THE DEGREE OF EQUALITY BETWEEN CITIZENS (JEWS AND OTHERS) BEFORE THE LAW IN ISRAEL Текст научной статьи по специальности «Политологические науки»

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Russian Law Journal
Ключевые слова
Jews / Freedom / Equality / Law

Аннотация научной статьи по политологическим наукам, автор научной работы — Alaa Masarwa, Engin Ünsal

The aim of this research is to explore the degree of equality between citizens (Jews and others) before the law in Israel. Law includes thoughts like freedom, democracy, participation, and empowerment in addition to environmental, social, and economic justice, social equality, and quality of life. Israel legal system of courts operates in a hierarchy, with the Israeli Supreme Court functioning as the highest court of appeal. The Israeli legal system was created to guarantee the fair and impartial execution of the law to all citizens and is based on a combination of common law and civil law principles. To conduct this research, the mixed method approach was used in which questionnaire and interview surveys was used. The results showed that the concept of equality before the law declares that everyone should be subject to the law in the same manner. Everyone deserves to be treated equally within the confines of the law since they all have the same worth in the eyes of the law. The findings of this study have sought to establish an effective understanding on the domains of social justice and equality, through the prime example of Arab minorities residing within Israel.

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1Girne American University (GAU) 2Co-Writer: Girne American University (GAU)


The aim of this research is to explore the degree of equality between citizens (Jews and others) before the law in Israel. Law includes thoughts like freedom, democracy, participation, and empowerment in addition to environmental, social, and economic justice, social equality, and quality of life. Israel legal system of courts operates in a hierarchy, with the Israeli Supreme Court functioning as the highest court of appeal. The Israeli legal system was created to guarantee the fair and impartial execution of the law to all citizens and is based on a combination of common law and civil law principles. To conduct this research, the mixed method approach was used in which questionnaire and interview surveys was used. The results showed that the concept of equality before the law declares that everyone should be subject to the law in the same manner. Everyone deserves to be treated equally within the confines of the law since they all have the same worth in the eyes of the law. The findings of this study have sought to establish an effective understanding on the domains of social justice and equality, through the prime example of Arab minorities residing within Israel.

Keywords: Jews, Freedom, Equality, Law

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background

The changing inter-group interactions and perspectives of the two groups after World War II have been the primary focus of historical and academic debate on Jews and blacks. As a result, the primary focus is on the contributions of blacks and Jews to the Civil Rights Movement in the 1950s and 1960s (Bauer, 2014). There was apparently little interaction between Jews and blacks before 1920, however, many of the efforts put forth by Jews and blacks in the middle of the twentieth century originated in response to circumstances decades earlier, such as the Springfield Riots of 1909 and the Russian Pogroms of 1904 and 1905, and early attempts to combat escalating racial violence and injustices through legal means in the 1920s and 1930s (Arneson, 2018).

The uniqueness of the Jewish experience and the Civil Rights Movement would also be seen in the pivotal part played by empathy. Jews were better able to understand and sympathise with the struggles of black people due to their own history of oppression. In newspaper articles, speeches, and debates, Jewish activists drew parallels between the Great Migration of African Americans out of the South and the Exodus of the Jews from Egypt (Grohs, Adam & Knill, 2016). They pointed out that both groups had to leave their homes because of discrimination and lived in ghettos, and that both had to endure violence, in the form of lynchings for African Americans and pogroms for Jews. Many Jewish civil rights advocates would feel empathy and sympathy for black people because of these analogies, but they would also feel compelled to take action because of their religious beliefs (Fawcett, 2019).

The development of Jewish civil rights activism throughout the course of the twentieth century, highlighting movements like Reformed Judaism and the Ethical Cultural Society's attempts to encourage an evolution of humanist and Unitarian ideals as the foundation of Jewish advocacy. During the modern civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s, their efforts would pave the way for a series of coalition-building ventures that would form the nucleus of an all-out attack on the ethnic in America, challenging the existing inequality for African Americans in housing, education,


employment, and civil rights. The two most significant pieces of civil rights legislation, the Voting Rights Act of 1964 and the Civil Rights Act of 1965, were finally enacted in large part due to their efforts (Sánchez-García, et al., 2022).

