Научная статья на тему 'The effects of the quality of employees’ interactions with their managers on the quality of their work'

The effects of the quality of employees’ interactions with their managers on the quality of their work Текст научной статьи по специальности «Экономика и бизнес»

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employees’ interactions / human recourses / personnel management / quality of work / motivation / productivity

Аннотация научной статьи по экономике и бизнесу, автор научной работы — Oksana Zanozovska

The paper is devoted to the analysis of effects of the quality of employees’ interactions with their managers on the quality of their work. The paper includes seven parts: introduction, review of the literature, theoretical framework, methodology, data analysis, conclusions, and references. The main purpose and importance of the research are represented in the introduction. The purpose. The main purpose of the research is to analyse whether there are some effects of the quality of employees’ interactions with their managers on the quality of their work. Leaders of any organization always have to solve the same problem: how to create an appropriate management system to ensure the cooperation of employees and successfully resolve possible conflicts between them in the organizational environment. Literature review represents the main achievements of different researchers in the issue of employee’s interactions with their managers and its influence on the results of their work. A lot of researchers point that the interaction of high quality positively influences the productivity and quality of the work. The theoretical framework concerns different theories that are the basic for this research. The school of human resources and behavioural schools played the most important role in the creation of a theoretical basis for this research. The methodology. The main methods of research are represented in the methodology part. The correlation analysis and sociological method are used in this paper. In the case of the questioning method is the basis for determining the areas of research are the characteristics of respondents and their work. It makes sense in this situation to consider the involvement of the respondents to the research from different levels and departments of the organization, and that workers – direct contractors, and managers at all levels. The survey of 17 respondents at 33 enterprises was held using the special blank with variables and the range for each variable while conducting this research. Results. The data analysis confirms the theoretical ideas of the paper and shows that there is a positive correlation between interactions of employees and their managers and the quality of their work. The survey shows that there is a higher percentage of leaders who effectively meet the personal needs after trainings (84%) in the group that presented the improved productivity of the work. In the conclusions, the main results of research are highlighted. Value/originality. The results of the research show that there is the strong connection between the interactions of managers and employees on the employees’ productivity.

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ВЛИЯНИЕ КАЧЕСТВА ВЗАИМОДЕЙСТВИЯ ПЕРСОНАЛА С МЕНЕДЖЕРАМИ НА КАЧЕСТВО ИХ РАБОТЫ

Статья посвящена анализу влияния качества взаимодействия сотрудников с менеджерами на качество их работы. Статья включает семь частей: введение, обзор литературы, теоретические основы, методология, анализ данных, выводы и список литературы. Основная цель и важность исследований представлены во введении. Основная цель исследования – проанализировать, есть ли влияние качества взаимодействия сотрудников с их менеджерами на качество их работы. Лидерам любой организации всегда приходится решать ту же проблему: как создать соответствующую систему управления для обеспечения эффективного взаимодействия сотрудников и успешного разрешения возможных конфликтов между ними в организационной среде. Обзор литературы представляет собой основные достижения различных исследователей в вопросе взаимодействия сотрудника со своими менеджерами и его влиянии на результаты их работы. Многие исследователи указывают, что взаимодействие высокого качества положительно влияет на производительность и качество работы. Школа бихевиоризма сыграла важнейшую роль в создании теоретических основ для этого исследования. Основные методы исследования представлены в части методологии. В этой статье использованы абстрактно-логический анализ и социологический метод. Анализ данных подтверждает теоретические идеи работы и показывает, что существует положительная корреляция между взаимодействием сотрудников и их менеджеров и качеством их работы. Опрос показывает, что среди работников более высокий процент (84%), который показал улучшенную производительность труда, считает, что их руководители проводят эффективную политику взаимодействия. В выводах выделены основные результаты исследований. Результаты исследований показывают, что существует сильная связь между взаимодействием менеджеров и сотрудников с производительностью сотрудников.

Текст научной работы на тему «The effects of the quality of employees’ interactions with their managers on the quality of their work»

