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Ключевые слова
family / upbringing / wedding / family ceremonies / “Reminiscences” “Navadir ul-vaqai” / “doirakhabar” / “sargardon” / custom / traditions / innovation

Аннотация научной статьи по истории и археологии, автор научной работы — Khosiyat Ravshanovna Nafiddinova

In the following article there is a discourse and description on the family and family ceremonies. Also the books and treatises of the late 19th and the beginning of the 20th century having relations to this theme are reconsidered in a new approach

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Khosiyat Ravshanovna Nafiddinova

Teacher of Bukhara state university xosiyatnafiddinova46@gmail .com


In the following article there is a discourse and description on the family and family ceremonies. Also the books and treatises of the late 19th and the beginning of the 20th century having relations to this theme are reconsidered in a new approach.

Keywords: family, upbringing, wedding, family ceremonies, "Reminiscences" "Navadir ul-vaqai", "doirakhabar", "sargardon", custom, traditions, innovation.


The family is the basic unit of society. If the spirituality and upbringing of the family is undermined, there is no doubt that society will inevitably decline as well. For this reason, from the earliest times to the present, the subject of the family has been the subject of constant debate and has been constantly studied by many scholars, philosophers, and historians. Valuable information is found in many scientific, artistic, and historical pamphlets and works to gain information about the family, to preserve it, and to know the family's importance in the society. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, when the Manghits ruled the Bukhara Emirate, a great deal of scientific work was done on the subject.

As the great German philosopher Goethe described the family as: "The main subject of the study of mankind is man" [1.11]. The main place where a person grows up is undoubtedly the family.


It is noteworthy that in our sacred religion of Islam, too, special attention is paid to the issue of the family. Because the family is the core of every society. More precisely, everything in society begins with the family. Several surahs of the holy book of Islam, the Holy Qur'an, are devoted to the subject of the family. ^yMnagaH, In particular, the holy book of Islam, the Qur'an, contains specific rulings on women in Surahs "Nisa" (Women), "Mujadala" (Controversial Woman), "Talaq", "Nur", and "Azhab" [2,587]. During the reign of the Manghits, as in all spheres of society,

family matters were based on the principles of Islamic Sharia. According to Islamic teachings, women also have different rights and freedoms, but the situation in practice was slightly different. In particular, the low status of women in society, the frequent violations of women's rights, and the high level of oppression against them were commonplace at the time.

Sadriddin Ayni wrote on the fifth volume of his work "Memoirs" that he had spent his time attending wedding of the circumcision, the wedding of the Mirakani Khojas in Samarkand, the funeral ceremonies associated with the death of their parents due to the plague, the distribution of unnecessary expenses in these ceremonies, giving donations and his large debts as a result [3].

And on the sixth volume of the "Memoirs" there is info on the process that is connected with the fact that in Bukhara a nine-year-old girl was married and as a result the heart of a young girl was be ruptured from fear of death, the Bukhara banquets, official receptions, public receptions, the musicians being called to the wedding by the permission of the mirshabs, the announcement of "doirakhabar", "sargardon" (the process related with the doira players laying the headscarves in front of them while playing it in other way or the allotment per one or two tangas by sightseer) and others [4].

Ahmad Donish, a native of Bukhara, also touched on the family in his book "Navadir ul-Vaqai" In particular, in this play he describes the etiquette of marriage, the conditions of marriage and the relationship between husband and wife in the chapter entitled "About mother-in-law and daughter-in-law", as well as the fact that young brides and grooms get into trouble when their words get in the way, and their marriages get cold, expressed the views of young men on the purpose of marriage, the circumcision of marriage, the conflicts between mother-in-law and daughter-in-law, and the reasons for which sometimes the mother-in-law and daughter-in-law themselves do not know, the benefits of marriage, and the duties of husband and wife [5].

Abdurauf Fitrat, one of the leading figures of the Turkestan Jadid movement, also paid special attention to the family in his book "Family or Family Management Procedures". It is noteworthy that in this work Fitrat pays special attention to the need for marriage, the relationship of family members, the rights and duties of parents and children, the role of the family in society and the types of child rearing. This book was written in Bukhara in 1914 and published in 1915. The publisher of this book was Mirza Abduvahid Munzim. According to Fitrat, the goal of family management is the foundation of all human culture. The book "Family or Family Management

Procedures" consists of two parts. The first part of the book is devoted to the period from marriage to childbirth, while the second part of the book deals directly with the issues from the birth of a child to his adulthood. The book also aims to cover issues such as of marriage and non-marriage, how many wives can be married, or what woman to choose to marry, the question of what the couple should pay special attention to, dowry and wedding, about how the couple lives, family management, reconciliation, divorce, pregnancy, child rearing, physical education, mental education, moral education, school science, girls' education, as well as the rights of parents, employees and orphans [6]. The remarkable thing about the book is that it is written in a simple language that everyone can understand, which shows that it is intended for the general public, and at the same time increases the value of the work.