In the system of principles of legal responsibility, fairness and equality of everyone before the law and the court play a central role. These principles are codified in the country's primary legal code and regulatory statutes, where they are enforced by the state. Laws have been influenced by philosophical concepts like justice and equality since at least Roman times. In this sense, justice is an ever-present determination to ensure that everyone is accorded the respect and dignity to which they are entitled (Wen, Albert & Von Haaren, 2020). According to Campisi, Georgiadis & Basbas (2022), this definition established a formula, which evolved into the idea of equal protection under the law and in the courtroom, that is the relationship between justice and equality before the law and the court. Justice is a value meaning that is incorporated into the concept of equality of everyone before the law and the court (Bayeh, 2016). Three perspectives on the connection between fairness and equality are outlined by Mohring & Teney (2020) first, equality is an essential part of justice; second, it is a key to obtaining justice; and third, justice and equality are independent, not ranked-order concepts (Arneson, 2018).

The divide of justice into distributing and equalizing has been used to express the connection between principles of justice and equal treatment of everyone before the law and the court. So, according to Clancy & Feenstra (2019), justice functions as a principle of legal responsibility and serves as the foundation for legal responsibility, which is a system of moral values in which the wrongdoing and punishment, the right action and reward are proportional to one another (Titmuss, 2018). On the other hand, the substance of the concept of equality of everyone before the law and the court is determined by the principle of fairness, which establishes the standards for legal culpability and mandates their equitable distribution (Beauvais, 2018). Therefore, the idea of justice necessitates the equalising justice of recognising and respecting the honour and dignity of every participant in the legal process, effectively protecting the rights and legitimate interests, and subjecting each guilty to legal accountability.

Behavioral psychologist John Stacey Adams built a helpful model to describe the relevance of workers' views of fairness in the workplace. Adam's Equity Theory describes the reasoning an employee use to evaluate the justice of a company's management choices. The core tenet of equity theory is that people evaluate the fairness of their treatment depending on how others like them are treated. Staff members socially compare themselves to others in comparable roles within the company. Or, put another way, workers will ask themselves, am I obtaining the same incentives (outcomes) as others who contribute equivalent inputs to this organisation? (Kollmann et al., 2020). According to the equity hypothesis, when workers' efforts are rewarded in kind, they feel the system is treating them fairly despite any race discrimination such as Black or White. Employees feel the situation is unfair if they are paid differently for doing the same work. According to equity theory, imbalances, whether genuine or imagined, have a negative impact on workers' motivation. If workers see that they are being treated unfairly, they will be highly motivated to take action to rectify the situation (Pohler & Schmidt, 2016). Worker options when injustices continue are based on cutting down on resources (giving less time, doing less work), insisting that the firm crank out more product (more pay, authority), initiating a state of emergency survival (doing their job and little more), strike a pose of defiance (act out on other issues), develop an unhealthy obsession with winning (focus on reducing the outputs of others) and quit (Pohler & Schmidt, 2016). Therefore, leaders that choose to disregard this mistrust will find themselves dealing with a decrease in morale and productivity.

The psychology studies on fairness are built upon Adams's equity thesis. Since the 1980s, research on organisations has mostly focused on the possible impact of distributive justice on their operations. The research followed the lead of work in social psychology and started to look at process-related concerns as it became obvious that workers' responses to organisational events were not only dependent on their perceived concepts of outcome fairness or distributive justice (Greenberg, 2018). As a result, studies on procedural justice, or the fairness of the methods used to establish results,


were popular and have persisted into the modern day. Employees' sense of procedural fairness improves when they are given a chance to have their say and when the rules are uniformly applied. Actually, Robert et al. (2020) proposed a set of standards to follow to achieve procedural justice, which comprised correctness, ethics, and fair representation.

