Научная статья на тему 'THE EFFECT OF PROBIOTIC FEED BIO ADDITIVE "PROGAL" ON SCAR FERMENTATION IN DAIRY COWS'

THE EFFECT OF PROBIOTIC FEED BIO ADDITIVE "PROGAL" ON SCAR FERMENTATION IN DAIRY COWS Текст научной статьи по специальности «Животноводство и молочное дело»

CC BY
144
18
i Надоели баннеры? Вы всегда можете отключить рекламу.
Ключевые слова
probioaddition " PROGAL " / dairy cows / microflora / feeding / nutrition / rumen.

Аннотация научной статьи по животноводству и молочному делу, автор научной работы — Denkovich B. S., Pivtorak Y. I., Gordiychuk N. M., Gutyj B. V., Leskiv Kh. Ya.

In the requirements of intensive milk production, to ensure high productivity and at the same time main-tain the health of animals, it is impracticable to achieve without the performance of feed substances of natural compounds, which should be supplemented with probiotic action. One particular is the feed additive "PROGAL", which contains a probiotic component: Lactobacillus casei strain (CM 1759), a potentiating ele-ment maltodextrin, fructo-oligosaccharide, and refers to a biotic additive for ruminants. We discovered that feeding as part of the diet of the probiotic supplement "PROGAL" supported improv-ing the intensity of metabolic processes in the body of cows, particularly in the rumen. Furthermore, we ob-served that the growth of amyloidand cellulolytic and proteolytic bacteria is probable, which ensured their enzymatic activity and caused intensive hydrolysis of feed carbohydrates, resulting in the growth of LHL as precursors of milk fat.

i Надоели баннеры? Вы всегда можете отключить рекламу.
iНе можете найти то, что вам нужно? Попробуйте сервис подбора литературы.
i Надоели баннеры? Вы всегда можете отключить рекламу.

Текст научной работы на тему «THE EFFECT OF PROBIOTIC FEED BIO ADDITIVE "PROGAL" ON SCAR FERMENTATION IN DAIRY COWS»

AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES

Denkovich B. S., Pivtorak Y. I., Gordiychuk N. M., Gutyj B. V., Leskiv Kh. Ya., Stepan Gzhytskyi National University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies Lviv, Ukraine

DOI: 10.24412/2520-6990-2021-22109-62-65 THE EFFECT OF PROBIOTIC FEED BIO ADDITIVE "PROGAL" ON SCAR FERMENTATION IN

DAIRY COWS

Abstract

In the requirements of intensive milk production, to ensure high productivity and at the same time maintain the health of animals, it is impracticable to achieve without the performance offeed substances of natural compounds, which should be supplemented with probiotic action. One particular is the feed additive "PROGAL", which contains a probiotic component: Lactobacillus casei strain (CM 1759), a potentiating element - maltodex-trin, fructo-oligosaccharide, and refers to a biotic additive for ruminants.

We discovered that feeding as part of the diet of the probiotic supplement "PROGAL" supported improving the intensity of metabolic processes in the body of cows, particularly in the rumen. Furthermore, we observed that the growth of amyloid- and cellulolytic and proteolytic bacteria is probable, which ensured their enzymatic activity and caused intensive hydrolysis offeed carbohydrates, resulting in the growth of LHL as precursors of milk fat.

Key words: probioaddition " PROGAL ", dairy cows, microflora, feeding, nutrition, rumen.

Introduction

The priority and guaranteed direction of the restoration of the dairy industry in Ukraine to the level of advanced countries should be the practical development of the latest systems of intensive energy-saving feed production and full standardized feeding of high-yielding cows and young [1-3, 7].

The key to achieving the maximum efficiency of provisions and feed additives is to create a nutrition system that would present the most optimal conditions for the intensification of metabolic processes. One of the main prerequisites for increasing both milk productivity and prevention of digestive disorders is the use of probiotic feed additives, which are low molecular weight carbohydrates connected by a p-glycosidic bond and can be broken down in the upper gastrointestinal tract, only normal microflora , and is a food that stimulates its development. As a result, the general functional state of the animal body improves productivity increases [4, 6].

