Научная статья на тему 'THE CONSTRUCTIVE ROLE OF MALAYSIA AS A NON-PERMANENT MEMBER OF THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL (UNSC) IN THE QUESTION OF PALESTINE (QOP)'

THE CONSTRUCTIVE ROLE OF MALAYSIA AS A NON-PERMANENT MEMBER OF THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL (UNSC) IN THE QUESTION OF PALESTINE (QOP) Текст научной статьи по специальности «Политологические науки»

CC BY
57
13
i Надоели баннеры? Вы всегда можете отключить рекламу.
Журнал
Russian Law Journal
Scopus
ВАК
Ключевые слова
United Nations Security Council (UNSC) / Question of Palestine (QOP) / Leaders / Peace and Security

Аннотация научной статьи по политологическим наукам, автор научной работы — Mas Juliana Mukhtaruddina, Misrinah Misbana

Malaysia as a small country and member of the United Nations (UN) has contributed a great deal of assistance and expertise to the international community. Even more serious when Malaysia has been elected as a non-permanent member of UNSC in four interval terms (1965, 1989-1990, 1999-2000 and 2015-16). Many peacekeeping activities that Malaysia involved under the UN umbrella such as in Kosovo War, East Timor Crisis, and also in African conflicting countries. However, the Question of Palestine (QOP) is close to Malaysia, since Independence Day. Moreover, Malaysia has consistently voiced the Palestinian issues on the UN General Assembly (UNGA) and UNSC platforms. The purpose of this paper is to analyze Malaysia’s role as a non-permanent member of the UNSC in resolving the QOP. Undoubtedly, Malaysia as a non-permanent member of the UNSC has demonstrated its effort and capability to alarm the international community in response to the QOP.

i Надоели баннеры? Вы всегда можете отключить рекламу.
iНе можете найти то, что вам нужно? Попробуйте сервис подбора литературы.
i Надоели баннеры? Вы всегда можете отключить рекламу.

Текст научной работы на тему «THE CONSTRUCTIVE ROLE OF MALAYSIA AS A NON-PERMANENT MEMBER OF THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL (UNSC) IN THE QUESTION OF PALESTINE (QOP)»

THE CONSTRUCTIVE ROLE OF MALAYSIA AS A NON-PERMANENT MEMBER OF THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL (UNSC) IN THE

QUESTION OF PALESTINE (QOP)

MAS JULIANA MUKHTARUDDIN*A, MISRINAH MISBANa

aSchool of International Studies, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010 Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia Corresponding author e-mail: Mas Juliana Mukhtaruddin, mas@uum.edu.my

Abstract : Malaysia as a small country and member of the United Nations (UN) has contributed a great deal of assistance and expertise to the international community. Even more serious when Malaysia has been elected as a non-permanent member of UNSC in four interval terms (1965, 19891990, 1999-2000 and 2015-16). Many peacekeeping activities that Malaysia involved under the UN umbrella such as in Kosovo War, East Timor Crisis, and also in African conflicting countries. However, the Question of Palestine (QOP) is close to Malaysia, since Independence Day. Moreover, Malaysia has consistently voiced the Palestinian issues on the UN General Assembly (UNGA) and UNSC platforms. The purpose of this paper is to analyze Malaysia's role as a non-permanent member of the UNSC in resolving the QOP. Undoubtedly, Malaysia as a non-permanent member of the UNSC has demonstrated its effort and capability to alarm the international community in response to the QOP.

Keywords: United Nations Security Council (UNSC), Question of Palestine (QOP), Leaders, Peace and Security.

Table of Contents

1. INTRODUCTION

2. METHOD

3. MALAYSIA AND UNSC

4. THE QUESTION OF PALESTINE (QOP)

5. MALAYSIA AND THE QUESTION OF PALESTINE (QOP)

5.1 Tunku Abdul Rahman, Tun Abdul Razak and Tun Hussein Onn Eras (1957-1981)

5.2 Tun Mahathir Mohamad Era (1981-2003)

5.3 Tun Abdullah Ahmad Badawi Era (2003-2009)

5.4 Dato' Sri Mohammad Najib Abdul Razak Era (2009-2018)

6. CONCLUSION

7. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

1. INTRODUCTION

The scenario of relationships amongst countries is in a state of complexity and crucial. The world community is continuously facing numerous issues and crises, internally and outwardly. The foremost despicable is the 70 years unresolved Israeli-Palestinian Conflict, the Syrian Civil War, the Rohingya Refugees Crisis, and many more. Besides, presently, the whole world was traumatized and devastated with an ongoing global pandemic, the coronavirus disease 2019, also well known as COVID-19. The effect of COVID-19 is terrified as the total confirmed casualty are over 27 million cases, and sadly, more than 894 thousand deaths sum all over the world as per September 10th, 2020 (World Health Organization, 2020). While the international community is struggling to fight the spreading of COVID-19 pandemic, another horrific explosion happened on August 8th, 2020 in Lebanon capital city, Beirut (Kulkarni, 2020), that estimated 158 people died and more than 6000 wounded (Uras & Najjar, 2020). According to Marwan Abboud, Governor of Beirut, it is anticipated that more than 300 thousand people are becoming homeless, and also the cumulative losses amounted to USD 10 to 15 billion (BBC, 2020). The grisly situation demonstrated the unstable

