Научная статья на тему 'Specialization of agriculture — as the solution to the problem of employment (a case study of Samarkand region)'

Specialization of agriculture — as the solution to the problem of employment (a case study of Samarkand region) Текст научной статьи по специальности «Экономика и экономические науки»

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Specialization of agriculture / potential of the region / agro-industrial / agricultural products / agricultural sector / economic development / employment of population

Аннотация научной статьи по экономике и экономическим наукам, автор научной работы — Zokirov Sayidfozil Sayidakbarovich, Ibragimov Lutfullo Ziyadullayevich

The agrarian situation of Samarkand city which located in the center of the Republic was studied in the following article. The main meaning of the research is that the author tried to pay attention to the briefly study of agriculture of the region ant its place in the Republican agriculture. In addition, it is estimated as main factor of occupancy of the population and development of agriculture. The main factors are indicated for the development of agriculture and specialization according to the analysis. The process of specialization of production of vegetables, cotton, livestock, gardening, tobacco and others branches in agriculture in the districts of the region influenced to the occupancy of population.

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Текст научной работы на тему «Specialization of agriculture — as the solution to the problem of employment (a case study of Samarkand region)»

of the natural environment, as well as their characteristic physical and geographic phenomena. "Before we allow the slightest change in any of the components of nature conservationist must ensure that he understands the unity of the natural environment. It must first examine the effects of natural phenomena and conditions, and then choose how to protect natural resources [4, 38-39].

In large intermountain basins of Central Asia and framing their slopes are unique natural objects and samples of typical landscapes requiring conservation and support their optimal conditions. In Samarkand basin and its surroundings such objects are Amanku-tan gorge — terraced slope-WIDE forest landscapes, upper plane trees — Grove millennial plane trees with powerful springs, Nav-ka — Grove poplar-plane-tree plantations with springs having a large flow rate, a very rare and sporadic in the mountains of Aktau

juniper forest landscape, located in the pool and Takabaysay Tutak-say typical carst landscape on the plateau Kyrktau, outlier-lowland semi-desert landscape with exposures of Paleozoic rocks (Chupana-ta). In general, large intermountain basins of Central Asia are unique not only their individual plots, and are remarkable in terms of nature of each of them [5, 18-20].

The scientific and technical progress, actively and comprehensively affecting the development of the structure and dynamics of landscapes, it is necessary and commandments nationwide cause. In Issyk-Kul basin reserve regime has been operating since 1948, which can be recommended for other major intermountain basins of Central Asia. Consequently, the development of a network of nature reserves, game reserves, national parks and recreational reserves urgent and important problem.

References:

1. Abdulkasimov A. A. Control and protection of landscapes intermountain basins of Central Asia.//Geography and natural resources. -Novosibirsk, - 1991. - № 2. - P. 46-51.

2. Armand D. L. We and our grandchildren. Part 2. - M.: Thought, - 1966. - 254 p.

3. Motorina L. V. Objectives of land reclamation in the reproduction of exploited natural resources.//Questions of Geography, - No 108. - M.: Thought, - 1987. - P. 139-144.

4. Parson R. Nature presents the bill. - M.: Progress, - 1969. - 567 p.

5. Abdulkasimov A. A., Davronov K. K., Razikova Z. E. The protection of man-made landscapes intermountain basins of Central Asia.//Ac-tual problems of development of Geodesy, Cartography and Cadastre. - Samarkand, - 2014. - P. 18-20.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20534/ESR-17-1.2-19-23

Zokirov Sayidfozil Sayidakbarovich, (PhD), Institute of Forecasting and Macroeconomic Research,

Tashkent (Uzbekistan) Ibragimov Lutfullo Ziyadullayevich, (PhD student)

University of Alexandru loan Cuza, Iasi (Romania) E-mil: Lutfullobek@mail.ru

Specialization of agriculture — as the solution to the problem of employment (a case study of Samarkand region)

Abstract: The agrarian situation of Samarkand city which located in the center of the Republic was studied in the following article. The main meaning of the research is that the author tried to pay attention to the briefly study of agriculture of the region ant its place in the Republican agriculture. In addition, it is estimated as main factor of occupancy of the population and development of agriculture. The main factors are indicated for the development of agriculture and specialization according to the analysis. The process of specialization of production of vegetables, cotton, livestock, gardening, tobacco and others branches in agriculture in the districts of the region influenced to the occupancy of population.

