Научная статья на тему 'The concept of advertising as a solution to contradiction between cocial justice and economic efficiency (archetypal approach)'

The concept of advertising as a solution to contradiction between cocial justice and economic efficiency (archetypal approach) Текст научной статьи по специальности «СМИ (медиа) и массовые коммуникации»

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Ключевые слова
Advertising / regulation / advertising activities / archetype / social justice. / реклама / регулирование / рекламная деятельность / ар- хетип / социальная справедливость

Аннотация научной статьи по СМИ (медиа) и массовым коммуникациям, автор научной работы — Serdechna Liudmyla Vasilіvna

The article highlights the role of advertising as a mass communication, features of advertising activity, which is based on the purpose of profit making, contradictions of the concept of advertising. The article describes the influence of advertising on society, the use of archetypes in advertising to solve problems of consumer behavior management, the problems of transformation of mass behavior, cultural and moral values of a society, caused by the influence of advertising from the position of the archetypal approach. The author advocates the need for development of public administration mechanisms in the sphere of advertising with the aim of achieving an equitable correlation of the interests of entrepreneurs, the state and society, taking into account the specifics of advertising activities.

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КОНЦЕПЦИЯ РЕКЛАМЫ КАК РАЗРЕШЕНИЕ ПРОТИВОРЕЧИЯ МЕЖДУ СОЦИАЛЬНОЙ СПРАВЕДЛИВОСТЬЮ И ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКОЙ ЭФФЕКТИВНОСТЬЮ (АРХЕТИПНЫЙ ПОДХОД)

Анализируется роль рекламы как массовой коммуникации, особенности рекламной деятельности, в основе которой лежит цель получения прибыли. Раскрывается влияние рекламы на общество, использование в рекламе архетипики для решения задач по управлению потребительским поведением. Рассматриваются проблемы трансформации массового поведения, культурных и нравственных ценностей общества, обусловленные влиянием рекламы с позиции архетипного подхода. Доказывается необходимость развития механизмов государственного управления в сфере рекламы с целью достижения справедливого соотношения интересов предпринимателей, государства и общества с учетом особенностей рекламной деятельности.

Текст научной работы на тему «The concept of advertising as a solution to contradiction between cocial justice and economic efficiency (archetypal approach)»

UDC: 351.82:659.1-027.21/.22

Serdechna Liudmyla Vasilivna,

PhD of Public Administration, Doctorant, National Academy for Public Administration under the President of Ukraine, Kyiv, Str. Eugene Pottier, 20, tel.: (095) 551 78 85, e-mail: serdechnaya@yandex.ua

ORCID: 0000-0002-4311-3596

Сердечна Людмила BacuMieHa,

кандидат наук з державного управлтня, докторант, Нащональна академiя державного управлтня при Президентовi Украти, м. Кигв, вул. Ежена Потье, 20, тел.: (095) 551 78 85, e-mail: serdechnaya@ yandex.ua

ORCID: 0000-0002-4311-3596

Сердечная Людмила Васильевна,

кандидат наук по государственному управлению, докторант, Национальная академия государственного управления при Президенте Украины, г. Киев, ул. Эжена Потье, 20, тел.: (095) 551 78 85, e-mail: serdechnaya@yandex.ua

ORCID: 0000-0002-4311-3596

THE concept of ADVERTiSiNG AS A SoLuTioN

to contradíctíon between cocíal justíce and economíc effícíency (archetypal approach)

Abstract. The article highlights the role of advertising as a mass communication, features of advertising activity, which is based on the purpose of profit making, contradictions of the concept of advertising. The article describes the influence of advertising on society, the use of archetypes in advertising to solve problems of consumer behavior management, the problems of transformation of mass behavior, cultural and moral values of a society, caused by the influence of advertising from the position of the archetypal approach. The author advocates the need for development of public administration mechanisms in the sphere of advertising with the aim of achieving an equitable correlation of the interests of entrepreneurs, the state and society, taking into account the specifics of advertising activities.

Keywords: Advertising, regulation, advertising activities, archetype, social justice.