condition that happens all around the world. In spite of the current incidents, the elongate Question of Palestine (QOP) is an urgent issue that required solving. Abdullah Ahmad (2011, p. 200) argued that "The situation in Palestine and the Middle East remains volatile, explosive, dangerous, bloody, contentious and intractable". The International community needs to jointly cooperate and assist each other in making the world a better living place. Consequently, whole nations must act together and hold each other to overcome world crises to achieve peace and tranquility. The most important organization to nurture and enhance peace and sustainability is the United Nations (UN) that formed in 1945. Abdul Kadir Sheikh Fadzir, Malaysian former Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs, affirmed that the UN is "a security umbrella to protect small countries" from any assault of more powerful nations (as cited in Rajmah Hussain, 2010, p. 3). Malaysia became as the 82nd member of the UN on September 17th, 1957 (IDFR, 2007, p. 5). The International community accepted and recognized Malaysia for her efforts in moderating international peace and security. Moreover, Malaysia constructively involves in countering terrorism activities. His Excellency Ambassador Hussein Haniff, Malaysian former Ambassador to the UN, mentioned that Malaysia is standing firm with her post on the distinction between terrorism and self-determination (Permanent Mission of Malaysia to the United Nations, 7.10. 2014). Since participating in the UN, Malaysia has been elected to four terms as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council (UNSC) in the following years, 1965, 1989-1990, 1999-2000, and 2015-2016. Malaysia plays a constructive and active role in the UN platform as well as a non-permanent member of UNSC in advocating and highlighting the crucial states of international affairs.

Established on a careful interpretation of the previous works, this paper presents an analysis of the extent to which Malaysia plays her constructive role as a non-permanent member of UNSC during her fourth tenure in 2015 to 2016. Rajmah Hussain (2010) suggested in her book entitled 'Malaysia at the United Nations: A study of foreign policy priorities, 1957-1987'', that there are six focal cases that Malaysia continuously debated at the UN platform since becoming a member of that organization. Amongst them are, "the Conflict of Kampuchea, the Question of Palestine, the Issue of Primary Commodities, the Law of Sea, the Question of Antarctica and Narcotic Drugs" (Rajmah Hussain, 2010, p. 153). However, this paper only focuses on Malaysia's role as a non-permanent member of the UNSC relations to the QOP. Undoubtedly, Malaysia has seriously engaged in encouraging the peaceful resolution of the never-ending Israel-Palestine Conflict. This analysis organizes into five segments, which are, Method, Brief background on Malaysia and UNSC, the Concept of QOP, Malaysia and the QOP, and Conclusion.

2. METHOD

The researchers adopted a qualitative method to understand the complexity of relationships between countries. Miles, Huberman, & Huberman (1994) indicated that the strong point of qualitative data having a rich and holistic approach is necessary for this kind of work. Moreover, the qualitative research method assists the researchers to study human behavior and the interactions among the people's feelings, attitudes, and perceptions. Berg (2001, p. 6) asserted that, "Qualitative research properly seeks answers to questions by examining various social settings and the individuals who inhabit these settings".

This study utilized both primary and secondary data. Primary data were gathered from various institutions such as the UN official website, Malaysian Ministry of Foreign Affairs website, and also the UN Security Council official website. The researchers analyzed Malaysia's statements during the UN Security Council meeting in the period of Malaysia as the non-permanent member of the UN Security Council in 2015 to 2016. Meanwhile, secondary data were gathered from various sources, namely, books, journals, magazines, reports, local and foreign newspapers including materials from the Internet. Hence, the researchers instigated this study by discussing a brief background on Malaysia's involvement as the UNSC non-permanent member to portray her constructive and active role in promoting peace and world security.

3. MALAYSIA AND UNSC

The UNSC is the dominant body since the establishment of the UN. Important is to uphold international peace and security. This body consists of 15 members. Each member has only a vote. United States of America, France, China, the United Kingdom, and Russia are the five veto powers that place as permanent members. Meanwhile, the other ten elected non-permanent members will be selected for two-year terms by the UN General Assembly (UNGA). There are elected based on the geographical grouping on a rotation base. Among the representatives are from Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, Western Europe, and Eastern Europe. The UN asserted that 63 member countries have never been elected as the UNSC non-permanent members (United Nations, 2020).