It is noteworthy that the Tatar enlightened scholar Rizouddin ibn Fakhruddin in his pamphlet "Family" also paid special attention to the issues of morality, etiquette and family. In this pamphlet, the author focuses on the role of women in building, maintaining, strengthening the family and educating a generation that is knowledgeable and beneficial to society. Rizauddin ibn Fakhruddin was very busy in the field of education. The role of parents and the role of teachers are also covered in detail in the pamphlet. The author emphasizes the importance of the role of women in the upbringing of children. Also in this booklet are family and wife, wife and upbringing, child rearing good upbringing and bad upbringing, general duty of women, science and women, women who can marry, marriage, marriage and love, duty of husbands, divorce and divorce, polygamy, children many topics such as duty, family and hospitality are covered extensively [7,5-55].

Fakhr ul Banat, a scholar who lived and worked in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, also provides valuable information about the responsibilities of women to their parents, close relatives and friends in his book, "Family Lessons" [8,55-59].

The book "Uzbek customs" written by Mahmud Sattar also contains interesting stories about the most important customs, rituals and traditions that accompany a person from birth to life to the end of life. In this brochure there is a systematic info on such traditions like singing the lullabies, crib ceremonies, matchmaking as a national tradition, wedding, donation food, mushkulkushad, Bibi Seshanba, Mavlood, funeral ceremonies are expressed in popular traditions [9].

It should be noted that the orientalist ethnographer T.G. Yemelyanenko also paid special attention to the issue of family ceremonies in Bukhara. In his article "Modern Weddings in the Karakul Oasis: Tradition and Innovation", the author

describes the content, order and sequence of weddings held in the Karakul oasis today [10 ,25-37].

We can also cite the valuable information of the scientist Tursun Salimov about the family, family relations and ceremonies in his works[11].

The Jadids, who grew up within the Uzbek Nation, aimed to fight various superstitions and harmful heresies in order to raise the spiritual and enlightenment level of the people, and they strongly condemned the holding of lavish and luxurious wedding ceremonies through their works.

Especially enlightened Jadids Abdulla Avloni, Ashurali Zahiri, Abdulhamid Chulpsn, Is'hakhan Ibrat and others in such publications as "Sadoyi Turkiston", "Sadoyi Farghona" paid special attention to the life of the people, in particular, expressed their valuable views and suggestions on national weddings and their holding. In particular, Chulpan writes in the newspaper "Sadoyi Farghona" about the waste of weddings: "As good as it used to be, in recent days and in recent years they have been stepping back day by day... In those days, there were no such extravagant weddings". The author denounces the fact that nose farmers used to eat and drink the money they earned during the summer during the winter, adding to today's economic hardships in addition to extravagant weddings.

Ishakhon Ibrat, one of the well-known representatives of the Ferghana Jadids, also comments on the extravagance of Uzbek weddings, the extra costs, and the fact that young people are more inclined to pursue other interests than to get an education: "Still, we do not act according to our religion, earn money, envy to spend ten thousands to wedding ceremonies in vain, which one of the ulama has given them such a fatwa. This is a bad sign for the believers, the treatment for ailment is knowledge". So, with these thoughts, Ibrat calls on the youth of his time to study science and warns that scholars should not be given to excessive ambition.


The resolution of the Jadids on the organization of weddings, published in the newspaper "Najat" of the "Shurai Islamiya" organization, states: "In view of this, the Congress of Turkistani Muslims decided to put an end to some of the heresies and superstitions that exist among us, such as weddings, celebrations, feasts and funerals". In addition, the resolution detailed the procedure for conducting funerals, bridesmaids, circumcision ceremonies. Apparently, we can say that this resolution has not lost its relevance in the current period.

On the issues analyzed above, the leader of the Turkestan Jadids Mahmudhoja Behbudi (1875-1919) wrote "Our deeds or our desires" ("Oina", 1913, issues 6-7), "The flaws that gnaw at us" ("Oina", 1915, issue 13) published articles such as and these articles also address the need for orderly and concise wedding ceremonies [12, 256-258].


Of course, this policy was supported by the emirs of Mangit in their time. It should be noted that the study of family, family rituals and related features is an interesting topic for all. In this way, as we study the works of great thinkers who have left their indelible mark on the stage of history, we will undoubtedly consolidate our knowledge and draw appropriate lessons.


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