THE EFFECTS OF THE QUALITY OF EMPLOYEES' INTERACTIONS WITH THEIR MANAGERS ON THE QUALITY OF THEIR WORK

Oksana ZANOZOVSKA1

National University of Food Technologies, Ukraine

Abstract. The paper is devoted to the analysis of effects of the quality of employees'interactions with their managers on the quality of their work. The paper includes seven parts: introduction, review of the literature, theoretical framework, methodology, data analysis, conclusions, and references. The main purpose and importance of the research are represented in the introduction. The purpose. The main purpose of the research is to analyse whether there are some effects of the quality of employees' interactions with their managers on the quality of their work. Leaders of any organization always have to solve the same problem: how to create an appropriate management system to ensure the cooperation of employees and successfully resolve possible conflicts between them in the organizational environment. Literature review represents the main achievements of different researchers in the issue of employee's interactions with their managers and its influence on the results of their work. A lot of researchers point that the interaction of high quality positively influences the productivity and quality of the work. The theoretical framework concerns different theories that are the basic for this research. The school of human resources and behavioural schools played the most important role in the creation of a theoretical basis for this research. The methodology. The main methods of research are represented in the methodology part. The correlation analysis and sociological method are used in this paper. In the case of the questioning method is the basis for determining the areas of research are the characteristics of respondents and their work. It makes sense in this situation to consider the involvement of the respondents to the research from different levels and departments of the organization, and that workers - direct contractors, and managers at all levels. The survey of 17 respondents at 33 enterprises was held using the special blank with variables and the range for each variable while conducting this research. Results. The data analysis confirms the theoretical ideas of the paper and shows that there is a positive correlation between interactions of employees and their managers and the quality of their work. The survey shows that there is a higher percentage of leaders who effectively meet the personal needs after trainings (84%) in the group that presented the improved productivity of the work. In the conclusions, the main results of research are highlighted. Value/originality. The results of the research show that there is the strong connection between the interactions of managers and employees on the employees' productivity.

Key words: employees' interactions, human recourses, personnel management, quality of work, motivation, productivity.

JEL Classification: J500, 0150, M120, J320, J240

1. Introduction

There are internal and external environments in each organization. The internal environment is characterized by the intense interaction of formal and informal structures. Formal structures are built by breaking the overall objectives for the individual subtasks. The main elements of the organization - the tasks, structure, and actors - are constantly changing. In the first case, it is the emergence of new competitive structures, reassessment of values, shortage of personnel, etc.; the second is connected with the monitoring system for organization performance, management solutions that include supervision, inspection, evaluation, and

correction of the situation on the basis of the accepted parameters. Organizing control manager is aware that the development of cooperation and interactions with employees become more important priorities.

In order to coordinate the actions of the employees, the executives use the vertical division of labour or hierarchy that has become an important structural feature of management (Conway, 2011). The behaviour of leaders and their personal qualities improve the quality of employees' interactions with them and the quality of work at the enterprise. The attention of scientists and organizations are focused on the role of a human factor for the internal environment of the company.

Corresponding author:

1 Department of International Economics, National University of Food Technologies. E-mail: oksana_zanozovska@ukr.net

The new trends of transition from industrial society to a post-industrial in organizational, managerial, industrial, and economic spheres orients to the qualitative aspect of changes in the organization: spiritually guided management, creativity, process activities, team building workers, intangible motivation, the increasing of the quality of employees' interactions with their managers that will be resulted in high quality of work and the enterprise efficiency. Functional relationships in the team are built on guidance in three areas: management of a formal group, informal, and employee self-management that are closely connected with the quality of the work (Winter & Jackson, 2006). Formal interactions greatly influenced the quality of the work of employees because the important task of managers is to delegate the tasks to the subordinates. The informal relationships also influence the quality of work because they determine the psychological climate into the organization. If the employees have a good mood they will be more effective while working. The optimal interaction of business and personal qualities of leaders in these areas creates conditions for improving the quality of working life for employees and for the company as well. Each leader works in a particular social and professional environment. It is closely related to the concept of social space. In this social space is quite different from space geometric and determined answer to the question: "Who do people work?" People are adjacent to each other in geometrical space (for example, the director and work as the operator), in the social space separated by a significant distance. Conversely, people who are far away from each other in geometric space (two directors of various plants of the company) may be very close socially. The ability of employees and managers to work as a team determines the main results of the enterprise' activity that may be assessed by the indicators of productivity of labour and its profitability.

Human resources are the most important capital of each organization and its main wealth. There were times when it was believed that machine would replace the employee. In the XXI century, the role and importance ofthe employee in the company not only diminished but increased despite the machine became "sole owner" in many technological and managerial processes (Konrad, 2006). The main aspects of the modern paradigm of management are: success of the organization depends not only on the market position and the availability of resources but the role of the human factor; the organization is seen as open dynamic system, which is based on common values of individuals; the need for constant adaptation to the conditions of turbulent environment reduces the value of the constant strict control, requires a change in approach to personnel management and focuses on the self-management and self-development of the individual, the formation and dissemination of knowledge, the integrated use of normative values, systems and situational approaches

in management; increasing competition requires companies to operate on the basis of long-term perspective on the principles of strategic management; establishment of corporate social responsibility of business (Konrad, 2006).