Literally, after eight years of becoming a member of the UN, Malaysia promoted to another level as a non-permanent member of the UNSC. The UNSC non-permanent seats are a prestigious post that all the UN member states are craving to comprehend. With a large backing from the Commonwealth countries, particularly, Britain. On January 7, 1965, Malaysia was given a seat as a non-permanent member of the UNSC despite Indonesia's disagreement (Rajmah Hussain, 2010). Malaysia shared the seat with Czechoslovakia that served in 1964. Nevertheless, Malaysia is fortunate to be elected four times (1965, 1989-1990, 1999-2000, and 2015-2016) as non-permanent members of the UNSC.

The second until the fourth time Malaysia held the non-permanent member of the UNSC was a full two-year term (1989-1990, 1999-2000 and 2015-2016). Abdullah Ahmad (2007: 163), Malaysia's Special Envoy to the United Nations from 1996 to 2000 affirmed that the re-election of Malaysia was due to her 'consistent good performance' and 'popular' among the other UN members. Malaysia gave a lot of attention to various crucial issues, namely, Israeli-Palestinian Conflict, Kosovo War, East Timor Crisis, and the alarming African Conflicts. In terms of diplomats and statesmen, Malaysia presented 'dedication, hard work, independence, frankness, and more crucially for its balanced approach in contentious and sensitive issues' (Abdullah Ahmad, 2007, p. 167). For instance, a few Malaysian envoys posted as the Chairman of the UNSC, such as Mr. Radhakrishna Ramani (The New York Times, 1970), Tan Sri Razali Ismail, and Tan Sri Hasmy Agam.

Malaysia contended five main concerns as a non-permanent member of the UNSC. Amongst the five concerns are, (1) promoting moderation as a method to solve a conflict, (2) fostering mediation as an instrument for the peaceful settlement of disputes, (3) encouraging the increment of UN peacekeeping maneuvers, (4) embracing peace-building for countries after conflicts, and (5) cultivating persistent debate on UNSC reform (Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Malaysia, 2015; Gabriel, 2014). Besides that, Malaysia also gives special attention to other significant issues such as counterterrorism, the Question of Palestine (QOP), humanitarian, children, and armed conflict including the MH17 incident.

Despite being a small country within the world, Malaysia engages in international events as a significant player. Malaysian former Minister of Foreign Affairs, Anifah Aman mentioned that, Malaysia completely committed and determined to run out its obligations as a council member in carrying out the mandate of the UNSC in an accountable way (Rajagopal, 2015). Thus, Malaysia plays a constructive role in sustaining peace and security not only in the Southeast Asia region but also, in the global fora. As to counter the terrorist's activities in Malaysia for example, Ahmad Zahid Hamidi (2016:12), Malaysian former Deputy Prime Minister asserted that, "In accordance to United Nations Security Council Resolution 2178 that requires member countries to formulate a program to deal with returning foreign terrorist fighters, Malaysia has put in place its special deradicalization and rehabilitation program for terrorists."

Furthermore, Malaysia plays an active role in the UN (Barlow, 2001) and certainly, even more as a non-permanent member of the UNSC. As a responsible member of the UN, Kuala Lumpur has participated in the majority of the peacekeeping task forces. For example, on the United Nations Operation in the Congo, the Protection Force in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Transition Assistance Group in Namibia, the operation in Somalia, the mission in East Timor, and the Interim Force in Lebanon (Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Malaysia, 2015). Therefore, Malaysia's active participation in

the peacekeeping task forces elevates her capability as a non-permanent member of the UNSC. Malaysia is willing to contribute more to the peacebuilding mission if this country is elected again as a non-permanent member of the UNSC.

4. THE QUESTION OF PALESTINE (QOP)

Since 1947 the Palestinian question has been a perpetual UN crisis. Nevertheless, UNGA in November 1947, ratified Resolution 181 (11) that legitimately recognized the establishment, Israel as a lawful state on May 14, 1948. The Israeli state formed at the disagreement of the majority of Arab countries and directly rejected by the Palestinians. According to Tan Sri Ghazali, former Malaysian Foreign Minister (as cited in Rajmah Hussain, 2010, p. 186-187),

"The root of the problem could be traced to the United Nations resolution No. 181(11) of

November 1947......By going back to the 1947 UN resolution No. 181 (11) two fundamental facts of

the problem are discernible. First is established that the Palestinian question is a direct UN responsibility in that when the 1947 UN Resolution 181 (11) was passed, the UN failed to establish

authority in the Arab section to fill the vacuum left behind when the British withdrew......What UN

Resolution 181 (11) did was simply to carve off some area of Palestine into a permanent settlement for the Jews which became the state of Israel. The United Nations should resume its responsibility of establishing a government for the state of Palestine on the basis of the 1947 UN Resolution 181 (11) and the relevant 1967 UN resolution, the latter has become a practical necessity because of the post-1947 developments in the region."

