Научная статья на тему 'Territorial community development projects: domestic and foreign experiences'

Territorial community development projects: domestic and foreign experiences Текст научной статьи по специальности «Социальная и экономическая география»

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Ключевые слова
territorial community / provision system / development support / participation / involvement / Ukrainian population / територіальна громада / система забезпечення / підтримка розвитку / участь / ступінь залучення / українське населення

Аннотация научной статьи по социальной и экономической географии, автор научной работы — Kartashov Eugene Grigorievich

The role and importance of the participation of the territorial community in the provision system and development support. With this purpose, we examined the concept of participation, typology, and levels of participation. It was found that the participation of the local community is the basis for building a comprehensive system to ensure and support the development of local communities. The basic types of relationships that can be formed in this system: from information to direct participation in the processes of development of territorial communities. We revealed a direct correlation between the participation of the population, namely the inclusion in the system of ensuring and supporting the development of territorial communities, as a direct active par ticipant, and the level of welfare and quality of life of territorial communities in Ukraine. We investigated the possibilities of participation and involvement of the population in the processes of development of territorial communities, for that we analyzed the existing legislative and regulatory framework for this issue and the willingness of the members of territorial communities to be active elements in the system of ensuring and supporting the development of territorial communities. It is revealed that the main types of participation of the population in Ukraine according to the legislation are: the general meeting of citizens by place of residence; local initiatives, public hearing, local referendum. It was found that the presence of these forms of local democracy do not guarantee the active participation of the Ukrainian population in the decision-making processes and monitoring of their implementation through a number of reasons: absence or imperfect development of territorial charters; low level of awareness of the population regarding their rights; a weak inverse relationship between local authorities and population; and low motivation of government authorities to enhance the involvement of members of local communities. We found out that the “ladder of participation” the degree of participation of Ukrainian communities can include such levels as “lack of participation” and “visibility of participation”. It was revealed that there is a need to improve communication networks between local authorities and members of the territorial community for informing, consultation, involvement in decisionmaking and control over their implementation.

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ПРОЕКТИ РОЗВИТКУ ТЕРИТОРІАЛЬНОЇ ГРОМАДИ: ВІТЧИЗНЯНИЙ ТА ЗАРУБІЖНИЙ ДОСВІДИ

У статті проаналізовано роль та значення участі територіальної громади в системі забезпечення і підтримки розвитку. З цією метою вивчено концепцію участі, типологію та рівні участі територіальної громади, що є основою для побудови комплексної системи забезпечення та підтримки розвитку територіальних громад. Виявлено основні види взаємозв’язків, які можуть формуватися в цій системі (від інформаційних до прямої участі у процесах розвитку територіальних громад); пряму залежність між участю населення, а саме включення його в систему забезпечення та підтримки розвитку територіальної громади, як безпосереднього активного учасника, та рівнем добробуту і якістю життя в територіальних громадах в Україні. Досліджено можливості участі та ступінь залучення українського населення до процесів розвитку територіальних громад, проаналізовано існуючу законодавчо-нормативну базу щодо цього питання та готовність членів територіальних громад бути активним елементом в системі забезпечення та підтримки розвитку територіальної громади. Також висвітлено основні види участі населення в Україні згідно із законодавством: загальні збори проживання громадян за місцем проживання; місцеві ініціативи, громадські слухання, місцевий референдум. З’ясовано, що наявність зазначених форм локальної демократії не гарантують активної участі українського населення у процесах прийняття рішень та здійснення контролю за їх виконанням через ряд причин: відсутність або недосконале розроблення територіальних статутів; низький рівень інформованості населення щодо своїх прав; слабкий зворотний зв’язок між органами місцевого самоврядування та населенням; низьку мотивацію органів влади для посилення залучення членів територіальних громад. Досліджено, що ступінь участі українських громад знаходиться на рівні відсутності такої участі або її видимості. Отже, існує необхідність в удосконаленні комунікаційних мереж між органами місцевого самоврядування та членами територіальної громади з питань інформування, консультування, залучення до прийняття рішень та контролю за їх виконанням.