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Keywords: Specialization of agriculture, potential of the region, agro-industrial, agricultural products, agricultural sector, economic development, employment of population.

Introduction. Uzbekistan geography scientist professor Abdusa-mi Soliyev said that, this plain is from southern east to the northern west direction, it is considered to be the socio-economical "pavement" and unique root of this historical-geographic area [1]. Samarkand region is one of the important regions to the national economy of Uzbekistan. The provincial agriculture is in the direction of the regional agro-industrial agriculture, and of 75 percent of agricultural GDP [2].

The development of agriculture is depend with Zarafshan River in the region. Zarafshan River is important in providing agricultural crop lands with water and its old tributaries such as, Sazagonsoy, Ohakliksoy, Omonqotonsoy, Qoratepasoy, Urgutsoy, Oqtepasoy, Tosinsoy is of great importance and they are managed

by human [3]. It should be noted that the water regime of the Zaraf-shan River is much more comfortable to provide water to all kinds of cultural crops during the growing season [4]. The largest water reservoir among water reservoirs built in region is considered Kat-takurgan water reservoir. This water reservoir plays an important role in the agriculture of Samarkand and Bukhara regions. This water reservoir provides 94 thousand hectares of area of Samarkand and Bukhara regions with water. As the result, the irrigation supply is enhanced in nearly 150 thousand hectares of area [5].

Agricultural potential of region is high and it is on the 3rd place in quantity of agricultural products after Tashkent (12.6%) and Andijan (10.2%) in republic (Table 5). In region cotton-growing,

arable farming, gardening products, grape and tobacco growing are well-developed. It should be mentioned that, in country 96.5% percent of tobacco growing corresponds to share of Samarkand region [6]. It should be noted that the cultivation of tobacco is only in Ur-gut district of the province.

Data Analysis. In the independence years large-scale of reforms were carried out in the country's agriculture. Samarkand occupies the high places among regions according to the key indicators of the agricultural development of the region. 13.3% of total cultivated land of republic, 13.1% of agricultural products produced in the country in 2015 corresponds to the share of this region. Region

occupies the leading places in the republic in the production of grapes (36.5% in comparison to the republic indicator), potatoes (23.1%), vegetables (16.5%), cereals (10.8%), meat (12.3%), wool (12.8%) and milk (12.3%).

Economic development which is taking place in the country is continuing to decrease the share of agricultural products in the GDP. If this figure was 30.1% in 2000 (45.4% in Samarkand region), while in 2015, it decreased to 16.6% (28.7%). 61.7% of regional gross agricultural products conforms to the share of farming products and 38.3% of them corresponds to the share of livestock products.

Figure 1.The evolutionary change of crop fields of agriculture in Samarkand region Source: It was prepared on the basis of data from the State Statistical Committee of the Republic of Uzbekistan

Grain and technical crops occupy a large area in the structure of sown areas of region. In the analyzing period, their share in the structure of the sown areas declined from 78.7 to 69.9 percent, while the share of forage crops has decreased from 13.7 to 13.2 percent. At the same time, the share of the area of potato, vegetable and field crops increased from 7.6 to 10.4% (Figure 1).

The livestock breeding of region improved significantly due to the measures taken in increasing the number of cattle in farms on the basis of Program "Stimulating to increase cattle in the farms, the economy of farmer and personal assistant". In 2000-2015 years, the number of cattle, in particular, the number of poultry has increased extremely (Figure 2).

Figure 2. The dynamics of change in the number of cattle in Samarkand region (all categories of farms), thousand numbers

Source: It was made on the basis of information of Statistics Committee of Samarkand region

In many ways the increase in the quantity of agricultural products in the region is associated with the increase of efficiency indica-

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tors. The results of the analysis showed significantly rise in the yield of agricultural crops in all types of farms in Samarkand region (Table 1).

