Научная статья на тему 'SELECTION OF EXERCISES TO OVERCOME COMMON MISTAKES IN THE PRACTICE OF CHESS PLAYERS IN THE INITIAL TRAINING PERIOD AT THE SPORT TRAINING AND COMPETITION CENTER OF BINH DUONG PROVINCE, VIETNAM'

SELECTION OF EXERCISES TO OVERCOME COMMON MISTAKES IN THE PRACTICE OF CHESS PLAYERS IN THE INITIAL TRAINING PERIOD AT THE SPORT TRAINING AND COMPETITION CENTER OF BINH DUONG PROVINCE, VIETNAM Текст научной статьи по специальности «Науки об образовании»

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Ключевые слова
CORRECTIVE EXERCISES / CHESS / INITIAL TRAINING / MISTAKES

Аннотация научной статьи по наукам об образовании, автор научной работы — Duong B.T.

During the early stages of chess training, one of the important tasks for the coach is to help the athlete detect and correct their common mistakes. Thereby, athletes will be given the opportunity to develop thinking, consolidate knowledge and skills, become more and more conscious when practicing chess games. In this study, we analyzed and synthesized theoretical and practical bases on common mistakes in practice of chess players. We then conduct expert interviews to select appropriate exercises to overcome this problem. The results have detected 8 common mistakes that occur in the training of chess players in the early training period at The Sport Training and Competition Center of Binh Duong Province, Vietnam (ST&CCBDVN). Through our research, we have also selected 10 specialized tests to evaluate chess players' technical skills, skills and techniques. After a year of applying these remedial exercises, the experimental group initially brought about positive results. The growth rate of the experimental group increased from 21.28% to 39.13%, surpassing that of the control group, which grew only from 11.49% to 38.10%. Thereby, it is possible to confirm the clear and convincing effectiveness of the exercises selected to be applied in the training program to overcome the common mistakes in the practice of Chess athletes in the initial training period.

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Текст научной работы на тему «SELECTION OF EXERCISES TO OVERCOME COMMON MISTAKES IN THE PRACTICE OF CHESS PLAYERS IN THE INITIAL TRAINING PERIOD AT THE SPORT TRAINING AND COMPETITION CENTER OF BINH DUONG PROVINCE, VIETNAM»

_ТЕОРИЯ И МЕТОДИКА СПОРТА / THEORY AND METHODOLOGY OF SPORTS_

DOI: https://doi.org/10.23670/IRJ.2023.128.8

SELECTION OF EXERCISES TO OVERCOME COMMON MISTAKES IN THE PRACTICE OF CHESS PLAYERS IN THE INITIAL TRAINING PERIOD AT THE SPORT TRAINING AND COMPETITION CENTER OF BINH

DUONG PROVINCE, VIETNAM

Research article

Duong B.T.1' *

1 ORCID : 0000-0003-0202-4260; 1 Ho Chi Minh City University of Sports, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

* Corresponding author (duongthanhbinh_upes2[at]yahoo.com)

Abstract

During the early stages of chess training, one of the important tasks for the coach is to help the athlete detect and correct their common mistakes. Thereby, athletes will be given the opportunity to develop thinking, consolidate knowledge and skills, become more and more conscious when practicing chess games. In this study, we analyzed and synthesized theoretical and practical bases on common mistakes in practice of chess players. We then conduct expert interviews to select appropriate exercises to overcome this problem. The results have detected 8 common mistakes that occur in the training of chess players in the early training period at The Sport Training and Competition Center of Binh Duong Province, Vietnam (ST&CCBDVN). Through our research, we have also selected 10 specialized tests to evaluate chess players' technical skills, skills and techniques. After a year of applying these remedial exercises, the experimental group initially brought about positive results. The growth rate of the experimental group increased from 21.28% to 39.13%, surpassing that of the control group, which grew only from 11.49% to 38.10%. Thereby, it is possible to confirm the clear and convincing effectiveness of the exercises selected to be applied in the training program to overcome the common mistakes in the practice of Chess athletes in the initial training period.

Keywords: corrective exercises, Chess, initial training, mistakes.

ОТБОР УПРАЖНЕНИЙ ДЛЯ ПРЕОДОЛЕНИЯ РАСПРОСТРАНЕННЫХ ОШИБОК В ТРЕНИРОВКАХ ШАХМАТИСТОВ В ПЕРИОД НАЧАЛЬНОГО ОБУЧЕНИЯ В ЦЕНТРЕ СПОРТИВНОЙ ПОДГОТОВКИ И СОРЕВНОВАНИЙ ПРОВИНЦИИ БИНЬЗЫОНГ, ВЬЕТНАМ

Научная статья

Дуонг Б.Т.1' *

1 ORCID : 0000-0003-0202-4260; 1 Спортивный университет города Хошимин, Хошимин, Вьетнам

* Корреспондирующий автор (duongthanhbinh_upes2[at]yahoo.com)

Аннотация

На начальных этапах обучения шахматам одна из важных задач тренера - помочь спортсмену обнаружить и исправить его типичные ошибки. Тем самым спортсмены получат возможность развивать мышление, закреплять знания и навыки, становиться более осознанными при практическом занятии шахматами. В данном исследовании мы проанализировали и синтезировали теоретические и практические основы распространённых ошибок шахматистов. Затем мы провели интервью с экспертами, чтобы выбрать подходящие упражнения для преодоления этой проблемы. В результате было выявлено 8 распространенных ошибок, которые встречаются в тренировках шахматистов в начальный период обучения в Центре спортивной подготовки и соревнований провинции Биньзыонг, Вьетнам (ST&CCBDVN). В ходе нашего исследования мы также отобрали 10 специализированных тестов для оценки технических навыков, умений и приемов шахматистов. После года применения этих коррекционных упражнений экспериментальная группа первоначально принесла положительные результаты. Темп роста экспериментальной группы увеличился с 21,28% до 39,13%, превзойдя темп роста контрольной группы, который вырос только с 11,49% до 38,10%. Таким образом, можно подтвердить явную и убедительную эффективность упражнений, выбранных для применения в тренировочной программе для преодоления распространенных ошибок спортсменов-шахматистов в начальный период обучения.

