Научная статья на тему 'Specifications of ecological and economic development of the agricultural sector of Ukraine'

Specifications of ecological and economic development of the agricultural sector of Ukraine Текст научной статьи по специальности «Социальная и экономическая география»

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agrarian sector / agrarian system / public administration / market regulation / agrarian production / plant growing

Аннотация научной статьи по социальной и экономической географии, автор научной работы — Viktor Meglei

The subject of the author’s research is the processes of development of the agrarian sector of Ukrainian economy by ecological-economic specifications. The methodological justification is based on the use of fundamental principles that reflect the main strategies of agrarian development. The systematic approach to the characteristics of the agrarian system, complex by the structure and functional parameters in interaction with the external environment, is applied. Methods of analysis/synthesis are used for the disclosure of the integral nature of the agrarian environment in the context of management of the main processes. The purpose of the author’s research suggests a consideration of the processes of formation of the agrarian system by economic and environmental interactions as modern dominant in the development of the agrarian sector of Ukraine. The analysis of integral components of agrarian development with the reflection of interactions of the sphere of agrarian production and agrarian relations is carried out. The emphasis is made on the importance of the formation of an effective and promising domestic agricultural policy, in the basis of which is the activation of entrepreneurial initiatives, comprehensive development of the agrarian community, ecologically and socially oriented projects of reproduction of rural territories, innovative strategies of ecological and economic ascension of agriculture in Ukraine. The resource base is considered as the economic basis of agriculture from the standpoint of the main sales markets, the state of transport infrastructure, the growth of world and domestic demand for agrarian raw materials and finished products, and the availability of relatively cheap labour resources. The agrarian production is analysed from ecological positions and influences of natural and climatic factors. The state of individual agro-ecological mismatches in agriculture of Ukraine is explained, as well as the reasons of polluting impacts on the main natural spheres and some other unfavourable environmental actions. An attention is focused on the importance of reproduction of the Ukrainian agrarian sector on the basis of the adjustment of the system of state regulation and on the definition of the coordination mechanisms between the sphere of influence of the state and market elements of the national agrarian economy. The motivational goals, operating target facilities, main directions of administrative tasks for the development of the state regulation system based on economic and environmental criteria are substantiated. The importance of managerial approaches in the system of state regulation of the development of domestic agricultural production on the example of plant growing is specified. The dependency between the production of crops by gross collection, yield, and annual needs of the country are analysed, in particular, by the food and export potential of individual plant crops, etc. The analysis of the most important strategic positions for the development of the domestic agricultural sector in the system of state regulation of Ukraine for the near future is carried out. Corresponding conclusions to the author’s research are made, reflecting the analysed specifications of development of the agrarian sector of Ukrainian economy by ecological and economic indicators. At the same time, modern for Ukraine approaches are proposed in the field of agricultural management, as well as new regulatory accents to stimulate agrarian development in specific areas.

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СПЕЦИФИКАЦИИ ЭКОЛОГО-ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКОГО РАЗВИТИЯ АГРАРНОГО СЕКТОРА УКРАИНЫ

