Научная статья на тему 'The competence-contextual model of education and training in the context of continuous education'

The competence-contextual model of education and training in the context of continuous education Текст научной статьи по специальности «Науки об образовании»

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Ключевые слова
continuous education / invariant education result / competence-contextual learning model

Аннотация научной статьи по наукам об образовании, автор научной работы — Rybakina Natalya Aleksandrovna

This article deals with the issue of implementation of lifelong education ideas, and the necessity of finding a psychological and pedagogical theory relevant to this task. The article reveals the main particularities of the competence-contextual model of learning as a basis of continuous education.

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Текст научной работы на тему «The competence-contextual model of education and training in the context of continuous education»

THE COMPETENCE-CONTEXTUAL

MODEL OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING

IN THE CONTEXT OF CONTINUOUS EDUCATION

N. А. Rybakina

This article deals with the issue of implementation of lifelong education ideas, and the necessity of finding a psychological and pedagogical theory relevant to this task. The article reveals the main particularities of the competence-contextual model of learning as a basis of continuous education.

Key words: continuous education, invariant education result, competence-contextual learning model.

The continuous development of individual potential in the education process, when a new level of its development replaces the previous one, is based on the relative stability of the individual as a qualitatively determined integrity. This raises a question of what can be a “unit” or a “cell” of this development in the system of continuing education, regardless of the level which a person currently occupies within this system. Obviously, such a “unit” should remain unchanged (invariant) when moving along the levels of education. It should be preserved in its various organizational forms and be enriched by a variety of forms, methods, and means of education and self-education. On the basis of the above assumptions [3; 5; 6; 7], a certain invariant result can be a targeted “unit” or a “cell” of the learner’s development in the process of continuous education (hereinafter “CE”); this result preserves its essence when moving along the structures, levels and forms of the continuous education system ( hereinafter “CES”), and ensures the development of a person as a subject of educational activity, regardless of whether he/she is a preschooler, a schoolchild, a student, an Advanced Training Faculty student, or an employee. In general education, the invariant of the result should ensure the development of a student as a subject of cognition, and to a certain extent, as a subject of practical activity, and in vocational training - it should ensure the development of specific labor skills of a student. The invariant of the result of general secondary, vocational and further education, ensuring continuity of personality development in the CE system, can be as follows: a certain competence, contextual and procedural characteristic of the learner’s activity, a certain theoretical construction that makes it possible to define it in relation to the real educational situation at all levels and in all forms of CES [5].

Theoretical analysis shows that the competence as a result of education is an integral aggregate - in fact, a system of cognitive, social and reflective experience that ensures a person's ability to consciously transform reality, based on the ability to establish links between knowledge and situations of its practical actions and deeds. The aforementioned components remain unchanged when a person moves along the CE system, and are the basis of development of a person's ability to find a solution to a problem on the basis of knowledge [3; 5]. It is obvious that the formation of competence as an invariant result of continuous education can not be achieved by means of traditional education, aimed mainly at gaining certain knowledge. Since experience is the result of activity, the formation

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of structural components of a competence (cognitive, social, reflective experience) and their system is only possible by means of appropriate activities. This involves the inclusion of students into the educational space of context type, that ensures the integration of subject, social and reflective components of their learning and cognitive activity [3].

Thus, the contextual learning theory (in reality - education) of A.A. Verbitsky [1; 2; 3; 4 et al.] can become the conceptual basis for the design of theory and practice of continuing education. In contextual education, in the language of science, and with the help of the entire system of forms, methods and means of education, both traditional and new ones, the following is provided: (a) in the learning activities of schoolchildren the consistent modeling of subject, social and reflexive content of activity, which, in combination, provides for the productive solution to problems and tasks of cognitive activity and formation of practical competencies defined by the educational standards [3; 5]; (b) in the learning activities of students consistent modeling of subject and social content of their future professional activity [1; 2].

Principles, organizational, psychological, pedagogical conditions, forms, methods and means of the contextual education are aimed at creating: firstly, competence as an invariant result of education in the learning activity of pupils at the level of general education [3; 5]; secondly, the invariant of professional competence underlying the whole professional activity of future specialists (bachelors, masters), in the learning activities of students of the higher educational institution [1].