Many years of experience in the use of probiotics and many scientists' performance confirm their positive impact. However, research results often differ and are sometimes even contradictory. These variations may

On the 30th, 50th, and 70th day of the trial, two hours after feeding, from 4 cows with a probe took samples of the rumen contents. The total and protein nitrogen (according to Keldal), ammonia nitrogen (according to Conway), LJK-in the Markham apparatus, pH-using an EB-74 ionometer, as well as amylolytic, cellu-losolytic, and proteolytic activity was determined [8].

depend on many factors, such as environmental conditions, lactation stage, type of feeding cows, diet structure, the dose of supplements, methods of feeding. This requires the need to test the productive effect of individual probiotic supplements on the body of animals in the specific conditions of livestock enterprises. One of the current ways to increase the efficiency of absorption of nutrients is the supplementary introduction into the diets of probiotic feed additives. One of these is the pro-biotic feed additive "PROGAL".

In this regard, our research is based on optimizing the process of feeding dairy cows of Simmental breed through the use in the diet of probiotic feed additive "PROGAL", and establishing its effect on scar fermentation at the most optimal dose.

Materials and methods of research

The research is based on optimizing the process of feeding high-yielding Simmental cows through probiotic feed additives in the diet "PROGAL". According to the scheme (Table 1), the investigation and production experiment lasted three months in the farm "Pchany-Denkovych" Zhydachiv district of the Lviv region.

Statistical processing of the obtained research results was performed using generally accepted methods of variation statistics with estimation (M), its error (m), and calculations of the probability of differences according to the Student's method using the software "Microsoft Excel 2010".

Table 1

Scheme of the research and production experience, n=10

Groups Features of feeding

1- control The main ration (MR) - cereal and legume hay - 15%, corn silage - 35%, concentrates - 31%, premix - 1%

2- experimental MR + "PROGAL" - 6 g animal/day

3- experimental MR + "PROGAL" - 10 g animal/day

4- experimental MR + "PROGAL" - 15 g animal/day

«CQyyOMUM-JMTMaiL» #Mrn®X 2©21 / AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES

63

Results and discussion

In the research process in the feeding of cows used pasture was produced directly on the farm, and during the analysis (90 days) experimental calves of all groups consumed almost the same number. The nutritional value was 1692 kg of feed units and 227.7 kg of digestible protein.

In experimenting on dairy cows, the animals consumed feed of economic production by introducing probiotic feed additive "PROGAL" in the structure of feed in the dynamics of 6-10-15 g animal/day to determine the optimal feeding dose.

In general, it should be noted that the use in the diets of test animals probio-feed additive "PROGAL" differently affected some feeding parameters, in particular, had a positive effect on the intensity of metabolic processes in cows, and hence on their milk productivity.

The intensive course of metabolic processes is evidenced by the redistribution of the number of microorganisms that ensure the absorption of essential nutrients in the diet (Table 2).

The use of feed by animals, particularly ruminants, largely depends on the nature of scar fermentation. An important factor determining the intensity of rudimentary fermentation is the pH value, which in test cows fluctuated within the optimum (6.82-6.98) and was practically at the level of the control group. As for the concentration of bacteria, which show a probable increase in their number, affect the amylolytic and cellu-lolytic bacteria, a quantitative advantage (third and fourth groups) compared to the control component 23.1-23.7 and 27.8-29.2% <0.001). A similar pattern is observed for the number of proteolytic bacteria. The increased level of these populations of microorganisms in the rumen of cows of experimental groups indicates the intensification of bacterial cell division and reproduction, their growth, and, as a consequence, is accompanied by the accumulation in the latter of raw microbial mass.