Предметом выполненного авторского исследования являются процессы развития аграрного сектора экономики Украины по эколого-экономическим спецификациями. Методологическое обоснование проведено на основе использования фундаментальных принципов, отражающих основные стратегии аграрного развития. Применен системный подход к характеристике аграрной системы как сложной по структуре и функциональным параметрам во взаимодействии с внешней средой. Использованы методы анализа/синтеза для раскрытия интегральной сущности аграрной среды в разрезе управления основными процессами. На основе цели авторского исследования конкретизировано рассмотрение процессов формирования аграрной системы за экономическими и экологическими взаимодействиями как современными доминантами развития аграрного сектора Украины. Проведен анализ интегральных составляющих аграрного развития с отображением взаимодействий сферы аграрного производства и аграрных отношений. Акцентировано внимание на важности формирования действенной, перспективной отечественной аграрной политики, в основе которой – активизация предпринимательских инициатив, всестороннее развитие аграрного сообщества, экологически и социально ориентированные проекты воспроизведения сельских территорий, инновационные стратегии эколого-экономического подъема сельского хозяйства Украины. Рассмотрено ресурсную базу как экономическую основу сельского хозяйства с позиций основных рынков сбыта, состояния транспортной инфраструктуры, роста мирового и внутреннего спроса на аграрное сырье и готовую продукцию, наличия сравнительно дешевых трудовых ресурсов. Проанализировано аграрное производство с экологических позиций, воздействий природноклиматических факторов. Объяснено состояние отдельных агроэкологических несоответствий в сельском хозяйствовании Украины, причины загрязняющих воздействий на основные природные сферы и некоторые другие неблагоприятные экологические действия. Сконцентрировано внимание к важности воспроизведения аграрного сектора Украины на основе отладки системы государственного регулирования, определения согласовательных механизмов между сферой влияния государства и рыночными элементами национальной аграрной экономики. Обоснованно мотивационные цели, действующие целевые установки, основные направления управленческих задач к развитию системы государственного регулирования по экономическим и экологическим критериям. Конкретизировано значение управленческих подходов в системе государственного регулирования развития отечественного аграрного производства на примере растениеводства. Проанализированы зависимости между производством сельскохозяйственных культур по валовым сборам, урожайностью и ежегодными потребностями страны, в частности продовольственными, экспортным потенциалом отдельных растительных культур и тому подобное. Выполнен анализ наиболее важных стратегических позиций к развитию отечественного аграрного сектора в системе государственного регулирования Украины на ближайшую перспективу. Сделаны соответствующие выводы к авторскому исследованию, одновременно предложено современные для Украины подходы в области управления сельским хозяйством, новые регуляторные акценты к стимулированию аграрного развития по конкретным направлениям.

Текст научной работы на тему «Specifications of ecological and economic development of the agricultural sector of Ukraine»

SPECIFICATIONS OF ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR OF UKRAINE

Viktor MEGLEI1

Yuriy Fedkovych Chernivtsi National University, Ukraine

Abstract. The subject of the author's research is the processes of development of the agrarian sector of Ukrainian economy by ecological-economic specifications. The methodological justification is based on the use of fundamental principles that reflect the main strategies of agrarian development. The systematic approach to the characteristics of the agrarian system, complex by the structure and functional parameters in interaction with the external environment, is applied. Methods of analysis/synthesis are used for the disclosure of the integral nature of the agrarian environment in the context of management of the main processes. The purpose of the author's research suggests a consideration of the processes of formation of the agrarian system by economic and environmental interactions as modern dominant in the development of the agrarian sector of Ukraine. The analysis of integral components of agrarian development with the reflection of interactions of the sphere of agrarian production and agrarian relations is carried out. The emphasis is made on the importance of the formation of an effective and promising domestic agricultural policy, in the basis of which is the activation of entrepreneurial initiatives, comprehensive development of the agrarian community, ecologically and socially oriented projects of reproduction of rural territories, innovative strategies of ecological and economic ascension of agriculture in Ukraine. The resource base is considered as the economic basis of agriculture from the standpoint of the main sales markets, the state of transport infrastructure, the growth of world and domestic demand for agrarian raw materials and finished products, and the availability of relatively cheap labour resources. The agrarian production is analysed from ecological positions and influences of natural and climatic factors. The state of individual agro-ecological mismatches in agriculture of Ukraine is explained, as well as the reasons of polluting impacts on the main natural spheres and some other unfavourable environmental actions. An attention is focused on the importance of reproduction of the Ukrainian agrarian sector on the basis of the adjustment of the system of state regulation and on the definition of the coordination mechanisms between the sphere of influence of the state and market elements of the national agrarian economy. The motivational goals, operating target facilities, main directions of administrative tasks for the development of the state regulation system based on economic and environmental criteria are substantiated. The importance of managerial approaches in the system of state regulation of the development of domestic agricultural production on the example of plant growing is specified. The dependency between the production of crops by gross collection, yield, and annual needs of the country are analysed, in particular, by the food and export potential of individual plant crops, etc. The analysis of the most important strategic positions for the development of the domestic agricultural sector in the system of state regulation of Ukraine for the near future is carried out. Corresponding conclusions to the author's research are made, reflecting the analysed specifications of development of the agrarian sector of Ukrainian economy by ecological and economic indicators. At the same time, modern for Ukraine approaches are proposed in the field of agricultural management, as well as new regulatory accents to stimulate agrarian development in specific areas.

