration (by S. Rosenzweig) takes place when the body meets more or less insurmountable obstacles on the way of satisfaction of any vital need. In our psychology frustration is often defined as a mental phenomenon of the consciousness disorganization and activity of the personality, caused objectively with insurmountable obstacles to the desired goal. Frustration, according to K. K. Platonov, is an internal conflict between its personal orientation and its objective features which the personality does not agree with. V. V. Davydov follows this opinion, but he adds that the state of frustration is accompanied by various negative emotions: frustration, irritation, anxiety, despair and others. The high level of frustration leads to disruption of activities and reducing of its effectiveness. The emergence of frustration is not only due to the objective situation, but also depends on personal characteristics.

Sixty four 15-16-year-old teenagers (10-11 grade students: 30 boys, 34 girls) took part in a study of these personal characteristics of adolescents. The study was held in April 2013.

The following methods were used in the empirical research: methods of Leary, the test “Coping behavior in stressful situations" (S. Norman, D. F. Endler, D. A. James, M. I. Parker, adapted version of T. Kryukova), the test “The methodics of picture frustration” (S. Rosenzweig).

According to the Leary’s test, the type of interpersonal interaction corresponds to each of the 8 octants. The first four types of interpersonal relationships — I, II, III and IV — are characterized as a “dominance” factor. The other four octant — V, VI, VII and VIII — are characterized as a “goodwill” factor.

The test of coping behavior involves the identifying of the following response strategies in stressful situations: the coping, focused on solving problems, avoiding difficult situation, emotions (feelings); the distraction form coping (moving oneself in a favorable and acceptable situation); the coping in a social diversion form (escaping from the stressful situation to a supportive environment).

Rosenzweig’s test (adult version) is an experimental psychological methodics of studying the reactions of frustration “Methodics of picture frustration”. It allows to define the direction (extra-punitive (E); intropunitive (I); impunitive (M)) and the type of frustration reactions (prejudice-dominant (E, I, M), defensive (E, I, M); “allowing” (requirement-insistence) (e, i, m)).

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Statistical data processing was carried out by correlation analysis. Qualitative analysis of the carried out statistics was done in two stages: 1. Determination of qualitative characteristics of frustration and coping responses of seniors and their relationships with distinctions of presentations of “Real I”; 2. In the second stage pupils were divided into two groups by the characteristic style criterion of interpersonal communication (domination — goodwill). The correlation analysis of parameters of these two groups was carried out separately, indicators of the groups on factors V — “dominance” and G — “kindness” were compared.

In order to determine the overall distribution of explored ones by the main methods we firstly found, which types and directions of frustrating and coping reactions were presented in the sample. According to the method of S. Rosenzweig, we have identified the following: the majority of high school students is prone to identify extra-punitive direction of reaction (E = 71 %) and react in frustrating situations with a fixation on self-defense (ED = 83 % of surveyed). Qualitative analysis of coping behavior strategies of seniors showed that most of them (82 %) are inclined to demonstrate strategy oriented on solving problems. According to Leary’s test 85 % of teenagers revealed sufficiently clear style of interpersonal interaction.

At the first stage (at N = 64) were determined relationships (at p<0,05 and p>0,001 levels) between the scale of the Rosenzweig’s and Leary tests. There were fixed 12 significant relationships (5 straight and 7 reverse), 5 of them — the relationships with the type of frustration reaction “fixation on self-defense” (ED). It appeared that firstly authoritarian (I octant) and selfish (whatever-dominant) (II octant) are tend to self-defense (0,05 each one). The representatives of these styles are prone to be more active in the form of blaming others, avoidance of reproach and others. Conversely, representatives of the orientation of “benevolence”, “submission” (V — VIII octants) inverse correlations with self-defense were found: the “meek” (V octant) and “altruistic” (VIII octant) at 0,05 level, and the “dependence obedient” (VI octant) — at 0,01 level (r = -0,52). It should be emphasized that most relationships are fixed on the orientation of “benevolent” (VI and VIII octant) (8 of 12). Besides already analyzed ones, there also are feedbacks: for “depending obedient” (VI octant) and “altruistic” (VIII octant). Extra-punitive reactions are not characteristic for them (r = -0,35, with p <0,05) and “self-protection” (0,05), but typical impunitive (M) reactions (0,05) and the fixation on “the satisfied needs” (NP) (0,05). Thus, despite the conformism and self-uncertainty (VI octant), empathy and hyper-responsibility (VIII octant) the representatives of these styles of interaction exhibit a constructive behavior in frustrating situations (reduce its importance, strive to solve, do not blame others and do not protect themselves).