КОНЦЕПЦ1Я РЕКЛАМИ ЯК ВИР1ШЕННЯ ПРОТИР1ЧЧЯ М1Ж СОЦ1АЛЬНОЮ СПРАВЕДЛИВ1СТЮ ТА ЕКОНОМ1ЧНОЮ ЕФЕКТИВН1СТЮ (АРХЕТИПНИЙ П1ДХ1Д)

Анотацiя. Аналiзуeться роль реклами як масово! комушкаци, особли-востi рекламно! дiяльностi, в основi яко! лежить метаотримання прибутку. Розкриваеться вплив реклами на суспiльство, питання використання в ре-кламi архетишки для вирiшення завдань щодо управлшня споживчою по-ведiнкою. Розглядаються проблеми трансформаци масово! поведiнки, куль-турних i моральних цiнностей суспiльства, що зумовленi впливом реклами з позици архетипного пiдходу. Доводиться необхiднiсть розвитку механiзмiв державного управлiння у сферi реклами з метою досягнення справедливого сшввщношення iнтересiв пiдприeмцiв, держави i суспiльства з урахуванням особливостей рекламно! дiяльностi.

Ключовi слова: реклама, регулювання, рекламна дiяльнiсть, архетип, со-щальна справедливiсть.

КОНЦЕПЦИЯ РЕКЛАМЫ КАК РАЗРЕШЕНИЕ ПРОТИВОРЕЧИЯ МЕЖДУ СОЦИАЛЬНОЙ СПРАВЕДЛИВОСТЬЮ И ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКОЙ ЭФФЕКТИВНОСТЬЮ (АРХЕТИПНЫЙ ПОДХОД)

Аннотация. Анализируется роль рекламы как массовой коммуникации, особенности рекламной деятельности, в основе которой лежит цель получения прибыли. Раскрывается влияние рекламы на общество, использование в рекламе архетипики для решения задач по управлению потребительским поведением. Рассматриваются проблемы трансформации массового поведения, культурных и нравственных ценностей общества, обусловленные влиянием рекламы с позиции архетипного подхода. Доказывается необходимость развития механизмов государственного управления в сфере рекламы с целью достижения справедливого соотношения интересов предпринимателей, государства и общества с учетом особенностей рекламной деятельности.

Ключевые слова: реклама, регулирование, рекламная деятельность, архетип, социальная справедливость.

Target setting. "Advertising as a litmus test shows many specific and very significant for postmodern era features" — this is how the scholars characterize the role of advertising in the culture of the modern era [9, p. 147]. The technocratic development and progress in communications caused the

rapid development of mass communications, including advertising, which has become also a part of modern mass culture.

Herewith the advertising reflects not only the features of the era, but it also creates them. It is scientifically proven that its impact is not restricted

by the economic sphere, advertising has information, sociological and psychological impact on the people. E. Romat noted that "it is known the action of advertising is implemented by theinflu-ence on human psychology" [13, p. 57]. The influence of advertising caused the transformation of mass behavior, cultural and moral values of the society.

In modern conditions, "when the society becomes information [...] mass consciousness requires the same attention as individual consciousness. For this reason, the problem of developing methods of social control will never leave the stage," — a Ukrainian researcher in the field of communication technologies G. Pocheptsovsaid [8, p. 550]. So the problem of developmen-tof the effective methods of social control is relevant for the management of advertising sphere as mass communication.

But herewith the government regulation of the advertising sector in modern Ukraine has a market economic paradigm. The features of the advertising activity as mass communication determine the necessity of social orientation of regulation,the protection of the public interests.

Advertising as a business in market conditions is directed at the realization of commercial interests of the entrepreneurs. In this case the consumers of advertising act as the objects that is studied properly and at whom the advertising information is directed.

Market relationshipsare built on the pragmatic principles of free enterprise. The peculiarity of the modern state is that demand (consumer behavior) is guided by not only invisible "hand of the market" but a noticeable and per-

sistent advertising hand. The interests of the producers and consumers come into the conflict respectively.

The fair value of the interests of businessmen, state and society can be achieved primarily through the formation of the adequate mechanisms of the state regulation. So the problem of solving the contradiction between the social justice and economic efficiency in state regulation of the relations in the field of advertising is relevant in modern conditions. In particular, this research is an attempt to use the archetypical approach for understanding and the search of ways to solve this problem.