Key words: agrarian sector, agrarian system, public administration, market regulation, agrarian production, plant growing.

JEL Classification: Q10, Q18, Q58

1. Introduction

The dominance of the agrarian environment, as typical for the Ukrainian economy, is traditional and remains the same for the near future. This is explained by the historically long-standing culture of farming in

Ukraine, as well as by favourable natural and climatic conditions for the extension of the agrarian economy in various fields, a fairly high proportion of the population involved in the sphere of agrarian relations, significant entrepreneurial initiatives, that are related with agrarian

Corresponding author:

1 Department of Enterprise Economics and Human Resource Management, Yuriy Fedkovych Chernivtsi National University. E-mail: viktormeglei@gmail.com

production, trade of agricultural products, rural development, green/agrarian tourism, etc.

The agrarian sector (as an important component in economic, ecological, and social terms) plays a significant role in the development of Ukraine's national economy in present market conditions. The agrarian sector performs a number of important macro- and micro-economic functions; in particular, these are ensuring of food security of the country, providing processing industries with raw materials, creating economically justified volumes of export revenues, employment of rural residents, etc. At present, the structure of domestic agricultural production by the subjects of economic activity is changing positively - the share of agricultural enterprises is increasing rapidly, ahead of the growth of households. These components outline the typical situation in the agrarian environment of Ukraine, which can be used as a basis for the reproduction at a new market level - structural, functional, communicative.

Along with significant opportunities, the agrarian sector of Ukraine needs radical changes in the management of the main processes that determine development. First of all, it is refers to the importance of an effective combination ofeconomic and environmental instruments, the formulation of progressive goals and the renewal of agrarian business motivation, as well as the adoption of effective solutions, in particular, taking into account international experience. Therefore, it is important to conduct scientific and methodological researches, which are aimed at the disclosure of mechanisms for the development of the domestic agricultural sector and the direction of its reproduction in the context of modern globalization canons.

The purpose of the study is to consider the processes of formation of modern agrarian system based on economic and environmental interactions as modern dominants, as well as to analyse the existing specifications of the development of Ukrainian agrarian sector and to determine the prospects of domestic agrarian economy in the context of sustainable development as a target model.

Implementation of the target objects of the author's research is made in accordance with the specification of the research tasks; in particular, the focus is made on the following components:

- to analyse the integral components of the development of the domestic agrarian sector;

- to substantiate the expediency of the system of state regulation of the agrarian sector by motivational purposes and ecological-economic tasks and their specification in the field of plant growing of Ukraine;

- to define the coordination mechanisms between the sphere of influence of the state and market elements of the agrarian economy of Ukraine;

- to note the prospects of ecological and economic changes in the domestic agrarian economy.

The methodology of the author's research is based on the use of fundamental principles that are defining the

main strategies for the development of the Ukrainian agrarian sector, as well as principles that find their implementation in the field of agrarian ecological and economic interactions. Methodological substantiation of the specifications of reproduction of the agrarian sector by economic and environmental dominants is carried out using a systematic approach. Studies of a functioning agrarian system in interaction with the environment are made based on systematic analysis/ synthesis. We also take into account the level of knowledge of the investigated object and its properties, as well as the purpose of the study. Such methodological approaches allow conducting author's research as logically acceptable and methodically reproducible.

2. Integral components of the development of Ukrainian agrarian sector

Domestic agrarian sector by its structure and functioning is complex and communicatively rich. On the one hand, it allows ensuring the cyclic processes of agricultural production in the form of farming, plant growing, livestock, and other industries. On the other hand, it allows reproducing agricultural relations at the level of agricultural production and diversified entrepreneurial initiatives, as well as developing the agrarian community comprehensively, forming an effective and prospective agrarian policy, enriching it with new ecologically and socially oriented projects and innovative development strategies, and practically implementing them at the level of individual subjects of agrarian business.