At first, the Palestinian question is not much concern for the UN, as the UN just viewed the issue as a refugee crisis (Rajmah Hussain, 2010, p. 177). Not until 1974, the UN gave attention to the Palestine question and noted it as having a political element. The UN initially acknowledged the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) in 1964 as the only sovereign delegation of the Palestinian people and, at the same time, fill as an observer post in the UN. However, the QOP has been a perpetual critical crisis that gets the world's attention. In general, Israel began occupied Palestinian lands such as the West Bank that include East Jerusalem and the Gaza Strip in June 1967. Those Palestinian lands alleged as the occupied Palestinian territory (OPT) (UNCTAD, 2020). Since then, the Palestinian people are oppressed and violently treated by the Israeli Authority. The QOP received alarming attention from the majority of the UN members. Thus, from August 29th until September 9th, 1983, the UN Office in Geneva convened an International Conference on the Question of Palestine (IQOP) attended by 117 of the UN members (United Nations, 1983). The conference was directed to obtain an effective solution for Palestinians in confronting the Israeli occupation over the Palestinian lands as well as to facilitate the Palestinian rights and lawful freedom over their homeland. Moreover, Sarsar (2014, p. 457) asserted that the QOP dealt with several critical issues that opened the world's eyes,

"The Question's important issues - Jerusalem, scarce water, Israeli settlements, Palestinian refugees, the inalienable rights of the Palestinian people - and their causes and effects have resulted in countless international meeting."

Besides, in 2016 the death toll of Palestinian since the outbreak of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict in 1948 reached more than 5 million lives (Pakistan Defence, 2016). The casualty of the Palestinian after all is far beyond anyone's imagination. Malaysia as a member of the UN and attach to the Muslim nations perceive the QOP as an essential issue that crave for a peaceful settlement for the sake of the Palestinian rights and freedom in their own homeland from the Israeli brutal aggression.

5. MALAYSIA AND THE QUESTION OF PALESTINE (QOP)

Malaysia has been profoundly concerned with the Palestinian question since the beginning of the Israel-Palestinian Conflict occurred. In concert with the other Arab fellow-Muslim, Malaysia condemned the Israeli occupation and settlements along with the Palestinian lands. It is a serious illegal and unlawful act of the Israeli government over the Palestinian people. For that matter, Malaysia until now refuse to have any diplomatic relations or arrangements with the Israeli government. Thus, Malaysian foreign policy continuously holds that "Malaysia had no diplomatic

relations with Israel and banned Malaysians traveling to or having any form of contact with the Jewish state" (Dhillon, 2009, p. 228). All Malaysian leaderships from Tunku Abdul Rahman until Dato' Sri Najib Razak have demonstrated their persistent attention and concern on the QOP.

5.1 Tunku Abdul Rahman, Tun Abdul Razak and Tun Hussein Onn Eras (1957-1981)

During Tunku Abdul Rahman administration (1957-1970), Malaysia as a new member of the UN had successfully elected as a non-permanent member of the UNSC in 1965. This has been a great opportunity for Malaysia to involve heavily in the QOP. Subsequently, in April 1969, Malaysia organized the initial intergovernmental Islamic Conference in Kuala Lumpur and attended by 23 nation-states. All participants of the conference slammed Israel for overtaking the Palestinians and Arab states as the effect of the war in June 1967. Moreover, Malaysia extended her firm stand on the Palestinian question with the formation of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) in 1969 alongside the other Arab nations (Rajmah Hussain, 2010). Likewise, in Malaysia, the Muslim population showed support to their fellow-Muslim that has been suppressed by the Israeli regime. Significantly, Palestine is regarded as one of Muslim Holy lands besides Mecca and Madinah in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, which need to be protected and secure from any harmful human activity. For example, Malaysia began in 1969 commemorated Palestinian Day and Aqsa Day to demonstrate fullest support for the Palestinians against the Jewish occupation and controlled over the Aqsa Mosque (Anidah Robani, 2004). Malaysia strongly showed her solid backup for the Palestinians in their right to 'self-determination' and exercise Islam as their religion.

Meanwhile, in Tun Abdul Razak administration (1971-1976), Malaysia witnessed Islamic teaching awareness among the Muslim population. He instilled the Islamic values in his administration as well as in Malaysian foreign policy. Hence, Malaysia also depicted the Palestinian conflict as part of the country's engagement with the Muslim nations in general, while with the Palestinian people in specific. Subsequently, on October 25, 1973, the world witnessed an outrageous Yom Kippur War, also known as the Arab-Israeli War or Ramadhan War or October War by an alliance of Arab countries directed by Egypt and Syria against Israel (History.com Editors, 2009). Tun Abdul Razak asserted that the outburst of that war was the expansion of the Jew's occupation of the Palestinian lands and hindered the peace resolution between both parties (Anidah Robani, 2004, p. 12). Malaysia condemned the act of violence and subjugation by the Israeli government over the Palestinian people.