Текст научной работы на тему «Territorial community development projects: domestic and foreign experiences»

UDC: 354:331.5

Kartashov Eugene Grigorievich,

Doctor of science in Public Administration, Head of the Department of Project Management and General Professional Disciplines, Institute of Management and Psychology of the National Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine, 04053, Kiev, Str. Sicho-vykh Streltsiv, 52-a, tel.: (067) 614 23 53, e-mail: yevgenkartashov@gmail.com

ORCID: 0000-0001-6522-5508

Карташов €вген Григорович,

доктор наук з державного управлтня, завiдувач кафедри управлтня проектами та загальнофахових дисциплт, 1нститут менеджменту та психологи Нацюнальног академи пвдагоггчних наук Украти, 04053, Кшв, вул. Сгчових Стршьщв, 52-А, тел.: (067) 614 23 53, e-mail: yevgenkartashov@gmail.com

ORCID: 0000-0001-6522-5508

Карташов Евгений Григорьевич,

доктор наук по государственному управлению, заведующий кафедрой управления проектами и общепрофессиональных дисциплин, Институт менеджмента и психологии Национальной академии педагогических наук Украины, 04053, Киев, ул. Сечевых Стрельцов, 52-а, тел.: (067) 614 23 53, e-mail:yevgenkartashov@gmail.com

ORCID: 0000-0001-6522-5508

TERRITORIAL COMMUNiTY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS: domestic and foreign

experiences

Abstract. The role and importance of the participation of the territorial community in the provision system and development support. With this purpose, we examined the concept of participation, typology, and levels of participation. It was found that the participation of the local community is the basis for building a comprehensive system to ensure and support the development of local communities. The basic types of relationships that can be formed in this system: from information to direct participation in the processes of development of territorial communities. We revealed a direct correlation between the participation of the population, namely the inclusion in the system of ensuring and supporting the development of territorial communities, as a direct active par-

ticipant, and the level of welfare and quality of life of territorial communities in Ukraine.

We investigated the possibilities of participation and involvement of the population in the processes of development of territorial communities, for that we analyzed the existing legislative and regulatory framework for this issue and the willingness of the members of territorial communities to be active elements in the system of ensuring and supporting the development of territorial communities. It is revealed that the main types of participation of the population in Ukraine according to the legislation are: the general meeting of citizens by place of residence; local initiatives, public hearing, local referendum. It was found that the presence of these forms of local democracy do not guarantee the active participation of the Ukrainian population in the decision-making processes and monitoring of their implementation through a number of reasons: absence or imperfect development of territorial charters; low level of awareness of the population regarding their rights; a weak inverse relationship between local authorities and population; and low motivation of government authorities to enhance the involvement of members of local communities. We found out that the "ladder of participation" the degree of participation of Ukrainian communities can include such levels as "lack of participation" and "visibility of participation". It was revealed that there is a need to improve communication networks between local authorities and members of the territorial community for informing, consultation, involvement in decision-making and control over their implementation.

Keywords: territorial community, provision system, development support, participation, involvement, Ukrainian population.

ПРОЕКТИ РОЗВИТКУ ТЕРИТОР1АЛЬНО1 ГРОМАДИ: В1ТЧИЗНЯНИЙ ТА ЗАРУБ1ЖНИЙ ДОСВ1ДИ

Анотащя. У статт проаналiзовано роль та значення учасп територiальноï громади в CTcreMi забезпечення i шдтримки розвитку. З щею метою вивчено концепцш учасп, типолопю та рiвнi учасп територiальноï громади, що е основою для побудови комплексно!' системи забезпечення та шдтримки розвитку територiальних громад. Виявлено основш види взаемозв'язюв, яю можуть формуватися в цш системi (вщ шформацшних до прямо!' учасп у процесах розвитку територiальних громад); пряму залежшсть мiж участю населення, а саме включення його в систему забезпечення та шдтримки розвитку тери-торiальноï громади, як безпосереднього активного учасника, та рiвнем добро-буту i яюстю життя в територiальних громадах в Укршш.