The explanatory power of the theory of contextual learning in the formation of a competence as an invariant of continuous education, makes it possible to talk about the possibility of designing a competence-contextual model of training and education. This model, in the context of the new education standards, has become widespread at the level of higher and advanced professional education. Our research shows that it can be successfully implemented at the stage of school education as well [3; 5; 6]. This suggests that the competence-contextual model of training and education, not just in words, but also in reality, could be the basis of continuing education. While designing a competence-contextual model of training and education, we proceeded from the consideration of this as a system based on a set of elements, forming integration. In the series of such interrelated and interdependent components, forming the pedagogical model of competence-contextual training and education in secondary schools, we have identified: the target component, the content-based component, the organizational and procedural components, and result and diagnostic components.

Target component. The purpose of the implementation of the competence-contextual model of training and education at the level of general education is to develop the following complex competence as an invariant that will be needed at the next level of the continuous education system: (a) an understanding of the social values of a person set by the requirements of the federal state standards of general education; (b) the motives and abilities of cognitive activity, and learning skills; (c) knowledge and skills in the subject areas defined by curricula and educational programs; (d) the ability to reflect on one’s own learning, and practical and socio-cultural activities. The cognitive, social and reflective experience gained

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by schoolchildren, which appears to be an integral result of the competence-contextual type of training and education.

Content-based component. In the competence-contextual model of training and education, the content-based and target components act in unity, and reflect the essence of the competence as a general invariant result of continuing education - the ability to use knowledge to solve problems and challenges that arise in both social and professional life. Therefore, the content-based component of the competence-contextual model of training and education should allow the learner to explore the ways of competent action in a particular problematic situation based on knowledge. At the same time, it is not knowledge that is problematized, but rather how to use it and how to communicate with others, which is included into this problematic situation or task. The set of cognitive, social and reflective experiences received in the process of study, becomes a part of the content-based component of the competence-contextual model of education and training which is implemented in this process. A problematic situation of the content-based and communicative nature of integrating scientific knowledge and the context of its practical application and received experience of its solving, serve as a unit of content in the competence-contextual model of training and education.

Organizational and procedural component. The system of pedagogical technologies, adequate to the purposes and the content, (forms, methods and means) that ensure the transformation of educational activity of the academic type into the independent activity of students on solving the tasks and problems of their own activities, form the structure and content of the organizational and procedural component of the competence-contextual model of training and education. The practically implemented project of interrelated activity of the subjects of the educational process [2; 4] is understood to be the pedagogical technology in the competence-contextual model of training and education. Forms of such interaction (individual, in pairs, in groups, collective) are forms of training, whereas methods of training are specific ways of organization in these forms of the activity of a teacher and a pupil, a lecturer and a student. In the competence-contextual model of training and education, the idea of unity of purposes, content, forms and methods of training becomes logically defined. Much has been said about this in the traditional teaching model, but it has not been implemented, because the class-lesson format was pigeon-holed, and was separated from the content.

Result and diagnostic component. Direct quantitative evaluation of the final result of training in the competence-contextual model of training and education -i.e. the evaluation of the level of development of a competence, is not possible, because competence is an ability to use knowledge to solve problems, such as content-procedural characteristics. Therefore, assessment of the level of its formation is carried out indirectly, through the evaluation of the formation of its components: cognitive, social and reflective experience.

Thus, the integration of ideas of contextual education and a competence-based approach have made it possible to develop the competence-contextual model of training and education in secondary schools, as a component of lifelong education. The target component of this model includes the aims and objectives of the formation of a competence as an invariant result of continuous education. The content-based component includes scientific knowledge as an approximate basis

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of the actions and deeds of a schoolchild in a problem-solving situation, as a mechanism of the formation of an invariant of its activities. The organizational and procedural component fixes the forms, methods and means of training to ensure the transformation of the learning activities of students into independent activities, to meet the challenges and tasks. The result and diagnostic component makes it possible to manage the process of interaction of teaching and learning, in order to improve the quality of continuous education.

Bibliograpy

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Translated from Russian by Znanije Central Translastions Bureas

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