Equally, Malaysia under Tun Hussein Onn administration (1976-1981) also showed strong support towards the Palestinian issues. He continued to urge the Arab nations to pursue their rights over the lost territories. Malaysia always encouraged and pushing hard the Palestinian people to fight for their 'self-determination', freedom, and sovereignty. During the 32nd UNGA session on September 30, 1977, in New York, Tun Hussein Onn in his speech despondently mentioned that Malaysia disappointment towards the inability of the UN to resolve the prolonged Israeli-Palestinian Conflict (Anida Robani, 2004). Malaysia also agreed to the Geneva Conference 1973, under UNSC Resolution 338 as to end the Arab-Israeli War as well as believed that PLO played as the single agent for the Palestinian people.

5.2 Tun Mahathir Mohamad Era (1981-2003)

Malaysia continued to strive for the Palestinian rights even much greater during Tun Mahathir Mohamad administration. His leadership has shown more voiced on the QOP compared to previous Malaysia's leaders. Thus, Malaysia promoted the PLO envoy to a complete diplomatic position. Evidently, on August 21, 1981, during the Aqsa Day, Malaysia claimed that,

"...Will continue to call on the International community to pressure Israel to withdraw from all Arab territories, including Holy Bait Al-Maqdis, until the rights of the Palestinian people to a sovereign state in their homeland is recognized and fulfilled." (Tan Sri Ghazali Shafie, Former Malaysian Foreign Minister as cited in Anida Robani, 2004, p. 14)

On top of that, in 1981, Malaysia contributed USD 5,000 to the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) for managing the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Other humanitarian aids were also

handed such as clinical support, educational scholarship for Palestinians studied in Malaysia including centers for professional coaching (Anida Robani, 2004). Thus, regarding the QOP, Tun Mahathir Mohamad directly criticized the Zionist threat over the Muslim nations as a whole and, particularly to the Palestinian people. He delivered a speech at the UN meeting in 1984 claimed that the Zionists are responsible for the 'current Islamic resurgence' (Rajmah Hussein, 2010). Tun Mahathir Mohamad asserted that Israeli occupation over the Palestinian lands is a terrible act. He described the Palestinians suffering and grieving as,

"They have been living in inhuman conditions for over 60 years, and they have to go to extremes to reclaim the land which belongs to them." (Mahathir Mohamad, 2011, p. 772) Moreover, in 2005, Tun Mahathir Mohamad was denied to enter Jerusalem by the Israeli Authority during his visit to the West Bank. As noted by Abdullah, Palestinian Foreign Ministry official, the Israeli Authority rejected Tun Mahathir Mohamad from entering Jerusalem as they alleged, he is 'pro-Palestinian stand and outspoken criticism of the Israeli occupation' (Aljazeera, 2005). Later when Tun Mahathir Mohamad visited the West Bank, he was stunned that entire Palestine was ruled by Israeli Authority. As an illustration, he stressed that,

"There were roads there that Palestinians were not allowed to use and places in their own countries they could not go to." (Mahathir Mohamad, 2011, p. 772)

In fact, Malaysia had denied the Western media claiming the Palestinian fight as a terrorist action. According to Rajendran (1993 as cited in Mohamed et al., 2017) that 'the media still described the Israeli attacks as responses to the Palestinian attacks on them'. Even, Tun Mahathir bravely called the Israeli Prime Minister as the 'chief of the Israeli terrorist movement' (as cited in Rajmah Hussain, 2010, p. 181). To boost Palestinian voice in the UN, Malaysia had played a significant role in assisting the Palestinian to be the permanent observer mission at the UN and no longer seek help from the other members (Abdullah Ahmad, 2007).

Through his period, Malaysia had twice become the non-permanent member of the UNSC, 19891990 and 1999-2000. Malaysia took the opportunities as the non-permanent members of the UNSC to fight and speak for Palestinian self-determination. Therefore, Tun Mahathir Mohamad urged Israel to withdraw from occupying the Palestinian lands and allow the Palestinian people to exercise their rights and freedom (Mahathir Mohamad, 2011). In many international occasions, he demanded the international community to take action and provide solutions for the QOP that has been prolonged conflict in the Middle East. The terrorism issues that continuously affected the Palestinian life will not cease until the root cause of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict is resolved. This crucial and intricate conflict not only associated with the Palestinian people, nevertheless, the whole Muslim Ummah is also involved. Therefore, in many of his speeches at the international level, Tun Mahathir Mohamad persistently called for the Muslim Ummah to cooperate and unite to overcome the conflict and to enhance the living conditions of the Muslims (Mohamed et. al, 2017, p. 221).

5.3 Tun Abdullah Ahmad Badawi Era (2003-2009)

After Tun Mahathir Mohamad resigned as Malaysian Prime Minister in 2003, Tun Abdullah Ahmad Badawi took over the Malaysian leadership. He also carried a similar tone with the other previous Malaysian leaders in regards to the QOP. His pursuit to resolve the Palestinian issue was not a new phenomenon for him. Earlier, when he was the Malaysian Foreign Minister, he persistently voiced the 'Palestinian struggle for nationhood' anywhere he went (Razali Ismail, 2009, p. 20). Thus, it became more profound when he held the Prime Minister post. Ruhanas Harun (2009, p. 35) stated that Tun Abdullah approach was more on 'a people-based global campaign involving civil society, in support of Palestine'.