The successful company seeks to leverage the potential of their employees creating all conditions for the fullest commitment of employees at work and for intensive development of their potential. However, there are often problems with the interaction of manager and subordinates as a result of poor communication culture (Rhoades and Eisenberger, 2002). This problem should be studied in more details because it is important to find the connection between these variables. The quality of life depends on the quality of work, that is why it is important to research this issue and it is relevant nowadays.

The main purpose of the research is to analyse whether there are some effects of the quality of employees' interactions with their managers on the quality of their work. Leaders of any organization always have to solve the same problem: how to create an appropriate management system to ensure the cooperation of employees and successfully resolve possible conflicts between them in the organizational environment. The problem of "conflict - cooperation" is the basic contradiction of organizational behaviour that is either solved or worse. The degree of resolution of these contradictions is a major indicator of how efficiently managers interact with their staff.

Responsible and achievement-oriented employees that have high-quality interactions with managers seem to be more productive. Such subordinates feel responsible for the possible results of the company; they believe that could bring something important to the company.

The importance of this research lies in the improvement of working conditions and the quality of work by virtue of increasing the quality of interactions between employees and their managers. It is important for companies to improve the quality of their work because it determines the main result of its activity -the profit. On the other hand, the peoples' life quality greatly depends on the quality of their work because the man spends the greater part of his life at work. The psychological climate in the staff is influenced by the interactions between managers and employees within the organization. The tangible result of the employee (salary and bonuses) may be determined by the relationship with the manager. The intangible results such as satisfaction, engagement, and self-realization are may also be the results of high-quality interactions with managers. Despite the numerous researchers in this sphere, there are some aspects that need more attention. These aspects will be discussed in this paper. The research is significant not only for a person but for different organizations and scientific institutes

that study this topic. It will be useful for managers and employees of different types of organizations, for managers of the Human Resources Department, the students, researchers of IT sphere of management and human resources management and those who are interested in the questions of improving the working conditions and the quality of the interactions between managers and employees.

The study will include the research of leadership, the supervisor support, the training of employees and how it influences the quality of employees' work. The formal and informal relationships will be analysed in the paper. The influence of different types of leaders on the employees and the quality of their work is not studied in the paper. This may be the subject of other research. There is next hypothesis:

Hypothesis 1. Employees who have high-quality interactions with their managers are more likely to produce quality work than are employees who have low-quality interactions with their managers.

2. Review of the Literature

A lot of researchers examined the different aspects of the problem of interaction between managers and workers, the effects of the quality of the interaction on the quality of the work, prevention of conflicts between them, the effectiveness of informal communication, types of communication, verbal communication. Nearly 1,500 books and 7,000 articles have been written on empowerment in the workforce and more than 100,000 articles and studies and 4,780 books have been written on creating trust in the workplace during the 2005-2015 years (DDI, 2015). According to the DDI's analysis "the reason most leaders in business fail is not because of a lack of business knowledge or technical skill but because of interpersonal and communication shortcomings" (DDI, 2015).

Jing Zhou, the Houston Endowment Professor of Management at Rice's Jones Graduate School of Business points:

Empowering leadership may be especially effective at promoting creativity for those who have high levels of both uncertainty avoidance and trust in their supervisors. In addition, we also found that creative self-efficacy (the degree, to which the employees themselves believed they are capable of being creative) was a psychological mechanism that explained the three-way interaction's effect on creativity (Rice University, 2014).

The statement shows that empowering is important to increase the creativity of the employees. Their creative self-efficacy will increase the creativity. More creative employees will show the better results of their work. They will be free and not shy while interacting with their managers. So, the study of this aspect of the interactions between managers and employees is important for this research.

The research of some authors focuses on the interactions between employees' personalities and the managers' personalities "as a predictor of the employees' proactive behaviour" (Williams, Parker, & Turner, 2010). This aspect is also important while researching the interactions between managers and their subordinates. Proactive behaviour as a result of interactions between employees' personalities and the managers' personalities determines that is closely connected with the topic of this research.

Konrad (2006) explores employee engagement and its influence on the firm performance. He points that employee engagement can be important to competitiveness in the contemporary business environment (Konrad, 2006). The main reason that the employee engagement plays an important role in the improvement of the quality of work is the physiological responsibility of employees for the results of the work of organization where there is a part of their own contribution.