In addition to being included in all of the other human rights guaranteed by the Act, the rights to equality and freedom from discrimination are guaranteed. Because of their humanity, all people are considered to have their own separate legal identities implies that everyone has the right to vote, hold public office, open a bank account, and engage in other activities that need legal capacity. Laws enacted to safeguard the rights of those who lack legal maturity would impose restrictions. The protection of human rights guaranteed by the Act is guaranteed for all people without exception (Lloyd & Mertens, 2018). The Act includes in its definition of discrimination of person discrimination that is prohibited under the Anti-Discrimination Act of 1991. Since it prohibits discrimination in the exercise of human rights on a larger variety of grounds than the Anti-Discrimination Act of 1991, this implies there is more equality. It guarantees that no law or policy is unfairly enforced against any group of people (Ross & Kapitan, 2018). All members of the public have to be treated fairly and equitably by government agencies and judicial bodies. It is also crucial that the laws themselves protect everyone equally. In order to ensure everyone is treated fairly under the law, certain groups would need to be given special consideration in some situations (O'Connor & Crowley-Henry, 2019). Equal and effective protection against discrimination establishes an individual's independent and positive right to be shielded from discrimination in a meaningful way. In addition to this, it is also studied that actions taken to aid those who have been disadvantaged as a result of prejudice are not considered discriminatory (Marasi & Bennett, 2016). Therefore, the goal is to study the shreds of pieces of evidence that reflect the context and background of equality and equity in terms of minorities in light of legislation and sustainability.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

A citizen should be treated the same under the law, according to the principle of equality before the law, which holds that no one is immune to legal punishment. This principle, one of the various definitions of the vague phrase rule of law, is ingrained in many modern constitutions and is generally accepted as fundamental to a just and equitable legal system. Although the concept of equality before the law is widely recognised to be an important tenet of contemporary legal theory, there is significant disagreement over what this term really means in practise (Acemoglu & Wolitzky, 2021).

As was previously noted, several national, legal and international mechanisms exist to guarantee equality. This suggests that the techniques by which equality is attained vary depending on the context, but that its meaning and substance remain constant. Based on the idea of equality, all people should have the right to expect that they are afforded the same legal protections and freedoms as all other people in any given circumstance. Among the most difficult aspects of equality, the law is determining whether or not a specific circumstance is compatible (Ramadhan, 2018).

More than 1.5 million Israelis identify as Arab, and they are both a native population and a minority in the Jewish state. These Arab communities have deep historical roots in the region, but they struggle to embrace the present Jewish state that rules over them. Despite being Israeli citizens in every sense of the word, these groups have been and continue to be targeted for discrimination by the Israeli government. Education, funding, property ownership, the media, and language rights are just a few areas where minorities would be subject to prejudice (Yanto, 2016). In addition, the Knesset's passage of the Nation-State Law in July 2018 has made matters worse for Israel's Arab communities (Israel Parliament). The Nation-State Law, which has the status of a constitution, removes Arabic from the list of official languages in Israel and grants Jewish people the exclusive right to self-determination; it also makes it a national priority to construct housing for Jewish people while ignoring the housing needs of other minority groups (Lenard, 2016).


Research on Israel's Arab minority has been published in a variety of academic disciplines, including sociology, history, and international relations. There has been a gradual but steady increase in the impact of international law on domestic courts over the last several decades. Among Israel's Arab minority, this is part of a wider trend reflecting the growing importance of international law in a variety of contexts. In this era of globalisation, international agreements have emerged as crucial players in the economic and political arenas (Foran, 2020). For another, the International Criminal Court is only one example of a growing trend toward bringing conflicts to international courts. Third, and most importantly, national courts are increasingly turning to international tools, especially when it comes to enforcing international human rights rules (Chemerinsky, 2019).