Tun Abdullah, in fact, had written 163 letters to the prominent leaders of the world to bring a halt to the Israeli attacks on Gaza in December 2008. For example, firstly, he wrote letters to the Presidents of the UNGA in request to have an Emergency Special Session of UNGA on "Uniting for Peace" Resolution, secondly, he sent letters to the Secretary-General of the UN, thirdly, he also sent a letter to the President of the United State, Barack Obama and last but not least to other

world prominent leaders (Abdul Kadir Mohamad, 2009, p. 18). Moreover, in his letter dated January 22nd, 2008, Tun Abdullah urged the President of the Security Council among others as well too (United Nations, 2008), "Malaysia calls on the international community to force the Israelis to lift the blockade immediately and end the sufferings of the people in Gaza. Malaysia also calls on the Secretary-General to hold an open-ended session of the Security Council to enable other United Nations members to participate in the debate on the grave situation in Gaza." Not only that, he urged the Malaysian Parliament to call for a Special Session to discuss the same issue, a resolution to stop the Israeli attacks on Gaza. Finally, Tun Abdullah managed to convince the UNGA to run the Emergency Special Session to deliberate the Israeli attacks on Gaza. His continued support and struggle on the QOP, indeed, recognized by the UN.

5.4 Dato' Sri Mohammad Najib Abdul Razak Era (2009-2018)

Since Independence in 1957, Malaysia plays a constructive and active role in supporting the Palestinian struggle for nationhood and strive to halt the Israeli occupation on the Palestinian lands. More significantly during the era Dato' Sri Najib Razak, Malaysia won a seat as a nonpermanent member of the UNSC from 2015 to 2016 for the fourth time.

Malaysia played an important role to advocate the rights of the Palestinian people that have been oppressed violently for a long time by the Israeli Authority. As to resume Malaysia's persistent support towards the Palestinians over the Israeli occupation, Malaysia took the opportunity as the non-permanent member of the UNSC to urge the UN members, as well as the UNSC to halt the Israeli settlements over the Palestinian lands. Dato' Sri Najib Razak depicted his robust support to the Palestinian people by visiting Gaza City on January 22, 2013, a day humanitarian trip. He was also fortunate to step foot on the Palestinian lands and was welcomed by Ismail Haniyeh, the Palestine Prime Minister (High Commission of Malaysia in London, 2013).

As a non-permanent member of the UNSC (2015-2016), Malaysia demonstrated her constructive and vital roles in the UNSC, involving a preparation of a draft resolution that requested the Israeli Authority to halt the building of illegal settlement on the Palestinian lands. Ms. Siti Hajjar Adnin, Deputy Permanent Representative of Malaysia to the United Nations, at the Quarterly Open Debate of the United Nations Security Council on the situation in the Middle East (including the Palestinian Question) on April 21, 2015 in New York claimed that, "Malaysia stands ready to play a constructive role in the Council to realize the two-state solution. We reiterate our longstanding support for the inalienable right of self-determination for the Palestinian people, and a just, comprehensive and final solution to the Palestine-Israel conflict." (Permanent Mission of Malaysia to the United Nations, 2015, April 21)

The draft resolution, later known as the Security Council Resolution 2334, was adopted by the Council's members. According to Dato' Sri Najib Razak (Prime Minister Malaysia, 2017), "The adoption of the United Nations Security Council Resolution 2334, which Malaysia co-sponsored on 23 December 2016, marked an important and historic victory for the Palestinian people."

Therefore, the former permanent representative of Malaysia to the United Nations, Datuk Ramlan Ibrahim was thankful to Dato' Sri Najib Razak for his sturdy support in steering the ministry to gain the UNSC agreement to approve the UNSC 2334 Resolution (June Moh, 2017). With the moderation approach, Malaysia succeeded to convince the other 13 members of the UNSC, and the only objection by the United States to agree on the UNSC 2334 Resolution (Ramli H. Nik, 2016). Thus, Malaysia suggested that the UNSC must utilize the 'moderation approach' through negotiation and mediation in resolving any conflicting issues (Wah & Abdul Wahab Jumrah, 2017), instead of applying the aggressive approach that could harm parties who are in conflict. This resolution commanding the Israeli Authority to halt the expansion of the Jews settlements in the Palestinian lands. Regardless that Malaysia has ended her term as the non-permanent member of the UNSC, nevertheless, Malaysia will further endure being constructive and active to strive for the Palestinians survival.