Table 1. - The yield of agricultural crops in all types of farms in Samarkand region, c/hectare

The name of products 2000 y 2005 y 2010 y 2015 y The increase in the years 2000-2015 (times)

Raw cotton 17,9 24,8 24,5 25,0 1,4

Grain 25,7 38,8 45,7 46,0 1,8

Potato 148,1 220,7 258,5 317,2 2,1

Vegetables 213,6 261,6 348,9 446,4 2,1

Fruits 147,4 165,7 226,7 266,3 1,8

Melons 58,2 79,1 102,6 159,7 2,7

Grape 69,2 78,2 116,7 154,5 2,2

Source: It was prepared on the basis of data from the State Statistical Committee of the Republic of Uzbekistan

The positive steps reached in improving the efficiency of agricultural products of the region is in many ways, related to the structural and market reforms carried out in the village.

Table 2. - The structure of cultivation of the main types of agricultural products in Samarkand region, (%)

Products type All types of agricultural Agricultural enterprises Farms Peasant farms

2005 2015 2005 2015 2005 2015 2005 2015

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Cotton 100 100 10,7 0,3 89,3 99,7 - -

Wheat 100 100 8,9 0,7 71,1 79,7 20,0 19,6

Potato 100 100 0.8 0,1 12,1 29,9 87,1 70,0

Vegetable 100 100 4,2 0,3 46,8 56,1 49,0 43,6

Fresh fruits 100 100 8,1 6,1 41,1 49,6 50,8 44,2

Grape 100 100 11,6 0,9 50,7 65,9 37,7 33,3

Melons 100 100 1,0 0,2 43,9 46,8 55,1 53,0

Meat 100 100 2,4 4,5 1,5 3,4 96,1 92,1

Milk 100 100 0,2 0,1 1,9 4,6 97,9 95,3

Egg 100 100 33,8 36,3 13,6 21,5 52,6 42,2

Source: It was prepared on the basis of data from the State Statistical Committee of the Republic of Uzbekistan

In 2005-2015 years, the share of agricultural enterprises in growing cotton reduced from 10.7% to 0.3%, in growing wheat reduced from 8.9% to 0.7%, the share of farms proportionally increased from89,3% to 99,7% and from 71.1% to 79.7%.

Fruit growing in farms increased from 41.1% to 49.6%, grape growing rose from 50.7% to 65.9% and the quantity of field crops went up from 43.9% to 55.1% (Table 2). Farms maintained their high share in growing potato, grape, fruits, vegetable, field products, meat, milk, eggs according to their essence.

The issues of provision of employment to population in agricultural sector

Due to the economic growth-taking place in our country, we have expressed our opinion about the decline of the share of agriculture in the content of GDP. Exactly the same situation is also relating to the changes in the employment structure. In recent years the share of this sector in the structure of labor resources of region has significantly decreased.

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In the process of research territorial content of workers engaged in agricultural production in the structure of labor resources has been studied. In this case, the ratio of people employed in the balance of labor resources, in agriculture and forestry, as well as in

farming, is taken to the total labor resources (Table 3). Table 3. - Employment in the agricultural sector of Samarkand region

The name of the cities and districts The number of labor resources For example, employed The quantity of staffs employed in sector in comparison to the total labor resources,%

In agriculture and forestry In farming

1 2 3 4 5

According to the region 2 033,7 423,1 192,0 30,2

Bulungur 95,9 24,5 11,1 37,2

Jomboy 88,9 22,2 11,2 37,5

Ishtikhan 132,3 29,2 11,3 30,6

Kattakurgan 141,4 34,7 20,7 39,2

Narpay 112,3 26,3 13,6 35,4

Nurabod 77,2 19,9 9,0 37,4

Aqdarya 82,6 21,0 6,1 32,9

Pastdargom 182,3 44,1 16,0 32,9

Pakhtachi 77,0 20,4 16,2 47,5

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Payarik 133,7 31,6 16,3 35,9