The integral components of the development of Ukrainian agrarian sector with reflecting the interactions between the sphere of agrarian production and agrarian relations in the author's presentment are reproduced on the scheme (Figure 1). This scheme simultaneously served as a reflection of the substantive directions of methodological analysis from the standpoint of the development of ecological and economic processes, methodological management of the activities of agrarian economy entities based on efficient complementary of systems of state regulation and market self-governance. In this approach, the elements of agrarian science and practice are closely intertwined.

Agrarian production is the economic basis of agriculture, it provides the necessary level of food security of the country, creates a powerful raw material base for the development of the processing industry, certain sectors of light, chemical, woodworking industry, alternative energy, etc. Ukraine has appropriate resources to implement this. In particular, according to the Ukrainian Institute for Strategic Studies (Institute for Strategic Studies "New Ukraine", 2015), the area of agricultural land is the largest in Europe and counts 41.5 million hectares (70% of the country's territory), of which 32.5 million hectares are used for growing crops. The development of the agrarian sector of Ukraine

Fig. 1. Strategic directions of development of the agrarian sector of Ukraine

Developed by the author

is facilitated by the proximity of the main markets, transport infrastructure (railways, roads, and ports), the constant growth ofworld demand for food products and alternative energy, as well as the availability of relatively cheap labour resources.

From the environmental point of view, agrarian production is influenced by natural and climatic factors and is directly involved in the complex agro-ecological system. So, at first glance, it may seem inappropriate that the agrarian sector, being almost an element of nature, causes in Ukraine one-third of all polluting emissions and some other adverse environmental actions. The consequences of agro-ecological discrepancy are the low efficiency of processes in Ukrainian agriculture. These processes include basic productional, financial-economical, entrepreneurial, etc., as well as an attendant, which are linked to the insufficient ecological development of rural areas. This, as well as a significant number of other agro-ecological components (which will be considered in the future), determine the high relevance of issues concerning ecologization of agrarian production and the need to increase the efficiency of functioning of domestic agricultural enterprises as the main subjects of agrarian management. The study of this problem is not new (see, for example, Khodakivska O. V,

2015; Kupynets L. E., 2010; Lopatynskyi Yu. M., Shkabara T. L., & Zaremska O. M., 2001; Zinchuk T. O., 2008), but it remains completely unresolved and now requires constant scientific decisions.

Among the economic reasons for a significant level of environmental risks in the agrarian sector of the national economy are the following:

- insufficient financial capacity of domestic agrarian enterprises, in particular, medium and small ones, to increase the level of environmental safety of production (according to the data of 2015, 11.1% of agrarian enterprises remained unprofitable (State Statistics Service of Ukraine, 2017), although this is one of the lowest indicators of losses during the years of independence);

- the inadequate perception of the importance of ecological component in agricultural production by domestic agricultural producers; in particular, a significant share of households do not pay enough attention to the issues of ecology but mainly concentrates on subsidiary production as a form of economic survival;

- limited economic motivation (both at the national and regional levels) to environmentally-oriented agricultural development, which correlates with the previous points and is associated with the emergence of certain negative

agro-ecological processes, in particular, environmental infractions in the practice of management, accompanied by environmental imbalances of different levels of complexity and so on.

The above-mentioned situation determines the threatening impact of the agrarian sector of the national economy on the environmental situation as a whole. It should be noted that the public interest to ecological problems, and not only in the agricultural sector, has declined overall. For example, ecological specialties 5-10 years ago were a popular trend in higher educational institutions of Ukraine but this profession remained largely not realized.

There are constraining factors in the social component as well; in particular, the level of payments in the agricultural sector is lower than the average in Ukrainian. Although this gap has been decreasing in recent years, wages in agriculture in Ukraine remain one of the lowest among economic activities. We can give another example: if earlier agricultural enterprises as systembuilding elements of the village sent a sufficiently large amount of funds for its social improvement, now this practice remains in the distant past.