6. CONCLUSION

Malaysia as a small country in the Southeast Asian region evidently plays a constructive and active role in international affairs, particularly towards the Third World countries. Since independence, Malaysia heavily involved in UN peace and security activities such as peacekeeping exercises in Kosovo War, East Timor Crisis, and also in African conflicting countries. Importantly, Malaysia has been elected four times as a non-permanent member of the UNSC (1965, 1989-1990, 1999-2000 and 2015-2016). Although, there are various issues debated in the UNGA, however, the QOP is the dearest to Malaysia's heart. Thus, Malaysia has taken the opportunity as a non-permanent member of the UNSC in 2015-2016 to fight for Palestinian rights and lands from the Israeli Occupying Power. The historic achievement that Malaysia contributed for the Palestinian people was the adoption of the UNSC 2334 Resolution that demanding the Israeli Authority to halt the illegal construction of settlements on the Palestinian lands. The Malaysian campaign on this crucial matter was performed through the moderation approach.

7. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We would wish to thank the Ministry of Higher Education (MoHE) and Research and Innovation Management Centre (RIMC) - UUM for the financial supports through FRGS Grant code S/0 14223.

REFERENCES

[1] Abdullah Ahmad. (2007). Malaysia at the United Nations. In Abdul Razak Abdullah Baginda. (Ed.), Malaysia's foreign policy: Continuity and change. Selangor Darul Ehsan: Marshall Cavendish Editions.

[2] Abdullah Ahmad. (2011). Dr. Mahathir's selected letters to world leaders: Introduction and selected commentaries by Abdullah Ahmad. Vol 1. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish.

[3] Abdul Kadir Mohamad. (2009). Abdullah Ahmad Badawi and Malaysian diplomacy. In Hasmy Agam. (Ed.), Abdullah Haji Ahmad Badawi. (pp. 13-19). Retrieved from https://www.idfr.gov.my/images/stories/publication/2009/tunabdullah.pdf

[4] Ahmad Zahid Hamidi. (2016). Malaysia's policy on counter terrorism and deradicalisation strategy. Journal of Public Security and Safety, 6(2), 1-19.

[5] Aljazeera. (2005, May 20). Israel bars Mahathir from Jerusalem. Retrieved from https://www.aljazeera.com/archive/2005/05/20084914412700566.html

[6] Anidah Robani. (2004). The root of the Palestinian issue and its reflection on the Muslim ummah. TAFHIM: IKIM Journal of Islam and International Affairs, 1(3), 1-18. Retrieved from http:// tafhim. ikim.gov. my/index.php/tafhim/article/view/60/84

[7] Barlow, C. (2001). Modern Malaysia in the global economy. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Pub.

[8] BBC. (2020, August 6). What we know about the Beirut explosion. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-53668493

[9] Berg, B. L. (2001). Qualitative research methods for the social sciences (4th Ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

[10] Dhillon, K. S. (2009). Malaysian foreign policy in the Mahathir era, 1981-2003: Dilemmas of development. Singapore: NUS Press.

[11] GabrieL, P. (2014, October 16). Malaysia wins UN Security Council seat. Retrieved from https://www.thestar.com.my/news/nation/2014/10/16/malaysia-unsc-seat

[ 12] High Commission of Malaysia in London. (2013). PM in Gaza: First Malaysian PM to visit enclave. Retrieved from

https://www. kln.gov. my/documents/34658/271278/Malaysia+News+Bulletin+Issue+1+-+2013.pdf/6e365ad3-5843-4add-b8ce-9271c75a7283?version=1.0

[13] History.com Editors. (2009, November 9). Yom Kippur war. Retrieved from https://www.history.com/topics/middle-east/yom-kippur-war

[ 14] Institute of Diplomacy and Foreign Relations (IDFR). (2007). Editorial note. The Journal of Diplomacy and Foreign Relations, 9(1), 5. Retrieved from

https://www.idfr.gov.my/images/stories/publication/2007/jdfrv9.pdf

[15] June Moh. (2017, January 4). Malaysia's moderate approach was the key to successful lobbying of votes against Israeli settlements, says new foreign ministry sec-Gen. Retrieved from https: / / www. nst. com. my/news/2017/01/201941/ malaysias-moderate-approach-was-key-successful-lobbying-votes-against-israeli

[16] Kulkarni, S. (2020, August 8). Explained: What are the possible causes for the Beirut explosion? Retrieved from https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/beirut-explosion-what-are-its-possible-causes-what-we-know-so-far-6541185/

[ 17] Mahathir Mohamad. (2011). A doctor in the house: The memoirs of tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad. Kuala Lumpur: MPH Publishing.

[18] Miles, M. B., Huberman, P. M., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook. SAGE Publications.

[19] Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Malaysia. (2015). Malaysia at the UNSC. Retrieved from https: / / malaysiaunsc. kln.gov. my/index.php/malaysia-at-the-unsc/malaysia-s-commitment/strengthening-the-un-peacekeeping-operations

[20] Mohamed, A. M. H., Salleh, M. A., Ahmed, A. A., Haron, A. S., & Murshamshul, M. K. (2017). The impact of Malaysian foreign policy on Palestine during Tun Mahathir's era. Pertanika Journal of Social Science and Humanities, 25 (S), 217 - 226.