The researcher of organizational effectiveness E. Lawler determined four main principles for building a high-quality work system in order to increase the productivity and the quality of work. According to his researchers, the employees should be provided with power, knowledge, information, and rewards (Lawler, 1963). The managers are those who must provide the employees with these important elements of their work. The quality of work depends on the ability of managers and employees to cooperate in the sphere of these principles.

Current researchers also determine four spheres in the interactions between employees and managers that should be assessed in order to study the effects of these factors on the quality of work (Convey, 2015; Winter & Jackson, 2006). These spheres include the perceived organizational support, trust in the supervisor, leader-member exchange, and reward systems (Convey, 2015). Convey (2015) and Winter & Jackson (2006) analysed these spheres as the components of improvement the interactions between employees and their managers. They also studied how it may improve the quality of the employees' performance.

Elangovan and Xie (1999) pointed that high-quality interactions with supervisors have greatly influenced the employee outcomes and their ability to work more effectively. They explain that perception of a supervisor positively related with motivation and negatively with stress in employees (Elangovan and Xie, 1999). Employees measure interactions with their managers as negative or positive to create a perceived organizational support assessment of how they rank at their company (Rhodes & Eisenberger, 2002). The scientists point (Rhodes & Eisenberger, 2002) that support from a supervisor is closely connected with support from the company for an employee that is why perceived organizational support is so important in the ensuring of

quality interactions between employees and managers. They explain that in order to achieve the goals of the organization, it is necessary to create a better treatment of employees. These may be represented in the forms of rewards, support, favourable work conditions, and so on (Rhodes & Eisenberger, 2002).

Trust in the supervisor is another important factor influencing the quality of interactions between employees and managers. Rousseau, et al. (1998) defined trust as "a psychological state comprising the intention to accept vulnerability based upon positive expectations of the intentions or behaviour of another". The trust is to predetermine the relationship between the team of employees and senior management personnel for the effective implementation of the set objectives in each organization. The trust in the team contributes to the successful collaboration that helps to solve complex issues, exchange views and develop the constructive solutions. The trust in senior management creates favourable conditions for the achievement of strategic objectives, development plans, the adoption and implementation of investment decisions, and others (Winter & Jackson, 2006). The trust in senior management is especially important for the establishment of high-quality interactions between supervisors and their subordinates. Those employees who can trust their managers are more truthful, they try not to betray their managers; that is why they have a better quality of their work.

The necessary prerequisites for trust in the executives are: competence of managers, their justice, the ability to properly evaluate the results and the true reward of employees, the capacity for a rapid decision-making, contributing to the effective work of the enterprise in market conditions, integrity and honesty both in relation to employees and in relation to the company's shareholders. Trust of employees creates coherence in the work of the team, accelerates the decision-making and implementation process, and enhances the competitiveness of the company (Elangovan and Xie, 1999).The trust interactions within the organization are the interactions of high quality that positively influences the psychological climate in the team that will affect the quality of the work of employees.

An essential element of the building of trust relationship is such an important element of the control system as feedback. The feedback allows you to evaluate the correctness of the information transmitted by the leaders, its perception of the workers. Trust in the team reduces staff turnover, thereby reducing administration and management costs of hiring labour, training, and retraining of personnel.

Trust should be a fundamental principle of the relationship between the various business units. This eliminates one of the major drawbacks of traditional management structures, where there are contradictions between the various entities that prevent the sharing

of information between them (Elangovan and Xie, 1999). Thus, trust between the units makes it possible to respond flexibly to market demands and adapt to the changing environment. It contributes to the creation of temporary groups to carry out specific projects, consisting of workers of different units.

The third important factor is a leader-member exchange. It is a degree, to which an employee feels that he/she is in the manager's in-group, and has a quality interaction with their manager (Gómez & Rozen, 2001). Without leader-member exchange "employees and managers at lower levels perceived senior management as distant and formal in their communications with employees. This was thought to impede motivation and make communications more difficult..." (Winter & Jackson, 2006) These ideas are significant for the research as they show the importance of leader-member exchange in the team. Coherent work may affect positively on the results of the work.

Research shows that motivation and reward system is one of the most factors that has a positive influence on the job productivity and quality of employees (Elangovan and Xie, 1999). There are different internal and external factors affecting employee motivation. The internal factors include fulfilment, creativity, satisfaction from your work; external motivating factors are income, promotion, recognition, and status in society. There intangible and material forms of motivation (Elangovan and Xie, 1999). If a person is motivated only by money, it is desirable to form additional motivators, otherwise, it easily replaces a job based only on material interest. However, the people lost material interest very easily stop to work effectively. Sometimes the amount of compensation is not as important as employee perception of fairness or unfairness in relation to the result of labour. Thus, rewards and motivation system influences the quality ofinteractions between employees and managers and the productivity of the work.