Structural separation is characteristic of domestic agricultural production in the context of consideration (Lopatynskyi Yu. M., & Todoriuk S. I., 2015). So, for today it is possible to distinguish three main groups of agricultural producers: 1) large enterprises (like agroholdings); 2) medium and small enterprises, farms; 3) households. Such a division is decisive from the point of view of the unequal level of financial and economic revenues and the various impacts on the ecological and social situation in the countryside, both current and distant in time.

The abovementioned and many other phenomena and factors predetermine the unbalanced development of domestic agrarian production, entrepreneurial activity in rural areas, agrarian relations between members ofsociety and farms about the creation, exchange, distribution, and consumption of the total agricultural production. We consider that it is possible to solve the existing problems on the basis of the practical implementation of the concept of sustainable development of the agrarian sector of the national economy as a modern methodological base, which is a perspective course of the agrarian policy of Ukraine. It should be noted that there are a significant number of regulatory mechanisms used by the Government of Ukraine on agricultural development at the country level and local councils at regional levels -legislative, administrative, economic, propagandistic, and other methods.

3. The condition of state regulation of the agrarian sector of Ukraine

Progressive cyclical reproduction of the Ukrainian agrarian sector as a necessary attribute of the national

economy will be possible on the basis of a well-developed system of state regulation. In modern conditions, state regulation of the agrarian environment is, on the one hand, an important element in the development of the agrarian economy in terms of the deterministic structure of its main elements and multidirectional functional processes. On the other hand, it determines the coordination mechanisms between the sphere of influence of the state and market elements of the national agrarian economy. In relation to the latter, an optimal correlation is needed between the role of the state and the agrarian market, which may vary, depending on a significant number of internal and external socio-economic and political events. At the same time, it is important to constantly evaluate the environmental and economic situation in the agrarian sector on the basis of the current state monitoring, forecasting the consequences of environmental changes in the agriculture of Ukraine, and adopting the necessary adaptive management decisions.

The system of state regulation of the agrarian sector of the national economy existing in Ukraine is developing in the light of its main institutional tasks. It is methodologically based on the implementation of socio-economic and environmental priorities of society

Table 1

Motivational goals of the state regulatory system of the agrarian sector of Ukraine

Task groups Essential signs

Economic tasks To ensure: - food security of the country; - development of the main branches of the agro-industrial complex; - an increase in the volumes of production of agrarian products; - economic efficiency of agriculture; - the free development of agricultural enterprises; - functioning of the internal food market with modern infrastructure; - the growth of international technical cooperation of the agrarian sector of Ukraine; - strong market positions of Ukraine in the world, including European agro-food sector, etc.

Ecological tasks Development of ecologically oriented agriculture on the basis of: - monitoring of the environmental parameters of the agricultural management system; - high-tech agrarian production, resource and energy saving technologies; - the increase of the level of quality/safety of agrarian raw materials and products; - production of environmentally friendly agricultural products; - integrated development of rural areas with simultaneous environmental priorities; - formation of a network of nature conservation farms and other institutions in the structure of agro-industrial complex

as a whole, in particular, in the agrarian sector, and it is provided on the basis of the relevant guiding principles. Existing target installations for the development of the state regulatory system and its importance should be reflected in economic and environmental criteria. Our analysis of the main areas of management tasks in this area is reflected in Table 1.

Our analysis of the most important strategic positions for the development of the domestic agricultural sector in the system of state regulation of Ukraine for the near future is reflected in Table 2. It is worthwhile to note modern approaches in the field of agricultural management in Ukraine, new regulatory accents that are defined as guiding to action and are reflected in the proposed development concepts. In particular, it is about: increasing of accountability at all levels of government; multifaceted and adequate to needs stimulating of agrarian development by separate, specific directions; transparency of distribution of state or other support; allocation of target support groups in the agrarian sector, etc.