[21] Ramli H. Nik. (2016, December 31). Nations contribution towards peace, security. New Straits Times. Retrieved from https: / / www. nst. com. my/news/2016/12/200726/nations-contribution-towards-peace-security

[22] Pakistan Defence. (2016, January 3). Palestinian genocide: 5,100,000 Palestinians have been killed since 1948. Retrieved from https://defence.pk/pdf/threads/palestinian-genocide-5-100-000-palestinians-have-been-killed-since-1948.416222/

[23] Permanent Mission of Malaysia to the United Nations. (2015, April 21). Statement by ms. Siti Hajjar Adnin, deputy permanent representative of Malaysia to the United Nations, at the quarterly open debate of the United Nations Security Council on the situation in the Middle East (including the Palestinian question). New York. Retrieved from https://www.un.int/ website: https://www. un. int/malaysia/sites/www. un. int/files/Malaysia/2015-Statements-Security-Council/2015-04-21_-_statement_-_quarterly_open_debate_on_middle_east _palestine-f.pdf

[24] Permanent Mission of Malaysia to the United Nations. (2014, October 7). Statement by h.e. ambassador Hussein Haniff permanent representative of Malaysia to the United Nations on agenda item 107 entitled "Measures to eliminate international terrorism" at the sixth committee of the sixty-ninth session of the United Nations General Assembly. New York. Retrieved from Retrieved from https://www.un.int/ website: https://www. un. int/malaysia/sites/www. un. int/files/Malaysia/69th_session/2014-10-07-_sixth_committee-_108_measures_to_eliminate_international_terrorism-f.pd

[25] Prime Minister Malaysia. (2017). Message of solidarity by the honourable Dato Sri Mohd Najib Tun Abdul Razak Prime Minister of Malaysia on the occasion of the international day of solidarity with the Palestinian people. Retrieved from United Nations website: https://www.un.org/unispal/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Malaysia-Stmt-E.pdf

iНе можете найти то, что вам нужно? Попробуйте сервис подбора литературы.

[26] Rajagopal, M. (2015, June 20). Wasatiyyah rumusan penyelesaian konflik secara aman - Anifah. Retrieved from https://www.bharian.com.my/berita/nasional/2015/06/62371 /wasatiyyah-rumusan-penyelesaian-konflik-secara-aman-anifah

[27] Rajmah Hussain. (2010). Malaysia at the United Nations: A study of foreign policy priorities, 19571987. (2nd ed.). Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaya Press.

[28] Razali Ismail. (2009). The Foreign Minister Oversees. In Hasmy Agam (Ed.), Abdullah Haji Ahmad Badawi. (pp. 20-23). Retrieved from https://www.idfr.gov.my/images/stories/publication/2009/tunabdullah.pdf

[29] Ruhanas Harun. (2009). In pursuit of national interest: Change and continuity in Malaysia's foreign policy towards the Middle East. International Journal of West Asian Studies, 1, 23-38.

[30] Sarsar, S. (2004). The question of Palestine and United States behavior at the United Nations. International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society, 17(3), 457-470. doi:10.1023/b:ijps.0000019613.01593.5e

[31] The New York Times. (1970, October 1). Radhakrishna Ramani, 68, dies; Malaysian ambassador to U.N. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes. com/1970/10/01/archives/radhakrishna-ramani-68-dies-malaysian-ambassador-to-un.html

[32] United Nations. (1983). International Conference on the question of Palestine (ICQP) - Geneva (1983) - Report (7 September 1983). Retrieved from https: / / unispal. un.org/UNISPAL. NSF/0/6F71BD16D6273ABC052565C9005730E6

[33] United Nations. (2020). Countries never elected members. Retrieved from https://www.un.org/securitycouncil/content/countries-never-elected-members-security-council

[34] United Nations. (2008). Annex to the letter dated 22 January 2008 from the Permanent Representative of Malaysia to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security Council. Retrieved from https://www.un.org/unispal/document/auto-insert-183102/

[35] United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). (2020). Background: The question of Palestine. Retrieved from https: / / unctad. org/en/pages/gds/Assistance%20to%20the%20Palestinian%20People / Background-The-question-of-Palestine. aspx

[36] Uras, U., & Najjar, F. (2020, August 9). Clashes in Beirut as anger swells over port blast: Live updates. Retrieved from https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/08/60-missing-beirut-mega-blast-live-updates-200808061240497.html

[37] Wah, Yee Jing and Abdul Wahab Jumrah. (2017). The role of Malaysia in the United Nations Security Council. Current Legal Issues, 1. 1-7.

[38] World Health Organization. (2020, September 10). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) - World Health Organization. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019?gclid=EAIaIQobChMI_8DTqPfd6wIVyyMrCh1higcgEAAYASAAEgKkqfD_BwE

i Надоели баннеры? Вы всегда можете отключить рекламу.