“Authoritarian” (I octant), by contrast, are not inclined to constructive looking for the way out of the situation (r = -0,37, with p <0,01); “matter-dominated” (II octant)

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demonstrate low social (GCR) adaptability (г = -0,35, with p <0,05). So, in general, behavior style “goodwill” is more closely related with behavior in frustrating situations, which is thus more meaningful (adaptive).

The coping behavior, judging from the obtained statistics of the sample (with N = 64), is influenced by three octants — “selfishness (independence)”, “aggressiveness”, “altruism (responsibility)” The three of the seven statistically significant relationships of coping-test scales and Leary test are the ties of coping strategies with “selfish (whatever-dominant)” style of interpersonal interaction (II octant). The more distinct the style is, the more likely the appeal of the subject is to the choice of coping strategy “emotions” (0,01) and the less likely the behavior with the strategy of “distraction” (p<0,05) and “the social diversion” (0,05). The aggressive style of interactions is favorable for the selection of the strategy “solving problems” (0,05) and unacceptable to the strategies, focusing on “social distraction” (0,01).

So, the more stubborn, energetic, demanding and cruel the subject is, the less is the likelihood that in a difficult, stressful situation he will be distracted by replacing forms of social interaction rather than real problems. Octant VIII (“altruistic compliance”), on the contrary, is favorable to the “social distraction” (0,05) and unfavorable to the strategy focused on the “emotional poverty” (r = 0,46 at p<0,01).

The overall conclusion of the identified trends in the general sample is the following: in frustrating situations the “obedient-based” (VI octant) and altruistic (VIII octant) are more constructive on the problem that emerged, and “independently dominant” (II octant) and aggressive (III octant) are in stressful situations.

After a general analysis the adolescents were divided into two groups according to criteria of the interpersonal communication style, which is specific for them (domination — goodwill).

With the new correlation tables we saw a significant reduction of the relations between the types and areas of frustration responses in the “dominant” and the increasing where the representatives of “goodwill” style are.

The main trend of the representatives of the “friendliness-submission” style is to increase the acceptance of guilt and responsibility (I) and decrease protecting yourself and your “I” (ED), namely in the manifestation of “internal” position. As it was expected, the “altruistic” ones are characterized by low symptoms of extra-punitivity (E). The more such qualities as responsibility towards people, sensitivity, empathy are developed, the less human is inclined to the condemning and external forms of frustration (d = -0,49). Representatives of the “goodwill” style, as opposed to “dominant”, show close links with the frustration reaction. In other words, the situations of frustration are personally “sensory” caused by them. Style of the “goodwill” is sensitive to the situations of frustration, which in relation to this style are acting, in our opinion, as the “litmus test” of the significance of social needs of the individual frustration (in

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the recognition are accepted by others, support). Thus, it appears, that only the style of “goodwill” affects on the behavior in frustrating situations.

We expected that the style of interpersonal relationships is going to be the regulator of the behavior in stressful and frustrating situations, but it turned out, that the “goodwill” has no effect on the behavior in stressful situations and the choice of coping behavior strategies. Between the octants of Leary’s test and coping-response test any statically-significant correlation is not fixed with “benevolent”.

The situation is opposite with the “dominate”: compared to the data of the entire sample the number of links of the relationship style with the choice of behavioral strategies in a stressful situation doubles, these relationships are changing qualitatively.