4. The system of state regulation of the branch of plant growing

The agricultural production management system has a sufficiently targeted purpose to ensure the production of agricultural products of sufficient quantity and

regulated quality, which in turn implements the necessary level of food security of Ukraine. On the other hand, it is necessary to increase the reserves of production simultaneously, to ensure the effective use of existing and potential opportunities by agrarian enterprises, increase in their profitability, etc. Plant growing as a highly developed branch of domestic agricultural production in the structure of the agrarian sector of Ukraine serves as a basis for ensuring food security. Primarily this is due to the cultivation of grain and leguminous crops used for the production of bread and some other socially important products. Plant growing is the basis for the development of the oil and fat subcomplex of the country on the basis of growing sunflower and some other oil and oilseed crops. It provides the livestock sector with a forage base (forage crops), supplies a significant number of technical crops widely used in various sectors of the food industry -sugar, starch, alcohol, winemaking, brewing and others, as well as light, textile, pharmaceutical, and the like industries.

Indicators of the efficiency of the state regulation system of agrarian sector of Ukraine in the field of plant growing by the main ecological-economic parameters should be considered as follows: - annual gross collection of crop production and its individual species, equivalent to the current needs of society;

Name of strategic approach Purpose and motivation of strategies, concepts, projects

Strategy of Sustainable Development "Ukraine 2020" (relevant sections for agriculture) Implementation of European standards of life in Ukraine and enter of Ukraine to leading positions in the world. Determination of the main vectors of the corresponding movement - the vector of development, the vector of security, the vector of responsibility, the vector of pride

Concept of national environmental policy for the period till 2020 (relevant sections for agriculture) Development of updated national ecological policy, the formation of an effective management system in the field of environmental protection, the realization of structural reforms and modernization of technological processes, the introduction of an ecologically balanced system of nature use (in particular, it concerns the agrarian sphere)

Strategy of development of agro-industrial complex and rural territories of Ukraine for the period till 2020 Development of strategic directions of the development of Ukrainian agriculture for the future, addressing the real needs of the industry through a comprehensive process of consultation with interested parties, in particular, civil society, business, as well as international donors; increasing the competitiveness of agriculture and promoting the development of rural areas on a sustainable basis in accordance with EU and international standards

Strategy for Agrarian Sector Development "3 + 5" Conduct of reforms: 1. Land reform; 2. State support reform; 3. Reform of state enterprises and its implementation in the following areas: 1. Development of rural areas; 2. Development of sales markets; 3. Organic production and niches products; 4. Irrigation; 5. Safety and quality of food products

Concept of development of rural territories Outlining the main priorities of rural development and developing a mechanism for preparing the agrarian and rural sectors of the country to operate in conditions of free trade with the EU; integrated development of rural territories, based on the needs of territorial communities of villages, settlements, etc.

USAID Project "Support for Agrarian and Rural Development" Annual grants program within the Project Strategic Investment Fund (APS) No. 01 for Ukrainian farmers, small- and medium-sized agricultural enterprises with a view to studying world practice of production and marketing, their market development, creation of market products, entering to the international market

Project "The Concept of Development of Farmers and Agricultural Cooperatives for 2018-2020" Improvement of state agricultural policy, financial and information support and state support of farms, stimulation of increase of agricultural products with high added value, creation of favourable conditions for youth involvement in farm management

Table 2

Conceptual platforms for the development of the agrarian sector of Ukraine

♦ grain and leguminous ■ soybeans oilseeds )( sunflower )K potatoes vegetables fruit and berry crops

1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011 2012 201 Í 2014 201 5 2016

Fig. 2. The yield of agricultural crops (centner from 1 ha of the area from which the crop was harvested)

- ensuring stable yields of main agricultural crops as one of the indicators of efficiency;

- optimization of the structure of crop areas by economic indicators and ecological requirements, etc.

Based on managerial approaches in the system of state regulation of the development of domestic agricultural production, in particular, plant growing, it is important to find correlations between the production of crops and the annual needs of the country (in particular, the food need). In addition, it refers to the correlation between the export potential of individual crops and the free market development of individual economic entities (from the position of production structure of the management and the receipt of commodity weight).

Based on official statistical data (State Statistics Service of Ukraine, 2017), we analysed and noted the peculiarities of production of the main groups of agricultural crops in Ukraine that make up the food basis: grain and leguminous crops; technical; root crops and tuberous plants, vegetable and melon food crops; forage crops.