Analysis of recent research and publications. The scientists of different spheres pay attention to advertising research today, it is an object of research of the economists, lawyers, sociologists, cultural scientists, psychologists, experts in management, communications theory, etc. In particular, the sociological analysis of advertising activity is implemented in the works of the domestic authors, N. M. Lycytsa, G. Po-cheptsov, Russian scientists I. Rozhkov, S. G. Kara-Murza, foreign researchers W. Wells, J. Burnet, C. Moriarty. This article is also based on the statements of research of Ukrainian scientist E. V. Romat, authoritative expert in the field of advertising and,in particular, public administration of advertising activity. On analyzing the problems of advertising in the context of archetype, the author refers to the works of scientists of Ukrainian school of arhetyp-ics, E. A. Afonina, O. A. Donchenko, O. V. Sushyi, etc. Paying tribute to the scientific developments of various aspects of the advertising in the works of modern scholars, it should be noted

that the problems of state regulation of advertising as a social phenomenonare not researched enough currently. Moreover, the social value of the researches on the phenomena of manipulation of public consciousness in mass communications is growing, which includes advertising, in particular, the use of archetypal approach. So the attemptof analysis of sociological aspects of the problems of the modern advertising has been made in this study from the position of archetypics.

The purpose of the article. The aim of the article is the analysis of the ratio between social justice and economic efficiency in advertising and ways to resolve the conflict in the state regulation of advertising activities on the basis of the archetypal approach.

The statement of basic materials. The state regulation of advertising in Ukraine is based on its economic functions today. However, advertising on one hand is a developed industry and from the other hand, it is a social institution that has a diverse effect on the society, including destructive.

The theorists allocate social and ethical concepts among modern marketing concepts in marketing communications (that includes advertising). In this study, the term "concept" will be used in the sense of marketing concept as a broader definition, similarly the terms "marketing" and "advertising", "marketing activities" and "advertising activities" will beused.The social and ethical marketing concept has emerged relatively recently, in the second half of 1970... It was formed as a result of increased attention to the environmental problems, resource constraints. The concept is to ensure the needs and in-

terests of the target markets with more effective comparing with competitors means on complying the interests of the consumers and society as a whole.

The traditional concept of marketing activities is aimed at as fully as possible to satisfy the needs and interests of the consumers, in accordance with an increase in the consumption, expansion of the target markets, increasing sales, developing the markets of goods and services. The social and ethical concept is called to solve the problem of adapting marketing activities to the new requirements that are determined by the needs to balance the interests of the society as a whole with the interests of the certain groups of the consumers and the interests of the producers. The traditional marketing concept did not correspond such modern conditions, as limitation of the resources, economic crisis and social problems of the market economy. The social and ethical concept had to respond to challenges of time. But it did not fundamentally change the nature of marketing activities which has basically a consumer nature and it expresses the ideology of consumption. This conflict is relevant to all countries with market economies.

The fact about the activities on the European markets of the companies may be given as an example — the manufacturers of food products, in particular potato chips, soft drinks and also fast food companies. The companies representing world renowned brands position themselves as socially responsible, they support sports, act as partners of the Olympic Games, although this sponsorship is also a marketing means itself. But mass advertising ofgoods and services which are produced or provid-

ed by the companies had serious consequences for the European society, it has become one of the key reasons thatled to spreading such health problems as overweight and obesity. In 2000, at the 55th session of the World Health Assembly, the director of the World Health Organization (WHO) Harlem Brundtlend stated that "marketing approaches are important for public health. They influence the behavior, both ours and especially our children's. Counted to succeed, they have serious consequences for those at who they aimed" [10, p. 132].

In a special study among thereasons of the problem, WHO highlights also-the advertising of unhealthy products, promotion of an unhealthy lifestyle, stimulation ofirrational demandand consumption of food. WHO also recognized a significant role of food advertising that is targeted at the children, in the occurrence and development of this problem among children [10, p. 132164].

The companies that produce more harmful products (alcoholic beverages, beer, tobacco, etc.) also declare the principles of social-ethical marketing, sponsor sports competitions. The manufacturers and distributors of advertising, in their turn, also conform to the modern requirements, develop and implement ethical codes into action, but at the same time advertising of alcohol and tobacco does not promotea healthy lifestyle. Its negative impact on children and teenagers is scientifically proven. As a whole, the advertising directed at children may carry a threat even when it advertises toys. The researchers of archetypal marketing have proven that archetypes in advertising

"have such power which it seems the children are not able to resist" it refers in particular the abnormal popular of a children's toy-doll Barbie, caused also the archetypal form of the product and its advertising [6, p. 324].