General Assembly and Security Council twin resolutions on the evaluation of the peacebuilding architecture emphasise the importance of the rule of law in maintaining peace. To keep the peace, the United Nations (UN) has to take a holistic and coordinated strategy that prioritises consistency across the political, security, development, human rights, gender equality, and rule of law spheres in order to provide effective support for Member State-led initiatives (Windsor, 2017). State responsibility for protecting its citizens from genocide, crimes against humanity, ethnic cleansing, and war crimes must be acknowledged as paramount in any effort to strengthen the rule of law. Fundamental to the humanitarian protection system, the rule of law is essential to identifying and resolving the root causes of forced migration and statelessness (Schiller, 2017). Thus, the present study is conducted in terms of investigating the emerging and critical issues that affect the rule of law including the spread of hate speech and incitement to violence; the prevention of radicalization and violent extremism; the effects of climate change and environmental degradation on people's safety and the standard of living; and the complexities of artificial intelligence and cybercrime. 1.3 Significance of the Study

The prejudices stem from the state's emphasis on Israel ideology, which claims that ancient Palestine (today called the Land of Israel) is the Jewish people's eternal and inalienable home. It is widely believed that Israel's Arab minority residents are being discriminated against at the cost of the Jewish majority. Because of Zionism's prevalence, the Palestinian minority's political expression is severely stifled, particularly in areas where its actions are seen as a danger to the Jewish essence of the state. For instance, in Israel's parliament (known as the Knesset), any political party has been disqualified for trying to negate the existence of Israel as a Jewish and democratic state (Marx, 2017). As a consequence, Arab political parties in Israel must operate within the parameters of Zionism if they want to take part in the country's democratic process.

Often strained ties between Israel's Arab minority and its Jewish majority are rooted in the broader Israeli-Palestinian conflict. However, the Arab citizens of Israel have been excluded from the peace talks. The commonly advocated two-state solution fails to address the plight of Palestinians residing inside Israel since it focuses primarily on Arabs living in the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, and as refugees in the diaspora. Additionally, the realism school of thinking informs much of the discussion among experts in international affairs and other observers (Kelman & Fisher, 2017). Therefore, this paradigm's emphasis on state structures downplays the significance of non-dominant groups like refugees and immigrants, as well as the impact of crucial ideas like identity, memory, group psychology, and transnationalism.

Protection of human rights and basic freedoms, as well as the maintenance of political and military stability, economic growth, and social advancement, are all dependent on a strong foundation of the rule of law. It lays the groundwork for the social contract between citizens and the state, which is essential for ensuring citizens have access to public services, reducing corruption, limiting abuse of power, and more. There is a close relationship between rule of law and progress, and the 2030 Agenda and the Sustainable Development Goals should take into account a more lawful society as a desired consequence (SDGs). Additionally, the Objective of SDG 16 is an enabling goal for Member States to make changes in national-level policy that improve progress on other SDGs (Hope, 2020). Reforms to the rule of law and the creation of more inclusive judicial systems will help citizens have faith in their government and get the services they need. Prioritizing people who have been


historically marginalised and are in danger of being left behind, this strategy should react to the needs of individuals and groups and their meaningful engagement from the get-go (Fu, Wang, Zhang, Hou & Li, 2019). Thus, the significance of the present study is based on involving the enable people and communities to employ judicial processes to preserve their core human rights, as well as preventing significant abuses of these rights and holding those responsible to account at the national and international levels.


The methodological analysis of this study aims to analyze the data collection techniques for the research significantly. Both quantitative and qualitative sources provided the data for this investigation. In-depth interviews with the individuals were conducted by the researcher using a questionnaire that she had devised. I also must conduct interviews to deepen your understanding of the issue. Surveys are one of the strategies used to collect data for quantitative research. A survey is a mechanism for getting information from actual people (Sahin & Ozturk, 2019). A survey that was done with a questionnaire made especially for that purpose is more likely to produce accurate results. Comparatively, qualitative research focuses on acquiring and analyzing data based on observable sources (such as literature, clip, or tape) to explain the thoughts, opinions, or experiences of the topic. Quantitative research gathers and analyzes numerical data to throw light on a topic (Newman & Gough, 2020). It can be used to gather background information or to find prospective research directions. To determine how equal Israeli people are in front of the law, both Jews and others in Arab.