The main trend can be called “mirror” one: that is what gives a direct correlation in I — IV octants and a back one in V — VIII. For example, according the strategy, oriented to “social distraction” I — IV octants show the feedback relationship (from -0,54 to -0,74). In other words the strategy of “social distraction” is not typical of for authoritative, independent, self-confident, aggressive, demanding, critical, committed individuals. The more these qualities are expressed in “dominating”, the less their appeal to such coping strategies is. Octans VII (“cooperating — friendly”) and VIII («altruistic — compliance”) on the contrary increase the likelihood of addressing to this strategy. By the way, coping strategies of “avoidance”, “distraction” and “solving problems” in statistically-significant relations are not represented. Instead, the strategy focused on “emotional response” demonstrates a similar “mirror” pattern: a manifestation of octants II “selfish” (independent) and III “aggressive” leads to an increasing of strength of emotional coping responses in difficult life situations (r = 0,54, r = 0,5, at 0,05), the displaying of octants VII, VIII, by contrast, is backward-linked to emotional response (r = -0,54, at 0,05). The propensity to working together, cooperation, flexibility, responsibility reduces the likelihood of an appeal to the emotional response as a way of solving complex, stressful situations.

Thus, the results of the research showed that “goodwill” is associated with reactions to frustration situations, and “dominance” — with reactions to stressful situations (coping).

We turned to the comparison of the operators “inside” the questionnaire “Coping strategy” scales in both groups, which were studied. The differences were found mainly in the scales of “Distraction” and “social distraction”. The strategy of “distraction” leads to reducing the strength of emotional experience (r = -0,68, at 0,01) and increasing the focus on “avoidance” of “friendly” ones. The strategy of diversion reduces the efficiency of “problem solving” with the “dominant” ones (r = -0,7, at 0,01), they are actually mutually exclusive, and reduces (as with “friendly”) the force of inclusion of emotional response (r = -0,77 at 0,01). The strategy focused on “social distraction”, makes it impossible to solve problems with the “friendly” ones (r = -0,83) and, conversely, contributes to the effectiveness of “avoidance” (r = 0,82). In both groups, “avoidance”, “distraction” and “social diversion” reduce the likelihood of effective problem solving (from -0,7 to -0,83).

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Thus, the summarizing of all sampling results showed that in frustrating situations “dependent obey” demonstrate the more constructive behavior (VI octant) and altruistic (VIII octant), and in stressful situations — “independently dominant” (II octant) and “aggressive” (III octant). Thus, these results demonstrate that communication style is the regulator of behavior in different situations.

Disposition of patients based on “style of communication” concretized this conclusion. Representatives of the style “Domination” appeared to be flexible to the behavior in stressful situations. This style makes influence on the choice of strategies of individual coping behavior. In particular, high school students, who are independent in their attitude and perseverance in defending their own point of view are more inclined to search the constructive solutions to problems in a stressful situation.

During the research we found that the representatives of the “goodwill” style, as opposed to the “dominant”, show close links with the frustration reaction. In other words, the situations for the frustration are caused by them personally, “sensory” Style of the “goodwill” is sensitive for the situation of frustration. These situations of the frustration, in our opinion, are the significance index for “friendly”, satisfaction of their social needs (in recognition are accepted by others, support).

We expected that the style of interpersonal relationship is going to be the regulator of behavior in frustrating and stressful situations, but it turned out that the “goodwill” does not affect on behavior in stressful situations and the choice of coping behavior strategies. Between octants of Leary’s test and “coping-response” one there is not fixed any of the statically-significant correlation with “friendly” The representatives of the “Domination” style, in contrast, show a close connection with the situations of coping responses: the results of the research showed that the “dominance” is linked with reactions to stressful situations (coping).

Thus, the hypothesis is proved partly: it was found that communication style is the regulator of behavior in different situations. The “Benevolence” style affects on the behavior in frustrating situations. The style of “Domination” appeared to be a determinant of behavior in stressful situations; it makes influence on the choice of coping behavior strategies of the individual.

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