There is a tendency towards stabilization and growth (starting from 2005) of the gross collection of certain groups and types of crops (State Statistics Service of Ukraine, 2016):

- grain and leguminous crops (in aggregate, forming such groups of crops as: food flours, forage (fodder), technical; by species composition - wheat, rye, barley, corn, oats; peas, soybeans, vetch, china, lupine, beans and others), starting from the statistical year of 2005 (except for 2012), is characterized by an increase in the production of the corresponding gross products. In particular, in 2016, the volume of production amounted to 66088.0 thousand tons, which is the

largest indicator for the period, since 1990. An increase in the production of grain and leguminous crops allows actively developing the grain industry of Ukrainian agribusiness, bakery, enterprises of baking industry, macaroni industry, confectionery, brewing, and other branches of the food industry;

- oilseeds, which production in Ukraine is constantly increasing, starting in 1990. In the period of1990-2016, it increased by 6.8 times, from 2814.2 thousand tons in 1990 to 19192.4 thousand tons in 2016, respectively. The noted tendency concerns sunflower as the main oilseed crop, which production for the analysed period increased by 5.3 times, from 2570.8 thousand tons in 1990 to 13626.9 thousand tons in 2016;

- potatoes belonging to the group of vegetable crops, which cultivation has stable high indicators, from 2011 -more than 20 thousand tons, which is confirmed by the culture of Ukrainian food and its increased consumption as an alternative to more expensive products;

- vegetable, fruit, and berry crops, whose production in Ukraine reflects the stable needs of the population and is characterized by sufficient stability of production, which in 2016 amounted to 9414.5 thousand tons of vegetables and 2007.3 thousand tons of fruits and berries.

Today, the characteristic of the agrarian economic system of Ukraine is the increase in the productivity of the main groups and strategically important species of agricultural crops; in particular, it concerns grain and leguminous crops, sunflower and other oilseeds, potatoes and other types of vegetable products, fruit and berry crops (Fig. 2). For example, high yields in Ukraine today are marked by winter wheat as the basic grain crop, the yield of some varieties of which has been record-

breaking in recent statistical years and amounting to more than 40-50 centners from 1 hectare of agricultural land. Soybean yields as an important legume crop have grown significantly - from 10 c/ha in 2000 to 23 c/ha in 2016, the practice of large-scale cultivation of which in Ukraine is to a certain extent new.

Such indexes of yields reflect the high level of implementation of breeding programs in the domestic agrarian economy, improvement of technical and technological processes of growing crops, increasing their productivity and other areas of development of highly productive agricultural production. In turn, these positive processes in plant growing from the standpoint of yield crops of main crops reflect the rather high level of efficiency of state regulatory processes. After all, ensuring stable yields of crop products requires overcoming ofa significant amount ofrisks, among which the most important is changing climatic conditions, in particular, climate changes towards warming, complex environmental disasters, manifestations of natural disasters - droughts, hailstones, frost, floods and others. To this end, certain measures are envisaged at the state level, in particular, the introduction of insurance of agricultural products, which is presented in the Law of Ukraine "On Peculiarities of Insurance of Agricultural Products with State Support", is sufficiently advanced for Ukraine. The development of the insurance system involves providing agricultural producers with funds from the state budget in the form of subsidies for the payment of a part of the insurance payment (insurance premium) accrued under the insurance contract (Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, 2017).

5. Conclusions

On the basis of the analysis of peculiarities of the ecological and economic development of the agrarian sector of the national economy, one should conclude that the basis of theoretical and methodological substantiation of the basic principles of reproduction of the agrarian sphere is the concept of sustainable development, which is recognized as the most promising

References:

by the overwhelming majority of domestic scientists. The specifications for the development of the Ukrainian agrarian sector are based on the interconnection, interdependencies of agrarian production and agrarian relations, processes of public administration and market self-regulation. The formalization of agrarian processes requires fundamental changes. In particular, it should be done from the standpoint of the systemic management of the development of the agrarian sector, which will harmoniously combine both regulated and market-oriented, free economic relations that will contribute to the formation of new ecological-economic interactions and practical implementation in the form of successful agrarian development.