Thus, studying the experience of 62 most successful companies in the US allowed scientists T. Peters and R. Votermen (2009) conclude the following: most of these companies hold the structural units and implementing special programs to diagnose and improve the organizational interactions, and relations between management and employees are based on a relation of "performance - person". Practical implementation of this principle is to recognize the staff as the main source of progress and success of the company, to create the atmosphere of trust, the spirit of responsibility and creativity, effective rewards system and to ensure the quality of leader-member exchange.

In another study, Eileen Appelbaum and her group (2000) researches 17 apparel manufacturers, 15 steel mills, and 10 electronic instrument and imaging equipment producers. The study was aimed at comparing traditional production systems with flexible high qualified one that includes training, teams, and

incentive pay systems. The enterprises of all industries with high involvement practices represented superior performance.

Literature review shows that a lot of researchers investigate the problem of quality of employees' interactions with their managers, its effects on the quality of their work. There some areas of this issue to be researched more detailed. On the basis of scientific researchers and our own studies, we will try to achieve the purpose of this paper.

3. Theoretical Framework

It is necessary to rely on theories in order to achieve the purpose of this work. The concepts of high-quality interactions between managers and employees, the quality of their work, the bad relationships between subordinates and supervisors are studied in different theories and disciplines such as management, sociology, psychology, and so on.

F. Taylor believed that the selection of personnel should be based on how a person to perform certain work, ability to learn new skills, G. Emerson has repeatedly stressed on the need to inform the candidate to work with the ideals that are passed the employees by their employers, "each entrant must know the ideals of organization and practice of enterprise even before start to work" with all things necessary to exclude people who do not fit moral. If certain ideals know only employers it is not enough, ideals should be transferred to all workers and employees within the company.

At the same time, representatives of the school of scientific management considered some aspects of social cultural management problems such as formulation and harmonization of objectives, careful selection and placement, attention to workers, the transfer of the ideals of managers to staff development, friendly relations and the formation of loyalty.

The great attention while conducting this research should be paid to the humanistic trend in management that is represented by the school of human relations, and the concept of behavioural school. Scientists working in this sphere focus following factors to ensure effective human management: the analysis of staff behaviour at work, the study peoples' needs and their relationships with the supervisors. School of Human Relations (19301950) is connected with the names of such outstanding scientists as Roethlisberger, Hugo Munsterberg, Elton Mayo, Mary Parker Follett, Chester Barnard. One of the founders of this school was E. Mayo who received a universal recognition after a series of experiments conducted in 1920-1930's in the United States. E. Mayo and his followers believed that the effectiveness of the company depends not only on material factors but mostly from the social ones operation (Mayo, 1924). Among important conclusions of E. Mayo were statements: meet the basic needs of workers is a key

cause in the performance of their work; clear designed instruction and production operations, high salaries are not the main motivators to improve productivity, meeting the needs and socio-psychological climate in team is significantly important; the manager must provide workers with a certain autonomy and the ability to control simple, routine operation (Mayo, 1924). The actual results of some experiments of E. Mayo testified that employees are important not only to improve specific working conditions but they make the supervisors pay attention to the problems of staff (Mayo, 1924).

The attention of H. Follet was focused on the study of the human factor in the management and not technical processes. She studied the problems that are relevant nowadays and for this research: power, leadership, ethics, the productivity of staff, influences the process of setting goals on the number of conflicts in the organization, effective interaction between managers and employees in the organization (Follet, 1928). Charles Barnard is known as the author of the concept of an informal organization formed social groups within any formal organization. This theory argued that informal relations are an important factor that should be used for managers in the goals achievement of the organization and efficiency of their work. The concepts of this theory are an important contribution to the development of the human movement in management theory. Therefore, Charles Barnard argued managers must treat personnel ethically that will allow expecting the adoption of subordinate power even in the most critical circumstances. In other words, the proper attitude to the staff can be a critical factor for success (Barnard, 1938). Charles Barnard also argued that the main purpose of a leader is valuable leadership and mastery of social forces (Barnard, 1938). Thus, the main basis of human relations school played an important role in humanizing interactions at the workplace, determined the direction for the development of the theory and practice of management in the mid-twentieth century. The main critics of human relationships school claimed that its main provisions "show to some extent "farmer" approach to management: cows provided with hay give more milk and more satisfied workers reach good results" (Daft, 2007). Despite this criticism, one could argue that this research school of human relations is laid to the foundations for the progressive development of human recourses management as a science and its main concepts may be used in modern researches.