Table 2

The population indicators of the microorganisms of the rumen environment of experimental cows (M ± m, _n = 5)_

Indexes Groups of animals

control 1 experimental

2 3 4

Microorganisms million / mg: -amylolytic -cellulosolytic -proteolytic 9.97 ±0.16 11.35±0.23 12.27±0.27*** 12.33±0.26***

8.85±0.28 11.21±0.39 11.31±0.37*** 11.43±0.40***

3.69±0.17 4.17±0.37 4.21±0.38 4.33±0.38

pH 6.80±0.01 6.82±0.02 6.96±0.03*** 6.98±0.04**

Crude bacterial biomass, mg / 100 ^m 993±21.3 1047±24.5 1233±25.3*** 1257±25.7***

Enzymatic activity of the microflora: -amylolytic, thousand conditions. amylolytic. from -cellulolytic,% -proteolytic, meq. trozin, in 100 ml / min 381±13.7 415±15.4 424±16.1 425±16.7

15.23±1.21 19.36±1.29 20.53±1.20 20.59±1.21

3.76±0.19 3.84±0.20 3.87±0.27 3.88±0.23

Volatile fatty acids 9.73±0.27 10.63±0.33 11.63±0.35** 11.61±0.42**

Note: in this and the following tables of the morning probability compared with the control: * p<0,05; ** p<0.01; *** p<0.001

By analogy, concerning changes in the number of the rumen biota in animals of experimental groups, this pattern was found in the case of their enzymatic activity, which led to intensive hydrolysis of feed carbohydrates resulting in a probable increase (9.2-19.5%; p <0.01) the number of VFA. Moreover, it is known that volatile fatty acids: acetic, propionic butyric, are the

primary source of metabolic energy and, after absorption, are used in the body of lactating cows as precursors of milk fat [5].

One of the critical links of metabolism in the body of ruminants, which allows assessing the effectiveness of feeding animals under the action of the studied factor, is the physiological and biochemical parameters of the contained rumen (Table 3).

Table 3

Nitrogen and carbohydrate metabolism indicators in the rumen content of experimental cows (№±m, n=5)

Indexes Groups of animals

control 1 experimental

2 3 4

Total nitrogen, mg% 79.56±0.67 84.50±0.71*** 85.73±0.72*** 85.90±0.72***

Residual nitrogen, mg% 20.87±0.83 23.51±0.81 24.13±0.80 24.35±0.92

Protein nitrogen, mg% 58.69±3.73 60.99±3.75 61.60±3.67 61.61±3.78

Ammonia nitrogen, mg% 38.73±2.85 38.78±2.87 38.81±2.86 38.75±2.88

The amount of sugars, mg% 3.25±0.21 3.93±0.42 3.95±0.22 3.96±0.23

Lactate, mmol 7.5±0.12 5.3±0.15*** 4.7±0.14*** 4.3±0.16***

According to the results, we observed that the probable growth of total and protein nitrogen was established by 6.2-8.0 and 3.9-4.9% (p<0.001), respectively, compared to the control group. The increase in the concentration of total and protein nitrogen indicates the intensive utilization of ammonia by the microflora and improved living conditions. Thus, the ammonia content in the rumen of animals of the experimental groups revealed its decrease, which confirms the positive effect of the studied factor on the processes occurring in the rudimentary environment.

Regarding the exchange in the rumen of experimental cows of phosphates involved in synthetic and energy processes of the biological environment under

Phosphorus compounds concentration in the contents

m, n = 5),

the conditions of our investigation, the following is observed (Table 4). Thus, the concentration of total acid-soluble phosphorus in the rumen of cows of the experimental groups prevails over the control - by 29.729.9% (p<0.001). Regarding the advantage of organic phosphorus of the experimental groups over the control, this indicator is 24.3-31.4%. A similar trend is observed in the predominance of Phosphorus RNA and DNA over the control group. Comparing the difference in these fractions of phosphates in the rumen content of cows of experimental groups, it is necessary to emphasize the obvious advantages of glycolysis reactions and synthesis processes over those of control cows [7, 9, 10].