3. Results:

Qualitative Results:

Pearson Correlation

The Pearson correlation coefficient is a statistical measure that deals with the direction and association between the research variables. It is basically the statistical measure that indicates the correlation between the datasets and describes how strong or weak these are.

Table 1: Pearson Correlation Analysis among variables



Level of ion of law

Equality among and equality Citizens in Israel rights

Level of Equality amongPearson Correlation 1 .250**

Citizens in Israel Sig. (2-tailed) .000

Sum of Squares and Cross-20392.310 5176.185


Covariance 51.109 12.973

N 400 400

Implementation of law andPearson Correlation .250** 1

equality rights Sig. (2-tailed) .000

Sum of Squares and Cross-5176.185 21054.997


Covariance 12.973 52.769

N 400 400

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

The findings of the table explain that there is significant positive correlation between the level of equality among citizens and implementation of law and rights of equality. The value of correlation coefficient between two variables is .250 that indicates a positive relationship between


them. The relationship between the variables is statistically significant at the level of 0.01 according to the p-value related with the correlation coefficient, which is less than.01. According to the correlation matrix, each variable has an average size of 400, and the cross-products and sum of squares between them correspond to 20392.310 and 21054.997. The relationship between the degree of equality among Israeli citizens and the application of the law and equal rights is 51.109, whereas the correlation between the degree of equality among Israeli citizens and the implementation of the law and equal rights is 12.973. Hence, the table indicated that there is a positive and significant correlation between level of equality among citizens in Israel and implementation of law and equality rights.

The degree of equity and equal rights that Israeli people get in various areas of their lives with work, healthcare, and engagement in politics, is stated to as the level of equality among citizens in Israel. The degree to which legislation and legal rights are present to ensure equal action and the protection of rights for all citizens is referred as the implementation of law and equality rights. Different mechanisms, comprising the legal system, opinions on politics, public opinion, and social movements, may have an influence on this variable. There is a positive correlation shows that there is significant relationship between the degree of equality that citizens attain in their daily lives and the extent to which laws and policies have been implemented to promote equality. For instance, citizens may experience a higher level of likeness in such areas if there are strong legal protections against judgement and policies that promote equal access to work and education.

Table 2: Pearson correlation among variables


Level of Implementation Perceptions

Equality among of law and after law

Citizens in Israel equality rights implementation

Level of Equality amongPearson Correlation 1 .250** .134**

Citizens in Israel Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .007

Sum of Squares and Cross-20392.310 5176.185 2755.160


Covariance 51.109 12.973 6.905

N 400 400 400

Implementation of law andPearson Correlation .250** 1 .381**

equality rights Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000

Sum of Squares and Cross-5176.185 21054.997 7950.160


Covariance 12.973 52.769 19.925

N 400 400 400

Perceptions after lawPearson Correlation .134** .381** 1

implementation Sig. (2-tailed) .007 .000

Sum of Squares and Cross-2755.160 7950.160 20629.760


Covariance 6.905 19.925 51.704

N 400 400 400

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

According to this table, the degree of equality among Israeli people and the application of the law and equality rights are positively and strongly correlated (r = 0.250, p 0.01). It indicates that the degree of equality among Israeli residents tends to rise along with the application of the law and equal rights. A significant correlation occurs between the implementation of the law and views of equality rights following its application (r = 0.381, p 0.01). It demonstrates that as laws and equal rights are implemented more frequently, citizens' perceptions of those laws also appear to be on


increase. The level of equality among Israeli citizens and perceptions upon law execution are positively correlated (r = 0.134, p 0.01). This shows that the perceptions of citizens following the adoption of laws and the degree of equality among Israeli residents are correlated.