Followers of humanistic approach guided by the desire to improve and strengthen the fundamentals of this theory established a new direction - the school of human resources. Outstanding representatives of this school are Abraham Maslow and Douglas McGregor. The main idea of the concept of human resources is to create those conditions, in which employees can realize their full potential that is the basis for

achieving organizational effectiveness. The theory of motivation was first formulated within the school of Human Resources. Maslow is the author of the theory of hierarchical subordination of human needs that were divided into five levels and combined into two groups: lower order (physiological and safety needs) and higher order (need for engagement, the need for recognition and self-assertion, self-actualization needs) (Maslow, 1951). The theory of Maslow is important for this research because it clearly defines the existence of every individual need of the highest order; indicates that all needs, including higher order, can and should be met during the work process; emphasizes that one should not overestimate the importance of material remuneration during work incentives. Maslow theory logically shows that work is not just a place to make money, this is the opportunity for self-realization of the individual (Maslow, 1943). These scientific opinions contributed subsequently forming ideas about "cultural right" of the organization.

D. McGregor guided by the desire to move away from the simplistic idea of the problems of human relations in the workplace formulated theory X and theory Y (Sahin, 2012). He believed that all the earlier management theory does not take into account the vision when the employee a lazy, is a passive, irresponsible person, and not overly ambitious the need for advanced security. This approach gave the birth to the control methods that are ineffective (Theory X). As opposed to outdated approaches Dr. McGregor formulated the theory, which was based on the assumption that most people like to work, and the certain conditions even inclined to take responsibility and creative think. This theory may also be useful while researching the interactions between employees and managers.

An important conclusion is that there is the certain theoretical background to conduct this research. The different aspects of interactions between managers and employees such as humanizing interactions at the workplace, creating those conditions, in which employees can realize their full potential and show the high results of their work, the statement that most people like to work, and creating the certain conditions even inclined to take responsibility and creative think are the components of different theoretic approaches. They were widely discussed by the famous scientists in the sphere of this research.

4. Methodology

The theoretical and methodological basis of the paper is a set of epistemological approaches, building logical laws findings, general and specific scientific methods that are directly caused by the purpose and objectives of the research. Essential theoretical results obtained on the basis of the theory of modern management and theory of human resources that were discussed above.

The method of scientific abstraction helps to find the basic statements that concern the interactions between managers and employees and the quality of their work in the theories of management.

In the case of the questioning method is the basis for determining the areas of research are the characteristics of respondents and their work. It makes sense in this situation to consider the involvement the respondents to the research from different levels and departments of the organization, and that workers - direct contractors, and managers at all levels. The survey of 17 respondents on 33 enterprises was held using the special blank with variables and the range for each variable while conducting this research. After the survey, the results were presented in the diagram. The diagram is an effective tool to show the results of the survey because it clearly shows the tendency of increasing or decreasing of variables, improvement or deterioration of it.

To determine the extent of factors that lead to a certain level of individual and corporate work efficiency in the analysis of performance management, the complex areas of socio-economic research are used: the study of leadership position influence on the performance management work; research the main methods used for performance management work; study the impact of compliance competency of their work functions on the effectiveness of labour (regulation complexity of work); study the influence of the nature of the link between work and encouraging results on the labour effectiveness; study the impact of the loyalty guidance to staff on efficiency measures; study of the influence of the intensity of labour and its treatment efficiency; study the impact of financing resources work on its effectiveness.

Empirical findings based on the use of economic-statistical methods, sociological method, forecasting, and use of special data packet. The scientific results are based on common technologies analysis and synthesis, identification and formalization, modelling, and use of the special techniques: the method of multivariate factor analysis in order to identify synthetic complex factors. There are complex relationships between the productivity of work and other factors influencing it. All economic indicators are under the influence of different factors and, therefore, mathematically interpreted as random variables. In this research, the variables are the quality of interactions between employees and managers, the accurateness of the work, the level of quality of their work. Thus, different methods are used in the research: scientific abstraction, analysis, synthesis, correlation analysis in order to show the influence of the quality of interactions between managers and their employees on the quality of their work.

5. Data analysis

Hypothesis 1. Employees who have high-quality interactions with their managers are more likely to

produce quality work than are employees who have low-quality interactions with their managers.

The results of the research show that there is the strong connection between the interactions of managers and employees on the employees' productivity. Three groups of workers were analysed after trainings. Some of them had reduced productivity, the productivity of others unchanged, and the third group presented the improvement of productivity.