Дослщжено можливосп учасп та стутнь залучення украшського населення до процеав розвитку територiальних громад, проаналiзовано юную-чу законодавчо-нормативну базу щодо цього питання та готовшсть члешв територiальних громад бути активним елементом в системi забезпечення та шдтримки розвитку територiальноï громади. Також висвплено основнi види участi населення в Укршш згiдно iз законодавством: загальш збори прожи-вання громадян за мюцем проживання; мiсцевi iнiцiативи, громадськ слу-

хання, мюцевий референдум. З'ясовано, що наявшсть зазначених форм локально! демократа не гарантують активно! участi укра!нського населення у процесах прийняття ршень та здiйснення контролю за !х виконанням через ряд причин: вщсутшсть або недосконале розроблення територiальних стату-тiв; низький рiвень iнформованостi населення щодо сво!х прав; слабкий зво-ротний зв'язок мiж органами мюцевого самоврядування та населенням; низь-ку мотивацш органiв влади для посилення залучення члешв територiальних громад. Дослщжено, що ступiнь участi укра!нських громад знаходиться на рiвнi вiдсутностi тако! участi або !! видимостi. Отже, юнуе необхiднiсть в удо-сконаленш комунiкацiйних мереж мiж органами мюцевого самоврядування та членами територiально! громади з питань шформування, консультування, залучення до прийняття ршень та контролю за !х виконанням.

Ключовi слова: територiальна громада, система забезпечення, шдтримка розвитку, участь, ступiнь залучення, укра!нське населення.

ПРОЕКТЫ РАЗВИТИЯ ТЕРРИТОРИАЛЬНЫХ ОБЩИН: ОТЕЧЕСТВЕННЫЙ И ЗАРУБЕЖНЫЙ ОПЫТ

Аннотация. В статье проанализирована роль и значение участия территориальной общины в системе обеспечения и поддержки развития. С этой целью изучено концепцию, типологию и уровень участия территориальной общины, что является основой для построения комплексной системы обеспечения и поддержки развития территориальных общин. Определены: основные виды взаимосвязей, которые могут формироваться в данной системе (от информационных до прямого участия в процессах развития территориальных общин); прямая зависимость между участием населения, а именно включение его в систему обеспечения и поддержки развития территориальной общины, как непосредственного активного участника, и уровнем благосостояния и качества жизни в территориальных общинах в Украине.

Исследованы возможности участия и степень привлечения украинского населения к процессам развития территориальных общин, проанализированы существующая законодательно-нормативная база по этому вопросу и готовность членов территориальных общин быть активным элементом в системе обеспечения и поддержки развития территориальной общины. Также освещены основные виды участия населения в Украине в соответствии с законодательством: общее собрание проживания граждан по месту жительства; местные инициативы, общественные слушания, местный референдум. Установлено, что наличие указанных форм локальной демократии не гарантируют активного участия украинского населения в процессах принятия решений и контроля за их выполнением по ряду причин: отсутствие или несовершенную разработку территориальных уставов; низкий уровень информированности населения о своих правах; слабая обратная связь между органами местного самоуправления и населением; низкая мотивация органов власти для усиления привлечения членов территориальных общин. Доказано, что степень участия украинских общин находится на уровне

отсутствия такого участия или его видимости. Таким образом, существует необходимость в совершенствовании коммуникационных сетей между органами местного самоуправления и членами территориальной общины по вопросам информирования, консультирования, привлечения к принятию решений и контроля за их выполнением.

Ключевые слова: территориальная община, система обеспечения, поддержка развития, участие, степень вовлечения, украинское население.

Target setting. The need to involve territorial communities to economic and social development of our country depends on the transformation of its socio-economic system and the transition from industrial to information society. The decision of problems of employment and improving the welfare and quality of life of the population of Ukraine will ensure the high effectiveness of this approach.

The main socio-economic indicators that characterize the state of development of Ukraine (unemployment, income per capita, the investment and innovative activity, etc.), show that Ukraine requires immediate rethinking of approaches to economic development, which today can be characterized by a relatively high centralization in decision-making regarding solutions of local problems.

Analysis of recent researches and publications. Problems of development of territorial communities both in our country and abroad are studied by many sociologists, economists, political scientists, specialists of public administration. Among foreign scientists, who investigated problems of economic development of territorial commu-nities,weshouldhighlight:M.Diochona, M. Conn, L. Lamb, J. Lochley, M. Rose-

land, M. Towe, John.-M. Fomtena, P. Hamel, G. Haughton, E. Schrage and others. The provision and support of local economic development were researched by E. Blakely, R. Bingham, G. Miller and others. F. Bir, G. Greene, L. Cary, G. Pitman, I. Sanders, H. Swa-nepoel, G. Phillips. Topical issues of development of territorial communities are explored by such Russian scientists as V. Babaev, A. Batanov, P. Bilenchuk, R. Brusac, V. Voronkova, A. Goshko, G. Drobenko, V. Campo, I. Kozyura, V. Kuibida, A. Lazor, V. Mamonova, N. Arlati, I. Sanzharovsky, Y. Svirsky, and others.