Table 3: Pearson correlation among variables


The Level of Perceptions Equality among after law

Citizens in Israel implementation

The Level of EqualityPearson Correlation 1 .195**

among Citizens in Israel Sig. (2-tailed) .000

Sum of Squares and Cross-7220.897 1421.987


Covariance 18.097 3.564

N 400 400

Perceptions after lawPearson Correlation .195** 1

implementation Sig. (2-tailed) .000

Sum of Squares and Cross-1421.987 7377.437


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Covariance 3.564 18.490

N 400 400

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

The table of correlation indicated that, there is a significant positive association (r =.195, p .01) between the degree of equality among Israeli inhabitants and change of behavior after the implementation of law. This indicates that perceptions after the implementation of laws change and it creates equality among residents. It is important to notice that the correlation coefficient is not very strong, suggesting that attitudes following the adoption of the law may be influenced by variables other than equality. The degree of equality among Israeli residents and perceptions following law implementation are positively and significantly correlated (r = 0.195, p 0.01). This shows that as Israel's citizens become more equal, so do their views of the country's laws after implementation. These results suggest that the attitudes of citizens after the adoption of laws and the degree of equality among Israeli residents are correlated with each other. This shows how crucial it is to encourage equality among Israeli residents in order to change people's ideas and attitudes towards the implementation of laws related to equality.


The context of the fourth chapter namely that of discussion with regards to the research's findings and gathered data is that which relates to the domain of associating the findings in a detailed fashion with the study's primary questions and hypotheses. Similarly, this chapter will align the findings that have been gained through the purpose of both quantitative and qualitative means to sort them first within their respective sub-sections, where the qualitative aspect will be made to associate with the research questions, and the former with that of research hypotheses developed earlier. This is a pivotal domain for any research, as this chapter signifies the true findings that have been gained through either primary or secondary means to decipher whether they coincide with the research's purpose or not (Grant & Osanloo, 2014). Therefore, this chapter will also delve into the similar aspect by presenting the findings based on their individual means of collection and analysis, and while also aligning them with the research's questions and hypotheses in an orderly fashion to present the true aim and results that can be gained from its structure.

To better demonstrate, and understand the purpose of this study and to build upon a direction of work, a theoretical framework was structured which constituted of the core areas of discussion for said research topic. This theoretical framework was divided into the four critical areas including


those of Policies and procedures in governments, the broad degree of agreement for a corporate quota, Constituting civic and national equality, as well as that of Israel and Arab politics. Of the four areas, the last one holds the most crucial significance for this study, mainly because of the fact that the focal point for this research is that of Israel and its degree of equality between citizens. According to a study presented by Beinin & Hajjar (2014), this conflict stems from a geopolitical aspect, regardless of the fact that both of the countries are based on differing religions which is not a primary reason for said conflict. Apart from this context, the one relating to the domain of Policies and procedures in governments is also critical to be understood because it presents with an understanding definition of what relationship exists between the citizens of a country and the policies that are put forward by its government. This aspect is reflected in the fact that in not every case are the country's citizens accepting of the regulations that are imposed by the Government of that respective country, mainly because they hold their own ideals, favorites, as well as preferences amongst varied contexts (Gilens & Page, 2014). Said claim is also one stems from the varied thoughts and interests that are found within individualistic, and group domains, where the latter thinks more profoundly of solutions to larger issues, and the former considers the smaller areas of conflict worth more interest.

A key issue that is highlighted within the context of this study's theoretical framework is that of broad degree of agreement for a corporate quota, which refers to the context of different means through which the government of a country's structures may impact the way in which their constituents perceive the world. An example of the study conducted by Hughes, Paxton & Krook (2017) can be included in this domain of explaining the said factor, which is resonated with the aspect of allocating gender quotas for legislatures and corporate boards. The final issue which is presented through the case of this study's theoretical framework is that of Constituting of civic, as well as national equality. Through review of associated literature, it was found that the Arab community members of Israel agree that removing predominance of the Jews in Israeli government can help in the context of establishing better rights of the Arab community members living in Israel.

Through the contextual findings gained from interview sessions with this research's participants, the following themes were identified that help in catering the different domains that are essential to both understand, and analyses for this study's purpose;

• Theme 1 (Social and legal equality) = The first theme highlights the domains of equality rights, perceptions of fairness and justice, as well as the context of gender equality. It strikes upon these areas to signify the main pillars of social and legal equality which stand for every individual's basic rights.