Table 4

of the rumen and blood of experi mental cows (M ± mmol/l

Groups of animals

Indexes control 1 experimental

2 3 4

rumen

Phosphorus: -total acid-soluble -inorganic -organic 3.54±0.17 10.53±0.18*** 10.57±0.18*** 10,60±0,19***

7.19±0.06 7.36±0.05 7.43±0.09 7.37±0.13

2.55±0.12 3.17±0.19 3.24±0.18 3.35±0.89

RNA 605.9±18.3 673.3±16.5 679.3±16.7 685.0±21.3

DNA 392.9±20.1 429.4±13.4 433.1±19.3 435.4±18.6

blood

Phosphorus: -total acid-soluble -inorganic -organic 2.55±0.06 2.89±0.03*** 2.91±0.03*** 2.92±0.04***

1.49±0.02 1.58±0.02 1.66±0.01*** 1.67±0.01***

1.06±0.03 1.33±0.04 1.25±0.04 1.24±0.04

RNA 608.9±3.26 641.7±4.51*** 667.5±5.3*** 661.7±5.4***

DNA 267.0±6.18 282.6±10.43 315.3±11.2** 318.6±11.3**

Feeding cows as part of the diet of probiotic feed additive "PROGAL" significantly affected the level (within the physiological norm) of the content of phosphates in the blood of animals (Table 4).

In particular, the amount of total acid-soluble phosphorus in the blood of cows of the experimental groups exceeds the same control indicator by 11.314.5% (p<0.001), respectively inorganic - 6.0-12.1% and organic - by 25.5-17.9%. Furthermore, against the background presented in the intergroup comparison was also observed higher by 5.4-9.6 and 5.8-19.3% concentration of Phosphorus RNA and DNA, respectively. This trend confirms the increase in anabolism in cows of experimental groups or evidence of intensifi-

cation of oxidative phosphorylation, ie energy accumulation, which can be regarded as a positive effect of the studied factor on the overall functional state of animals.

Conclusions

The optimal dose of compound feed is considered to be 10 g. animal/day, the maximum dose can be no more than 15 g. animal/day. It should be emphasized that we did not notice any adverse side effects of feed additives on the general functional state of cows.

References

1. Bashchenko, M.I., Boiko, O.V., Honchar, O.F., Sotnichenko, Yu.M., Tkach, Ye.F., Gavrysh, O.M., Nebylytsja, M.S., Lesyk, Ya.V., Gutyj, B.V. (2021). The cow's calving in the selection of bull-breeder in Monbeliard, Norwegian Red and Holstine

«ШУШМИМ-ЛШИПШУ» #22®Ш)), 2©21 / AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES

65

breed. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 11 (2), 236-240. doi: 10.15421/2021_105

2. Borshch, O.O., Ruban, S.Yu, Borshch, O.V., Sobolev, O.I., Gutyj, B.V., Afanasenko, V.Yu., Malina, V.V., Ivantsiv, V.V., Fedorchenko, M.M., Bondarenko, L.V., Katsaraba, O.A., Chorniy, M.V., Shchepetilni-kov, Y.O., Sachuk, R.M., Dmytriv, O.Y., Kava, S. (2021). Strength of limbs and hoof horn from local Ukrainian cows and their crossbreeding with Brown Swiss and Montbeliarde breeds. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 11(3), 174-177. doi: 10.15421/2021_160

3. Borshch, O.O., Ruban, S.Yu., Gutyj, B.V., Borshch, O.V., Sobolev, O.I., Kosior, L.T., Fedorchenko, M.M., Kirii, A.A., Pivtorak, Y.I., Salamakha, I.Yu., Hordiichuk, N.M., Hordiichuk, L.M., Kamratska, O.I., Denkovich, B.S. (2020). Comfort and cow behavior during periods of intense precipitation. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 10(6), 98-102. doi: 10.15421/2020_265

4. Czaplicka, M., Puchajda, Z., & Pawlak, M. (2014). Efektywnosc stosowania drozdzy Saccharomyces cerevisiae w zywieniu krow mlecznych [Efficacy of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast in feeding dairy cows]. Roczniki Naukowe Polskiego To-warzystwa Zootechnicznego, 10(4), 69-75 (in Polska).