Problems of regional and local development are analyzed by E. Voito-vich, B. Danylyshyn, A. Dehtoar, Yu. Dechtiarenko, O. Kilievich, V. Knia-zev, V. Kravchenko, Yu. Kuts, M. Lend-yel, S. Maksimenko, N. Nizhnik N. Pu-khtynskiy, S. Romanyuk, V. Semi-nozhenko and A. Topchiev.

However, the issues of the role and importance of participation of territorial community in the support system and development support are still insufficiently explored. The problems of participation and the degree of involvement of the population in the processes of development of territorial community require further development.

Statement of objectives (purpose) of the article. The purpose of this article is to develop theoretical foundations and practical approaches to improving the mechanisms of development of territorial communities.

The statement of basic materials. The importance of the principle of participation in the development process of the local community was noted by a number of major international organizations in providing international support. The practice of financing various projects for the development of society has shown that outside interference in the lives of the population without the active involvement of the latter leads to reduction of the effectiveness of these projects. According to this World Bank defined the basic criterion of development — development which is organized according to the "principle of participation". The Bank considers "participation as a process through which stakeholders influence initiatives in the development and exercise over them joint control, and participate in decision-making and allocation of resources" [1, p. 177-178].

Among the main elements of the development paradigm, which OECD has identified for its activities, "placing people at the centre of development" [2] is the key one.

The level of participation and partnership between local authorities and society may differ significantly in a particular community. The way community members participate in the local development process depends on many factors. Among them we can mention the influence of national political, economic and social trends; the resource potential of the community (especially

the development of social capital), culture and traditions; the level of institutional development, the balance of power necessary in society and the like. According to these factors we can distinguish various types of participation, levels of participation, and the methods of attracting people to the development of the local community [3].

Ilchenko N. V. identifies three types of participation of local communities and individuals:

• physical participation — i. e., the physical presence, the use of the skills and efforts of a particular person;

• mental participation — conceptualizing the activity, decision-making, organization and management;

• emotional involvement — accepting responsibility and power [3].

We believe that the combination of these three elements can provide a real participation in the development of the territorial community.

One of the approaches which you one use to demonstrate the level of participation is "ladder", which was proposed by D. Wilcox, and which is used to develop methods of attracting society [4].

The scholar distinguishes between three levels of community participation:

• lack of participation;

• visibility participation;

• the power of the community.

The concept of lack of participation

means nothing, as the absence of direct influence of society on its development. On this level there are such levels as manipulation and therapy. The main objective of the participation at these levels is to achieve public support.

At the second level of involvement of the community, "visibility", it deals

with approaches such as information, advice and reassurance. Awareness is a crucial step to legitimate participation. Quite often the information is biased and there are no channels of "feedback". At the stage of counseling, this relationship appears, there is a public opinion poll, conducted public meetings and consultations. At the stage of calm, the citizens are allowed to provide advice or plan for a certain period, but the authorities reserve the right to make decisions.

Finally, the third level of participation, "the power of community", the influence of the community in the way of problems and solutions is real and systemic. In this situation, the community becomes a full partner of the government. Here the scientist selects three levels of the ladder: partnership, where power is redistributed through negotiation between citizens and authorities (stakeholders), planning and decision-making occur together (through joint committees); delegated powers — the approach requires the active participation of the citizens for whom they hold a majority of seats in the committees and for which they are delegated by the society to decision-making; control from the public: citizens are in control of the planning process, policy development and leadership program. If you perform these levels, we see that social power begins to manifest itself at the two highest levels.

Another classification of types of participation was proposed by UNDP. According to it society's involvement in the process of its development can be divided into 7 types:

1. Passive participation. Participation is limited to the fact they receive

information about events that occur or will occur in society, then there is a one-way information sharing.

2. Participation in providing information. Community members participate in informative surveys but do not have the opportunity to influence the development process itself.

3. Participation by expression of opinion. At this level, the authorities consult with the population on a specific issue that exists in the community, but community members do not participate in decision-making.