• Theme 2 (Culture and background) = This theme highlights the domains of minority culture and social background from the views of this research's centered target groups, namely the Citizens and Government of Israel. The core findings of this theme are associated with the structured detailing of minority and majority-based categories of the international law.

• Theme 3 (Legal rights, equality, and law implementation) = The third theme highlighted the area of legal protection for rights, which encompasses the said domain in light of lacking thoughtfulness in Israel regarding racism and sexism. These are areas that need to be raised in the form of general awareness for better perceptions of social rights and equality within the said country.

• Theme 4 (Social inequality and the need for implementation of the law) = This theme discusses the foundation of legal resources that are needed for ensuring the aspect of creating awareness regarding the context of social inequality, along with the legal proceedings which follow if any such laws are violated. It also presents with two further sub-themes that relate to the professionals', and employees' views, along with the role that can be played for overcoming discrimination within the country. Lastly, this theme also represents an ideal of the perceptions that Israeli citizens have when it comes to implementation of laws and regulations related to the topic of social and legal equality.

• Theme 5 (Discrimination on the basis of religion) = The fifth theme discusses the core areas of religious inequality, as well as the domain surrounding Israeli-Palestinian conflict. The former sub-theme is one of key significance in the context of this theme, mainly because it is a conflict that has


been raging for many years now, and is one that remains unresolved till date due to religious differences on both ends.

Through the thematic analysis of interview-based responses, it was found that most of the issues regarding inequality between the Arab and Jewish communities/citizens of Israel have been met with positive change of command by the Israeli authorities, where they have ensured reforms to support the Arab community of Israel by providing them better facilitation in areas where the face the problems such as the fields of education, work, housing, and even in the domain of law enforcement (Radai, Elran, Makladeh & Kornberg, 2015). But despite these reforms, there have been resounding voices that mention this as an act not in the face of Muslim-minority associated facilitation, but one that funds, and supports more openly other minorities such as those of Orthodox Christian, and Armenian descent. According to studies and factual reports, this is a factor that remains unexplored and unattended to, which has left a certain gap in the road to creating harmony between the Arab and Jewish communities of the country in its wake.

4. 5. Conclusive Elaboration of Accumulated Findings with Respect to the Specific Research Questions

RQ1 = How does one's ethnicity affect one's sense of fair treatment under the law?

The answer to this question lies within theme one, which is centered around the context of social and legal equality. This theme resonates with the consideration of how essential equality rights are within a country, and that there is a heightened need even in the times of peace, to ensure that regulations and laws are put in place for monitoring them effectively. As mentioned by Bradford, B. (2014) within a study conducted on the same contexts, there is a heightened need for ensuring that there are regulations in place that make sure of the fact that people are abiding by the laws on a daily, as well as individualistic manner. Yet when it comes to the case of discussion in regards to this study, it can be said that the most significant perception of fair treatment under the law is the one which is harbored by the Arab community within Israel. Since they are a part of the ethnic minority groups of said country, it is significant to compare them with the majority of the country's Jewish population who have a different, and more positive perception of the laws relating to fair treatment as they are given all the rights that they had been promised by their local government.

RQ2 = When discussing minority representation in leadership roles, why is it important to understand the historical and cultural backdrop?

The second theme relating to the context of culture and background resonates more closely with the domain of answering this research question. This is because it provides an insight from the perspective of both the citizens and the government of Israel, which enables a more descriptive understanding of this topic. To implement this understanding, it is also essential to highlight that since the Arab community of Israel, which is the country's minority in terms of religious and cultural differences has been facing discriminatory behaviors, they are in need of reforms, as well as awareness creation in the general public regarding their culture which can help the general public in better embracing their cultural, and historical roots. This will not only encourage the Arab minorities of Israel from gaining access to better positions within their choice of professions. RQ3 = What are the most important theoretical and conceptual frameworks, as well as the necessary conditions and criterion measurements, to ensure that justice for all may be maintained over time?