Agrarian production in Ukraine has the relevant natural and climatic resources for the production of basic crops. Its development is also contributed by to the growth of world demand for agrarian raw materials and finished products, the availability of sales markets (both domestic and foreign, in particular, European countries). In the field of plant growing, there is a tendency to increase yield and gross collection of certain groups of plant crops, in particular cereals, leguminous plants, oilseeds, fruit, and vegetables, etc. Such indicators reflect the effectiveness of system processes of state regulation, state support in the direction of overcoming agrarian risks.

Realization of the resource potential of agrarian development requires the simultaneous formation of effective mechanisms for managing the agrarian development of the Ukrainian economy taking into account the social interests of each member of society. In addition, these mechanisms should concern the prospects for the overall economic growth of the state, the effective reproduction of environmental parameters in the process of management at an acceptable level, which will reflect modern forms of manifestation of economic, social, environmental parameters as target-oriented and component-value-equivalent. Such directions will serve as a methodological basis for further author's development.

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Виктор МЕГЛЕЙ

СПЕЦИФИКАЦИИ ЭКОЛОГО-ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКОГО РАЗВИТИЯ АГРАРНОГО СЕКТОРА УКРАИНЫ

Аннотация. Предметом выполненного авторского исследования являются процессы развития аграрного сектора экономики Украины по эколого-экономическим спецификациями. Методологическое обоснование проведено на основе использования фундаментальных принципов, отражающих основные стратегии аграрного развития. Применен системный подход к характеристике аграрной системы как сложной по структуре и функциональным параметрам во взаимодействии с внешней средой. Использованы методы анализа/синтеза для раскрытия интегральной сущности аграрной среды в разрезе управления основными процессами. На основе цели авторского исследования конкретизировано рассмотрение процессов формирования аграрной системы за экономическими и экологическими взаимодействиями как современными доминантами развития аграрного сектора Украины. Проведен анализ интегральных составляющих аграрного развития с отображением взаимодействий сферы аграрного производства и аграрных отношений. Акцентировано внимание на важности формирования действенной, перспективной отечественной аграрной политики, в основе которой - активизация предпринимательских инициатив, всестороннее развитие аграрного сообщества, экологически и социально ориентированные проекты воспроизведения сельских территорий, инновационные стратегии эколого-экономического подъема сельского хозяйства Украины. Рассмотрено ресурсную базу как экономическую основу сельского хозяйства с позиций основных рынков сбыта, состояния транспортной инфраструктуры, роста мирового и внутреннего спроса на аграрное сырье и готовую продукцию, наличия сравнительно дешевых трудовых ресурсов. Проанализировано аграрное производство с экологических позиций, воздействий природно-климатических факторов. Объяснено состояние отдельных агроэкологических несоответствий в сельском хозяйствовании Украины, причины загрязняющих воздействий на основные природные сферы и некоторые другие неблагоприятные экологические действия. Сконцентрировано внимание к важности воспроизведения аграрного сектора Украины на основе отладки системы государственного регулирования, определения согласовательных механизмов между сферой влияния государства и рыночными элементами национальной аграрной экономики. Обоснованно мотивационные цели, действующие целевые установки, основные направления управленческих задач к развитию системы государственного регулирования по экономическим и экологическим критериям. Конкретизировано значение управленческих подходов в системе государственного регулирования развития отечественного аграрного производства на примере растениеводства. Проанализированы зависимости между производством сельскохозяйственных культур по валовым сборам, урожайностью и ежегодными потребностями страны, в частности продовольственными, экспортным потенциалом отдельных растительных культур и тому подобное. Выполнен анализ наиболее важных стратегических позиций к развитию отечественного аграрного сектора в системе государственного регулирования Украины на ближайшую перспективу. Сделаны соответствующие выводы к авторскому исследованию, одновременно предложено современные для Украины подходы в области управления сельским хозяйством, новые регуляторные акценты к стимулированию аграрного развития по конкретным направлениям.

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