4. Participation through material incentives. People provide resources, for example labour, in return for money or other material incentives. This is often called participation, although these people are not interested in continuing their activities after the completion of material incentives.

5. Functional participation. At this level, initiative groups are created for achieving individual goals associated with the project development. These groups, usually created on the initiative from the outside.

6. Joint participation. Members of the community participate in joint analysis, which leads to the formulation of plans of activities and the creation of new local institutions or strengthening existing ones. Groups in control of local decisions are created.

7. Self mobilization. People participate in the development process, putting forward initiatives independent of external institutions [5].

Similar to the previous classification of the levels of participation David Wilcox suggested another one, which consists of five levels: information, consultation, joint decision making, joint

action and support of independent actions of the public [5].

The need to discern the level of community participation in development is that approaches to involvement of various interested persons and groups to specific processes of community development should be different. This is because in the community there are a large number of stakeholders: governments and local authorities, business, NGOs, consumers, financial institutions, educational institutions, and the like. Each of these groups has a different degree of interest and level of motivation to be involved in a specific project for the development of territorial communities. In general there are 3 categories of stakeholders:

• key stakeholders are those who influence, or who might significantly affect the effectiveness of implementing a specific development project;

• primary stakeholders are those persons, groups of persons or organizations that are somehow felt the impact of a project (positive or negative);

• secondary stakeholders include all

other persons or institutions that may have indirect interest in the project or a role in its development and implementation [6].

According to the selected categories of stakeholders different types of attraction may be applies. For example, the first and second categories of persons can be involved in the decision-making and cooperation; the third category may be informed, consulted with or even, in some cases, ignored.

Consequently, the development of an effective system of attracting people

to the development of the territorial community includes analysis of stakeholders, assessment of the impact and importance of each of these regions for the process.

Another important aspect that needs to be examined in the process of attracting citizens to actively participate in solving local problems is the motivation for attraction. An important task of authorities and local self-government is to shape the motivational factors and clear evaluation criteria of the results to the process participants were able to see the personal contribution to and benefit from participation in the process [3].

The dilemma experts in the field of development of territorial community development face is to understand how people assess emotional incentives to participate in collective efforts without prior coercion [1].

Moreover, participation among individuals is higher if the promised benefits are not only attractive, but also have a high likelihood that they actually will be provided. And if the direct costs or costs in the form of lost time do not reduce these benefits too much. The result is multiplied by the degree of risk the individual is willing to accept, taking part in a particular activity.

To ensure that participation takes place in a sustainable way, each community member must perform this equation for oneself. Mobilizing for action should be based on the so-called "internal stimuli" of people and should not be imposed from outside.

According to this, "it is a continuous process of education, a process of gradual awareness. Through the col-

lective realization of the experience and problems, people become better aware of different dimensions of their reality and those aspects that they are able to change about it. With this awareness they can make decisions and implement collective activities and analyzing them for further deepening of their awareness. In this way they move toward the goal, gradually deepening knowledge of their reality, which is continuously changing" [1, p. 178].

We will conduct a study of the forms of public participation depending on the method by which the citizen can enter into an open public space and the influence on the final decision, and which are widely used in foreign practice. From this point of view they are:

• open public debate;

• public participation in decision-making;

• organization of communities [7, p. 193-208].

Open discussion. Public debate refers to the discussion of citizens in the society that provides psychologically safe environment to express their own views, attitudes, opinions, including the space in which those views will be heard.

The purpose of open debate is not the adoption of a common solution, but rather a process that can bring understanding and change attitudes of participants.

Dukes identifies the following situations where it is advisable to use the method of open discussion:

• to educate the parties who take part and/or the general public on the issue, which is the subject of discussions, or such. That is connected with making a public decision;

• to "open" public interest, that is, to provide an opportunity for those decision makers and the public understand what is in this issue of public interest and what is not;

• to raise the level of awareness and understanding of specific groups of the population in the area that plays an important role in public policy;

• to provide an opportunity for all parties to understand that even the most controversial questions can lead the discussion;

• to reduce the risk of violent confrontation;

• to prepare public support for the decisions to be taken in the future [8].