5. Ibatulin, I.I., Melnyk, Y.F., & Otchenashko, V.V. (2015). Praktykum z hodivli silskohospodarskykh

tvaryn: Navch. Posibnyk. Zh.: PP "Ruta" (in Ukrainian).

6. Kandyba, V.M., Ibatulin, I.I., & Kostenko, V.I. (2012). Teoria i praktyka normovanoi hodivli velykoi rohatoi khudoby: Monohraphia (in Ukrainian).

7. Polulix M.I. (2012). Metabolizm azotovyx spoluk u rubci dijnyx koriv za vykorystannya u godivli standartoyi ta eksperymentalnoyi bilkovo- vitaminno-mineralnoyi dobavky (BVMD). Zb. Nauk. Pracz VNAU, 4 62), 45-49 (in Ukrainian).

iНе можете найти то, что вам нужно? Попробуйте сервис подбора литературы.

8. Vlizlo, V.V., Fedoruk, R.S., & Ratych, I.B. (2012) Laboratorni metody doslidzhen u biologiyi, tvarynnycztvi ta veterynarnij medycyni: dovidnyk. Lviv, Spolom (in Ukrainian).

9. Vojtovych, N.G. (2008). Produktyvnist ta funkcionalna aktyvnist rubcya koriv pry zastosuvanni vysokobilkovyx kormiv i mineralnyx dobavok. Avtoreferat dysertaciyi na zdobuttya naukovogo stupenya kandydata silskogospodarskyx nauk. Kyiv (in Ukrainian).

10. Vovk, Ya.S., Vrydnyk, B.F., Vojtovych, N.G. (2002). Obmin rechovyn u rubci ta produktyvnist vidgodivelnyx bychkiv na foni riznoyi struktury sokovytoyi chastyny sylosno- koreneplidno-koncentratnogo racionu. Peredgirne ta girske zemlerobstvo i tvarynnycztvo, 44, 127-131 (in Ukrainian).

УДК: 504.064.2: 504.3.054

Каракулов Ф.А.

Федеральное государственное бюджетное научное учреждение «Всероссийский Научно-Исследовательский Институт Гидротехники и Мелиорации имени А.Н.Костякова», РФ,

г.Москва.

АНТРОПОГЕННОЕ ВОЗДЕЙСТВИЕ НА АТМОСФЕРНЫЙ ВОЗДУХ ГОРОДА РЯЗАНИ И ПУТИ

ЕГО МИНИМИЗАЦИИ

Karakulov F.A.

Federal state budgetary scientific institution "all-Russian research Institute of hydraulic Engineering and

Melioration named after A. N. Kostyakov", Moscow, Russia.

ANTHROPOGENIC EFFECT ON THE ATMOSPHERIC AIR OF THE CITY OF RYAZAN AND

WAYS OF ITS MINIMIZATION

Аннотация

Рязань - это Российский город, который является административным центром Рязанской области Рязанского муниципального района. Рязань относится к тридцати крупнейшим городам на территории России. Как и для других крупных городов, для Рязани является актуальной проблема загрязнения атмосферного воздуха выбросами промышленных предприятий. За период с 2015- 2019 гг. наблюдалось значительное увеличение концентраций загрязняющих веществ в воздухе. В данной работе будут рассмотрены причины загрязнения атмосферного воздуха в городе Рязани, а также будут предложены пути его минимизации, ради сокращения переноса и оседания загрязняющих веществ за чертой города.

Abstract

Ryazan is a Russian city, which is the administrative center of the Ryazan Region of the Ryazan Municipal District. Ryazan is one of the thirty largest cities in Russia. As well as for other large cities, for Ryazan the problem of air pollution from industrial enterprises is urgent. For the period from 2015-2019 there was a significant increase in the concentration ofpollutants in the air. This paper will consider the causes of air pollution in the city of Ryazan, and also suggest ways to minimize it.

Ключевые слова: Рязань, атмосферный воздух, антропогенное воздействие

Key words: Ryazan, atmospheric air, anthropogenic impact

i Надоели баннеры? Вы всегда можете отключить рекламу.