Employee productivity

100,00% 90,00% 80,00°% 70,00% 60,00% 50,00% 40,00% 30,00% 20,00% 10,00% 0,00%

Reduced Unchanged Improved

I Percent of leaders who effectivly meet personal needs of ohters after trainings

Fig. 1. How meeting personal needs is related to improved productivity

The highest percentage of leaders who effectively meet the personal needs after trainings (84%) was in the third group that presented the improved productivity of the work. In another two groups, where the results were the same or even worse, the percentage of leaders who effectively meet the personal needs after trainings was 71% and 60%.

The results of survey of 1500 respondents of European companies showed that the most important features manager should own include: the ability to form effective team - 96%; the ability to listen to colleagues and subordinates - 93%; ability to make decisions - 87%; the ability to attract others to perform decision - 86% (Konrad, 2006). These results confirm the importance of managers' ability to interact with subordinates effectively (93%). According to the DDI survey, there are principles to help a person meet others' personal needs 1. Maintain or enhance self-esteem. 2. Listen and respond with empathy. 3. Ask for help and encourage involvement. 4. Share thoughts, feelings, and rationale (to build trust). 5. Provide support without removing responsibility (to build ownership) (DDI, 2012). These data confirms the results of the research that the quality of work depends on the interactions of employees and managers within the organization.

The survey of 17 respondents at 33 enterprises in order to get information about the most important factors in the system of communication and interactions within the company was held. A special blank helped to do this task. After the survey, the results were presented in the

diagram. The questionnaire was specially developed for the survey. There were some factors and the range in the table of the questionnaire.

The most important means of communication and interactions are meetings of supervisors with their subordinates (88% of enterprises), attending the workplaces by supervisors (76%), computer local net (61%), the desk of announcements (46%) (Fig. 2).

Means of communication and interaction

development of mentoring supporting the novation and delegating command methods of management ladership development corporate cite the desk of announcements computer local net attending the workplaces by supervisors

0,0% 20,0% 40,0% 60,0% 80,0% 100,0% I Means of communication and interaction

Fig. 2. Means of communication and interaction

The results show that 88% of the enterprises believe the meetings of supervisors with their subordinates are at the first place in the communication systems. It has the greatest influence on the quality of work of the employees among other factors that were in the questionnaire.

The study of PwC (2015) shows that less frequent interactions of managers with their subordinates have a negative impact on the engagement, leadership vision, and the growth and development of the organization (Fig. 3). These interactions are not only being at the same place physically but have connections with the employees on regular bases. Thus, the results of other and of my own researchers show that quality ofwork and its productivity are greatly dependent on the employees' interactions with their managers that are represented by such variables as engagement of employees, leadership

80,00% 70,00% 60,00% 50,00% 40,00% 30,00% 20,00% 10,00% 0,00%

Every day About once Every two a week weeks

Once a Every three Les than month months three months

Engagment

Leadership vision ■ Growth and Development

Fig. 3. Frequency of meaningful interaction with manager

vision, motivation system (including the amount of salary and rewards), growth, and development of enterprises.

All factors have the significant influence on productivity. Among the motivation payment, the awards and bonuses for the productivity growth and over-labour standards, improving the quality products, the innovative activity can be distinguished. Thus, the analysis shows that employees who have high-quality interactions with their managers are more likely to produce quality work than are employees who have low-quality interactions with their managers.

6. Conclusions

The results of organization activity greatly depend on the quality of employees' work that is determined by different factors. One of the key variables influencing the quality of employees' work is their interactions with supervisors. Typically, the crises appear unawares because they cannot effectively be resisted. The wrong policies and ineffective leadership, in this case, lead to the decreasing the quality ofwork and the incomes of the company as well. To prevent the crises, the supervisors of the companies should regularly organize discussions on strategic planning that must go beyond daily work, maybe it should be done even outside the organization. The evaluation of the situation, identifying strengths and weaknesses of the company, and concept development for middle-long term should be the content and purpose of such discussions. These steps will increase the quality of interactions between employees and their managers that affects the quality of the work and provide effective activity.

A lot of researches have been conducted to show that there is a relation between these variables. Review of literature shows a great interest in modern researchers to this issue. Leadership in the organization is multifaceted. The leader has the right to decide how to influence the subordinates providing some type of relationship with other people. The personal manager authority and official powers is the basis, on which it formed, has a real impact on the organization including management system as a whole and especially human recourses management. The manager must know not only all aspects of the relationships in the group but the factors that contribute to a positive moral and psychological climate. Depending on the situation, he is the organizer, communicator, an expert, critic, and direct performer. That is why it is so important to have high-qualified interaction with employees.