The use of the archetypal analysis method reveals the mechanisms of advertising impact of advertising on mass consciousness. As the mentioned of archetypes in advertising has shown, which was made by the American scientists Margaret Mark and Carol S. Pearson, in the modern era "for the first time in human history, the common myths began to take their positions, and the advertising has taken the place ofsacred legends" [6, p. 322]. The scientific works of local scientists also confirm that archetypal approaches and "advertising and PR-technologies use the phenomenology of the irrational" [3, p. 170].

S. G. Kara-Murza notes clearly regarding the advertising that it is a means of influence on the mind and the itsmain sense "lies in manipulation of the consciousness" [4, p. 116].

Marketing and advertising primarily represent the interests of the seller. The consumer interests are taken into account as a factor that in the successful use can help to improve the competitive position and the market development. The consumer character of the marketing activities causes the controversyeven with the interests of the consumer in the long term perspective, more over the interests of society. Eventually, the marketing concept contradicts theconception of sustainable human development, which sense is to limit the consumption of natural resources and stabilization of the current

very high levels of consumption and achieving the goals of social justice.

The goals of social justice in the world of the concept of the sustainable development are definedas a part of common seventeen goals that are formulated by the UNO. There are those ones that meet the content of this research amongthem. They are: responsible consumption and production, reduction of inequalities, partnership for the benefit of sustainable development [17].

It should be noted that in this specific case social justice is understood as a moral category. In outline this complex social and philosophical category expresses the generalized moral evaluation of public relations; compliance various phenomena with understanding of accepted moral principles in the present society. The implementation of the principle of social justice implies the fair distribution of the activities, social benefits, level and quality of life, information and cultural values [14].

According to the theoretical views of J. Rawls, justice is honesty. The society that meets the principles of justice is based on voluntary cooperation with relevant voluntary adoption of voluntary commitments by the members of the society. "One of the features of justice as fairness is that the parties are conceived in the initial situation as rational and uninterested in each other [... ] uninterested in the interests of the others" [11, p. 25]. This implies that members of society have subjectivity. Rawls's views are a theory of consent which declares a contractual approach to the social cooperation. But advertising does not observethese principles. The individuals and society are the

subject of influence in the concept of advertising (marketing) and the social space becomes corporate.

In the era of postmodern the role of advertising is changing: its value increases, advertising space is expanding to global scale. This information function narrows and increases the psychological impact of a mass audience, under which the system of social relations is transformed. The role and influence on global processes of transnational corporations are increasing which actually not only form the market space, but also cultural, turning it into corporate through advertising. It should be noted that multinational companies play an increasing role in the national markets, including the advertising markets. In Ukraine, two thirds of the domestic advertising market belongs to multinational advertising holdings. But at the same time in so-called developed countries, the regulatory mechanisms are formed in the interest of their national and multinational corporations [12, p. 161].

The contemporary French writer M. Welbeck in his essay "The World as a supermarket and a mockery" showed that the global commercialization transforms the social space in the "global supermarket". In such circumstances, people "want more and more [... ] these desires are mostly set from outside — perhaps we can say that they are set by advertising in the broad sense of this word" [7]. A man turns into the receptor of advertising.

A French postmodernist philosopher Jean Baudrillard, exploring the crisis phenomena in the culture of the twentieth century, also noted that in the consumersociety the taskof adver-

tising comes down to the interpretation of desires. The desires materialize in things and things embody the desire and materialize certain functions of public structure. Advertising creates a world in which social problems are solved bythings not people: "Any tension, any individual or collective conflict can be solved with some thing" [2, p. 105]. The separation from social reality and simulation of existence transforms society into social passive mass of consumers, which is operated by the advertisers.

The American social psychologists have formulated a number of universal principles of social influence, which allow advertising people in practice "to manage without motives", "to become a Jedi master of social impact" and others [18, p. 4-5]. Such developments and other materials for guidance in the matters of "management without motives" arebeing developed now more than enough. As for the guides of the opposite direction on "public protection" from the effects of advertising, on the contrary, are not enough, the wishing should carefully collect such information bit by bit.