1 2 3 4 5

Samarkand 130,6 43,6 14,2 44,3

Taylak 102,4 24,2 8,9 32,3

Urgut 255,7 65,3 30,5 37,5

Kushrabod 66,6 16,0 7,0 34,5

Source: It was prepared by the author on the basis of information of Statistics

Committee of Samarkand region

Based on the results obtained, districts are divided into groups according to the quantity of employees employed in this sector in comparison to the total labor resources (Table 4). The largest share of employed in the agrarian sector in the structure of labor resources is recorded in Pakhtachi and Samarkand districts, the lowest indicator is noted in Ishtikhan, Akdarya, Pastdargom, Taylak, Kushrabod district. On the basis of map information the quantity of employed in the agricultural sectors compared to the total labor resources was below evaluated and divided into the criteria (Table 4).

Table 4. - Classification of districts of region on the share of the agricultural sector in the structure of employment

№ Level Criteria The name districts

1 Highest 40%gaH KaTTa Pakhtachi, Samarkand

2 High 37-40% Bulungur, Jomboy, Kattakurgan, Nurabad, Urgut

3 Average 35-37% Narpay, Payarik

4 Low 35%gaH khhhk Ishtikhan, Akdarya, Pastdargom, Taylak, Kushrabod

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Along with this, the implementation of carrying out measures concerning the creation of new job places in the agricultural sector in the sphere of employment programs has been studied. In 2015 more than 1/5 part of the total new jobs in Samarkand region is created in the farms. The highest indicators among districts in this area were

observed in Pakhtachi (37.3%), Kattakurgan (37.1), Samarkand (37.1%) and Taylak districts. On the contrary, the low results were noted in Bulungur, Jomboy and Kushrabod areas. We may include Narpay and Taylak districts in the next high places. The figure stood around 30-35% in these areas.

Figure 3. Created job places in farms (compared to the ratio of total new jobs),% (2015)

The next districts entering to the average group are around 25-30%. Pastdargom, Payarik districts are included in this group. Oppositely, Districts with low and the lowest indicator in creating new jobs in the agricultural sector in the sphere of employment programs include remaining districts of region (Figure 3).

Conclusion. During research the rapid development of agricultural production in Samarkand region was determined. Attention was given to the significant decline of the share of this sector in the structure of employment and GRP. In the near future this trend of socio-economic development of the region is expected to continue. Different zones were formed according to the natural and climatic conditions of the region, territorial location ofpopulation, the quali-

fication of people, the content of crop fields and the fertileness of crops. It has the potential to develop intensive agriculture.

According to the results of a survey on the regional location of the types of crops, area of Samarkand province was conditionally divided into 5 agricultural districts. In addition, in the process of research, territorial content of workers engaged in agricultural production in the structure of labor resources had been studied.

In summary, during the research agricultural production in the Samarkand region has rapidly developed. At the same time, the quantity of GRP of this sector and the quantity in the structure of employment has significantly decreased. In the near future of socio-economic development of the region this trend is expected to continue.

References:

1. Soliev A. and others. The social-economic development of Uzbekistan territories. - T.: Collection word, - 2010. - P. 348.

The problems of doing medical geographic research in Uzbekistan

2. Ibragimov Lutfullo. The Economic Role of the Geographical Potential of Samarkand Region. International Journal of Humanities Social Sciences and Education (IJHSSE). - 2016 . - Vol. 3, - Issue 4.

3. Abdurakhmonova Y. The morphology of the curved landscapes of Zarafshan and its environmental protection. Dissertation. - Samarkand. - 2003.

4. Kulmatov Rashid, Christian O, Michael Groll, Dilafruz Kulmatova. Assessment of Water Quality of the Trans-Boundary Zarafshan River in the Territory of Uzbekistan. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, - 2013. - P. 17-26.

5. Gulomov P. H., Vakhabov P., Baratov M., Mamatkulov. Natural geography of Uzbekistan. - Tashkent. - 2013.

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6. Musaev P., Musaev J. Economical-social geography of Uzbekistan. Textbook. - Tashkent, - 2010. - P. 123.