The aspect which can be associated with the context of this research question is that of the theoretical framework which has been presented within this study. The theoretical framework apart from the Arab-Israel conflict, is based on three core legislative aspects which include those of Policies and procedures in governments, The broad degree of agreement for a corporate quota, and Constituting of civic and national equality. To further enhance the essence of this answer, theme number four can be brought to light which stands for the sub-contexts of social inequality and the need for implementation of the law, in light of the legal resources such as income disparity, poverty,


as well as bias, which are some of the influential factors that can become bias in the way of completing constitutional margins in this regard. A key criterion that can be signified in this essence of maintaining both equality and social justice is the creation of awareness with regards to Arab minorities within Israel amongst the Israeli public, so that appreciation, and acceptance of these, and other ethnic minorities as well can be realized. This will also provide new windows of opportunity through which both the minority and majority groups of the country can work together towards its betterment in a harmonious manner.

RQ4 = When discussing equality before the law, what legal and policy framework should be considered?

The aspect of this research question can be signified through the domain of theme number three, which stands for the context of legal rights, equality, and law implementation. The reason behind the selection of this theme is to signify how the domain of laws and regulations play a critical role in the maintenance, and management of equality, and social justice within a country. The subsections of this themes also resonated with the same context, where they heavily relied on the domains of proposing a framework which is both strategic, and is one which also implies a better management perspective with regards to the legal proceedings on said matter. For better positioning of this context, it is essential to highlight the fact that without the presentation of a legal and policy framework that addresses the need for better awareness creation amongst the general public of Israel with respect to the country's thoughtlessness in the factors of sexism and racism, the true essence of any such regulation cannot be realized. This also further exemplifies the domain that structures itself on the border of legal, and general frameworks, by establishing a set of mitigation strategy that prevents any sexism or racism associated crimes within Israel effectively. RQ5 = Do policies, procedures, and practices ensure that everyone is treated fairly under the law? The true answer to this research question lies in the presentation of theme five, which relates to the context of discrimination on the basis of religion. This theme highlights the fact that policies, procedures, and practices are not enough to ensure that there are no discriminatory behaviors in the environment, but that it is a combination of the associated means regarding awareness creation, and acceptance of differences which people of varying ethnic backgrounds have amongst the majority population of a country, namely Israel with reference to this study, that can help with the progression of enhanced measures being taken to reduce the overall rate of discrimination in the country at the same time, based on dimensions such as workplace, educational institutes, and even in the context of daily routine works which can make the people of minority feel at ease and appreciated as well within the community.


The essence of this study lies in the conceptual understanding of the research topic, which elaborates on the domains of social justice and equality. Even in the modern times, there are many countries which are riddled with geopolitical conflicts, which serves as a key area to be researched and studied in terms of how their mixed groups of people with varying ethnic backgrounds can survive together in a harmonious fashion. Through this understanding, it is also essential to highlight geopolitical crisis and conflict within which Palestine and Israel are currently involved, and one which has been raging since the early 20th century without any end or disclosure. The main context of this research was to present with a probable, and plausible take on the direction of how many of the Arab minority groups and community members feel that they are not being provided with effective rights, or basic support and facilitation from the local government in the form of legislations and laws that contribute towards their better living standards. This has also raised another key are within which the Israeli government lacks, and which relates to the domain of lacking awareness in the general public of Israel regarding the history, and cultural representation of Arab minority individuals residing within Israel. The study presents with a thought provoking take on this matter by also highlighting through thematic analysis of the interviews that to overcome this barrier, there also needs to be an apprehension of the fact that racism and sexism associated complaints are more commonly ignored


within the country, which makes the issue surrounding the matter of demanding increased awareness even more critical. Therefore, to ensure betterment of the Israeli society and make it more supportive of the minority, and to enhance the percentage of harmonious relationships between the majority as well as minority groups of the country, there need to be an array of strategies that help in representing those who are not represented well-enough, and in a light through which they can be recognized in other fields of life as well.


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