The education of advertisers provides comprehensive training in various areas, including such specific ones as psycholinguistics, neuromarketing, arhetypics, psychology, including children's (italics author. — L. S.). The experts of the field study the works of physiologists, psychologists, sociologists and others, in particular, in the tutorials on advertising you can find theoretical principles of physiologists J. Ukhtomskyi and I. Pavlov, psychiatrists V. Bekhterev and Carl Jung, without mentioning the scientific prin-

ciples of mass communications, information theory, etc.

The consumers of advertising have no such training and even elementary systematic education on the impact of advertising on mass consciousness, how to protect themselves and to avoid manipulation, knowledge about the harm of information on mental and physical health, how it affects children and teenagers, on public morality and popular culture. So it is natural that in such situation the consumers and society cannot perform asanequal subject of relations in this area, they are the passive object of influence. Advertisers, business, politics (the fact that they perform themselves astheir clients, objects and advertising items influence ontheir position as for advertising) have goals that do not match the public ones. And, most importantly, they have levers of influence on conceptual principles of advertising, the formation of its normative legal regulation, and even organization of its control.

A modern Danish researcher and specialist in the advertising sphere Martyn Lindstromv in his book devoted to neuromarketing appeals to the readers: "Let's face it: we are all con-sumerswith you. And no matter what we buy — a mobile phone, anti-aging cream of Swiss production or a tin of Coca-Cola — shopping is an integral part of our daily life. Every day, dozens and even hundreds of advertisements and market offerings are directed on us. Commercials on television. Billboards on the streets. Advertising banners online. Advertising in shop windows. We are surrounded by brand names everywhere which all regularly brings down their information upon us [... ] The bet-

ter we understand why we become a victim of tricks and fraud of advertisers, the better we can protect ourselves from their attacks" [5, p. 4-5]. So the society must take an active positionas for advertising.

The role of the public in the domestic advertising space is quite modest — it is the passive consumption of advertising and the lack of public activity as for the control of advertising activity. Partly this situation is conditioned by the national traditions and archetypal characteristics. For example, the public (non-profit) organizations carefully monitor both compliance with current legislation for publicity and the advertising content, its compliance withet-hical standards in Western European countries and the US.

Almost in all the developed countries public organizations are an important part of the system of external advertising control, theyfight quite effectively for the rights of the consumers. It should be noted that self-organization of the consumers was promoted by several factors, among which the most important one was the formation of civil society and democratic institutions and also archetypal principles of civil initiatives and activities.

The consumers of advertising in Ukraine which is practically the vast majority of the population, have low social activity, not organized enough, the traditions have not established in the legislation yet, not worked out mechanisms of consumer protection.

The national traditions and archetypal features of Ukrainian society, its tendency to paternalism provide the necessity to reckon with them, the role of public administration, the actions

and responsibility of the state must be adequate to the current state of the society, whilethe foundations of the civil society are being formed. Accordingly, the balance of public interest and corporate interest of advertising business, the protection of social justice should be taken mostly by the state. This view is confirmed in the research of local scientists, particularly in the works of E. Afonin that "contemporary postmodern society, unlike the traditional one, is aimed at the transformation of interaction of the society and the state, which, in its turn, is provided by the creation of new forms of influence on people on state-management processes and respectivelytheir participation in public and political life of society" [1,

p. 5].

Today the problems as for the principles of state policy in the advertising sphere, the effectiveness of state regulation and the system of external control remain unsolved and not enough investigated. It should be noted that the research in this area will certainly promote "archetypal perspective of the visionof problems of the modern state, public administration and public policy", as O. Sushyi determines the matter of the use of methodological principles of arhetypics in the government administration [15, p. 55].

Conclusions. The role of advertising as a mass communication has been studied in the work, the matter ofthe use of arhetypicsto solve the problems concerning the formation of consumer behavior has also been considered. The features of advertising have been analyzed which are based on the goal of getting profit. It is shown that corporate interests of advertising business

through advertising, which forms the culture of consumption in the society, including irrational, contradict with the interests of the society.

Thus, advertising as a sphere of public life requires not only direct action from public administration, but involvement of public in the management, expansion of the sphere of social activity of the population. At the same time, advertising as an object of state administration is not just business, it is also the mass communication which in its turn requires a comprehensive approach to state regulation in this sphere in order to provide balance of the interests of the society and advertising business, rights protection and legal interests of the consumers of advertising. The perspectives for further study are concretization of the directions of decentralization, relations and interaction with the public in the system of public administration of advertising.

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