To deepen the theoretical part of the concept, the generalization, and systematization of scientific approaches to domestic and foreign schools to determine the functions and properties of this important economic phenomenon are held. The evolution of different management theories gives the opportunity to follow

the development of the behavioural theories of human resources management that include the main principles and concepts to conduct this research. This theory appeared on the basis of other important theories, which did not take into account the interactions of employees and managers, and the role of the human factor in the results of the organization.

The analysis of different theories shows that organization receives the additional benefits while the human factor becomes important in its activity. The perceived organizational support, trust in the supervisor, leader-member exchange, and reward system are the factors that determine the quality of the interactions between employees and managers. All these factors are important in the process of creating the high-quality interactions between employees and their managers. There will be not the positive changes in the organization without these important elements.

Other scientists emphasize on the role of effective means of communication in the ensuring the interactions with employees. The results show that 88% of the enterprises believe the meetings of supervisors with their subordinates are at the first place in the communication systems. It has the greatest influence on the quality ofwork of the employees among other factors that were in the questionnaire. Essential theoretical results are obtained on the basis of the theory of modern management and theory of human resources. Empirical findings are based on the use of the sociological method. New scientific results are based on common technologies analysis and synthesis, classification and systematization, identification and formalization.

The data analysis gives an opportunity to confirm the hypothesis 1. In order to model the productivity of labour, the following factors are used: revenues from sales of products and services; the average number of staff; average of annual salary of one employee; and the capital-labour ratio. All factors have the significant influence on productivity. Among the motivation payment, the awards and bonuses for productivity growth and over-labour standards, improving the quality products, the innovative activity can be distinguished. Thus, the analysis shows that employees who have high-quality interactions with their managers are more likely to produce quality work than are employees who have low-quality interactions with their managers.

The other study shows that more frequent interactions of managers with their subordinates have a positive impact on the engagement, leadership vision, and the growth and development. These interactions are not only being at the same place physically but have connections with the employees on regular bases.

Thus, the results of other and our own researchers show that quality ofwork and its productivity are greatly dependent on the employees' interactions with their managers, which is represented by such variables as

engagement of employees, leadership vision, motivation system (including the amount of salary and rewards), growth, and development ofthe enterprises. Interactions

of high quality are not only being at the same territory together but it is the trust, motivation, the recognition and organizational culture in the organization.

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Barnard, Ch. (1938). The Functions of the Executive. Harvard University Press, Boston,

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DDI's Center for Applied Behavior Research and Resource Centre (2012). Interaction essentials. What they are and why they matter? Retrieved from: http://www.ddiworld.com/DDI/media/monographs/interactionessentials_ mg_ddi.pdf?ext=.pdf

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Оксана ЗАНОЗОВСКАЯ

ВЛИЯНИЕ КАЧЕСТВА ВЗАИМОДЕЙСТВИЯ ПЕРСОНАЛА С МЕНЕДЖЕРАМИ НА КАЧЕСТВО ИХ РАБОТЫ

Аннотация. Статья посвящена анализу влияния качества взаимодействия сотрудников с менеджерами на качество их работы. Статья включает семь частей: введение, обзор литературы, теоретические основы, методология, анализ данных, выводы и список литературы. Основная цель и важность исследований представлены во введении. Основная цель исследования - проанализировать, есть ли влияние качества взаимодействия сотрудников с их менеджерами на качество их работы. Лидерам любой организации всегда приходится решать ту же проблему: как создать соответствующую систему управления для обеспечения эффективного взаимодействия сотрудников и успешного разрешения возможных конфликтов между ними в организационной среде. Обзор литературы представляет собой основные достижения различных исследователей в вопросе взаимодействия сотрудника со своими менеджерами и его влиянии на результаты их работы. Многие исследователи указывают, что взаимодействие высокого качества положительно влияет на производительность и качество работы. Школа бихевиоризма сыграла важнейшую роль в создании теоретических основ для этого исследования. Основные методы исследования представлены в части

Baltic Journal of Economic Studies „ -J--Vol. 3, No. 2, 2017

методологии. В этой статье использованы абстрактно-логический анализ и социологический метод. Анализ данных подтверждает теоретические идеи работы и показывает, что существует положительная корреляция между взаимодействием сотрудников и их менеджеров и качеством их работы. Опрос показывает, что среди работников более высокий процент (84%), который показал улучшенную производительность труда, считает, что их руководители проводят эффективную политику взаимодействия. В выводах выделены основные результаты исследований. Результаты исследований показывают, что существует сильная связь между взаимодействием менеджеров и сотрудников с производительностью сотрудников.

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