In practice, there is a variety of tools of the open discussion, which we can divide into two groups:

1. The individual tools. These tools are aimed at learning the perspectives, knowledge and awareness of citizens on certain issues. These individual tools may include:

• individual reception of citizens in bodies of local self-government;

• receiving complaints and suggestions from citizens;

• individual interviews of various types with the aim of exploring the views of individual citizens.

2. The group tools. They are used for group education and public involvement. These include:

• public hearings, which are used by local governments to collect citizens' proposals early in the decision-making;

• focus groups — interviews with a small representative group of the population concerning a certain issue;

• educational groups;

• dialogues, discussions, round tables, forums, aimed at finding common interests;

• public jury, and the like.

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Public debate is an integral part of public involvement in the development of local policy and strategic planning community development. Based on the results that were obtained in the process of gathering information from citizens, a profile of the community is compiled, which is the starting point for subsequent development processes.

Public participation in decision-making. The following method of entering of citizens in public space is their participation in making public decisions. Practice proves that the level and types of public participation decision-making processes to a large extent depends on the authorities and local self-government.

The organization of the community. Organization of communities is significantly different from other types of public involvement. This technique can use activists, formal and informal groups of citizens if the local authorities and the government refuse to debate with the public. With the aim of empowering and increasing the power of the local population in the decision of problems, one needs to create a "critical mass", which is to balance the authority of formal leaders.

The main types of social organization can include:

• creating if coalitions when certain organizations combine their efforts to solve a specific problem;

• organization of the local population, which may begin with informal meetings with small groups and turn

to the formalization of this group in a public organization;

• organization of communities with the aim of solving consumer issues such as consumer rights, problems of tenants of residential buildings;

• organization of community based on identity;

• the organization of trade unions and collective bargaining.

The participation of citizens in making public decisions can be perceived in two different ways: utilitarian and estimated. If the participatory process is considered to be utilitarian, the participation of citizens represents only a formal act claims, and means to reduce the social, economic, environmental, and other problems. In this case, the effect of the participation of citizens is minimal, such that restricted to individual decisions.

In the case of the estimated approach, the participation of citizens is i an obligatory part of civil society in a democratic country where citizens have space to participate in public policy. This approach requires the transformation of making public decisions that should be directed to such core areas: society, social control and conflict resolution (Dukes). He formulates the transformation, which is necessary for the consolidation of democracy in each of the three areas, in the following way:

• cities, districts and municipalities should become active communities in which encourage the initiative of citizens (first of all, local leaders and NGOs) in resolving public issues;

• public administration should be more open and responsive to the views and needs of citizens;

• more and more people from all three sectors need to understand the principles of conflict resolution and own their solutions [8].

Public involvement in development processes and decision-making concerning the life of the local community, is one of the fundamental principles of democracy and civil society development. The overall goal of public involvement is the establishment of a trusting relationship between the territorial community and local authorities to increase mutual accountability, improve transparency of decision-making power and local self-government development. The experience of developed democratic countries shows that the strengthening of the role of citizens in addressing the needs of society and improving the living standards of the local population is an important element in the development of local self-government.

Conclusions. So, the analysis of the role and importance of public participation in the development of the territorial community showed that participation, from the point of view of foreign scholars and scientists, plays a key role in the development process.

In addition, this analysis allowed us to identify the different types of relationships that can be formed in the system of ensuring and supporting the development of territorial communities: from information to direct participation in the development process.

Studies of the importance of involving the population of a territorial community to solve the own problems in the Ukrainian community showed that there is a direct correlation between the fact that:

• different social problems are in discussed the community in a civil way;

• the Council represents the interests of different groups in society;

• citizens and local authorities are conducting an active dialogue and the government invites citizens to make decisions;

• during the decision-making process the community takes into account the views of different population groups;

• citizens' initiatives are valued and encouraged such and due the fact that:

- people are loyal to their community;

- community is a safe place to stay;

- various issues related to environmental protection, work with vulnerable and marginalized groups in the field of health are resolved;

- most people consider themselves happy;

- the inhabitants are proud of their community and the like.

That is, there is a direct relationship between participation of the population, namely its inclusion in the system of ensuring and supporting the development of territorial communities, as a direct participant, and the level of welfare and quality of life in the community.

This confirms the need to strengthen public participation in decision-making processes and control over their implementation, and development of adequate measures and tools for the involvement in this process in Ukraine.

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СПИСОК ВИКОРИСТАНИХ ДЖЕРЕЛ -

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