7. URL: http: www.stat.uz. The State Statistical Committee of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

8. URL: http: www.samstat.uz. The State Statistical Committee of Samarkand region.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20534/ESR-17-1.2-23-24

Alikul Khamidovich Ravshanov, senior teacher Samarkand State University E-mail: Lutfullobek@mail.ru

The problems of doing medical geographic research in Uzbekistan

Abstract: Formation and development of studies on medicinal-geographical and medicinal- geoecological studies, as well as the natural pestholes are analyzed. The negative influence of geoecological situations appeared in Uzbekistan and in the Middle Zarafshan basin on the health of population is illustrated. Testimonial of the anthropogenic pestholes is given.

Keywords: medicine geography, nosogeography, landscape criticism of medicine, anthropogenic- landscape, agro- landscape.

1) generality of territorial geographic places; 2) extension degree and specialty of disease group; 3) pointers death ofgeneral and child; 4) similarity of medical and ecologic condition; 5) existence

It is known that medicine geography is a science, which creates geographic extension of human disease and reasons of opportunities of medical and anthropogenic factors of origin disease. Medicine geography from meaning has several spheres. It consists of spheres like: Nosogeography of its internal part, medical landscape study, medical anthropogenic landscape study, medical geo-ecology, making maps of medicine geography and medical landscape. On the base of all this lies medicine geographic problems which has connection with the influence to each other and relations system of medical condition — society and human health.

It must be admitted that above-mentioned names has each of medicine geographic directions have own research object, subject, purpose, tasks and concept of scientific approach. For example, Nosogeography studies global, zonal and zooms of regional geographic extension of some disease type. Medical land shaft study, difference from noso-geography analyses positive and negative influence of land shaft complexes to the human health, geo-ecologic conditions of negative influence to the human health and formation of tasks on the scientific basis for problems of optimizing conditions, makes maps of medical landscape.

The main purpose of medical anthropogenic landscape study is to morphological study ofnegative influence to the human health and medical environment which was originated geo-ecologic conditions in techno-gene land shafts where developed mine industry areas, in agro-landscapes, in seliteb land shafts and in the circle of cultural and non cultural land shafts which was created by human in economy activities. It is possible to perform such tasks in the ways ofmaking maps ofmedi-cal landscapes and through medical geo-ecologic approaches.

According to the published monograph by N, Komilova and A, Soliev "Geography of Medicine" in 2005 medicine geographic divide into districts in the territory of Bukhara region for health of population were done an they divided into four nozo-geographic districts. They are high, middle or central, lower and western medical geographic district. The following principles were taken as a main measure by authors:

of nozo-geographic areal of some territorial disease; 6) territorial economy and their branch structure; 7) administrative-territorial unity and etc. Giving description for divided geographic districts according their territory, number and dense of population, main disease groups characteristics for districts are largely used [1].

Medicine geographic analysis and their sanitarian-hygiene condition of Amudarya delta is deeply investigated by I, Turdimam-betov. The main attention in his articles is paid to the following: to medicine geographic mark which was changed medical environment in the influence of human economy activity in Amudarya delta, rising and development of medical biologic and sanitarian-hygiene situation, geographic basis of getting better of appeared ecologic equality, divide into districts of Southern Aral region by disease and to use land shaft principles while doing medical geographic investigation [2].

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It was known that appearance and territorial extension of disease among the population depend on medical and economic-social conditions, especially ecologic situation. Such nozo-geographic conditions in some regions have been reason of appearance and geographic extension of several disease. O. Mukhamedov analyzed nozo-geographic condition of Samarkand region through studying territorial extension of main types of disease: breathing organs, neoplasm, stomach organs, system of blood circulation, infectious and parasitic disease which has being reason for the death ofhuman among population (in 2006).

According to his confirmation blood circulation system disease is more extended than other type of disease in the region. It consists of 56,7% of all disease. It was defined high in dense population areas, cities and districts where developed production farms. For example: such disease was about 63.8% and 63.7% in Samarkand and Kattakur-gan cities in 2000-2004, about 62.4% in Samarkand district. This situation was recognized very high degree from average degree.