Ключевые слова: коррекционные упражнения, шахматы, начальное обучение, ошибки.

Introduction

A player's mistake in chess training in the early training stage is a negative phenomenon, harmful to comprehension and therefore should be avoided, if encountered, should be overcome. In training, some Russian coaches, typically V.G. Zak has also suggested that paying attention to players' mistakes in chess practice has a negative effect on learning. In particular, this view suggests that children should not learn too deeply about specific variations in the opening stage. Because this will reinforce the mistake in the athlete's consciousness and limit their creativity. The causes leading to mistakes of athletes are often such as athletes are still vague, do not master the knowledge they have learned, due to lack of knowledge, due to carelessness... Sometimes, behaviorism also suggests that these mistakes may be due to the coach's incorrect presentation, or teaching too quickly or explaining not clearly enough.

In the process of practice, chess players make mistakes not simply due to lack of knowledge, but also because of the use of some learned knowledge, which used to be useful and successful, but now proved wrong or simply no longer relevant. Of

course, in the process of training, detecting and correcting mistakes for athletes will contribute to forming the meaning of acquired knowledge.

Pioneer in the field of chess pedagogy in the Soviet era was V.G. Zak (1959), merit coach - who trained for many years at the Sports Palace of Petersburg city. He gave some value advices in his work entitled "The Early Training Chess Program" about the common mistakes made by teenage chess players in practice and competition.

Next was Chess coach Maizelis with his work "Chess" (1960), Judovits with "Interesting Chess", (1962). These authors have given the right advice during development (opening phase) for athletes in the early training stage.

The Honored Soviet Chess Coach, the leading Chess teacher Ia.G. Rokhlin wrote the work of a lifetime, "Young Chess Player" (1977). Through that, he has guided teaching methods, training for coaches and how to practice for athletes to avoid mistakes in training.

Inherited research by the experienced coach - N.I. Zuravlev with the work entitled "Step by step" (1986), he systematized the documents before his time and synthesized Chess theory of pedagogy. Most notably, he introduced the order of teaching Chess to athletes at several sports schools for teenagers and children. This work has been translated into Vietnamese and received by many coaches, athletes, and chess lovers in the late 80s and 90s of the 20th century.

Subsequent contributions to the pedagogy and psychology of teaching Chess for children include authors such as X.D. Ivansenko "A Collection of Combined Attacks" (1988). In his work, he emphasized the early training of visual coordination ability for young athletes; I. Yakovlev and Kostrov with "Finding the Best Move" (1998) outlined how to use exercise for simple planning for children; V.A. Konotop (2003) also left an impression with a system of teaching materials for young athletes from the initial training stage to the perfecting sport stage.

Next must be the massive work, unifying the entire training program for young chess players of the famous Chess coach V.Golenhisev. It was written to order of the Soviet Chess Federation and lasted for more than a decade from 1969 to 1980 with 3 episodes (training from level 4 athletes to level 1 athletes and candidate masters). This document was translated into Vietnamese by coach Luong Trong Minh in the 90s of the twentieth century.

In modern times (when computers, software and the Internet are involved) Chess coach Maksim Omariev produced a valuable work called "75 typical mistakes in practice of young chess players" (2014).

In Vietnam, up to now, there has not been any research that directly goes into the problem of studying common mistakes and giving remedial exercises. The studies were carried out strictly according to the standard program recommended by the Vietnam Chess Federation or the Chess Professional Committee of the provinces. To a certain extent, our research direction still finds relevant reference points. These are the tests used in testing to assess the level, technique, skill and technique... As well as the exercises to overcome common mistakes in chess that the authors have not studied before.

In summary, the study of common mistakes in chess is of great interest to many theorists abroad. All show its meaning and role in chess teaching and training.

Methodology

Research Goal

On the basis of analyzing and synthesizing theoretical and practical bases on common mistakes made in the practice of chess players in the initial training period, the topic proceeds to select remedial exercises to apply them in training for chess athletes at ST&CCBDVN.

Sample and Data Collection

The interview sample consisted of 46 people, including 30 coaches (who are directly training at sports centers in the southern provinces of Vietnam) and 16 chess players in the initial training stage of Binh Duong province.

The experimental study sample includes 16 male chess players, ages 8-10, from ST&CCBDVN during the initial training period. Chess players are understood to be in the initial training stage when they are selected from the preliminary training stage, have undergone 2-3 years of training and have reached a level equivalent to level 3.

This is also the subject that is likely to continue to be trained to achieve high results in the future. This sample consisted of 2 groups, including the control group of 8 male chess players who participated in training under the old and existing of ST&CCBDVN. The experimental group of 8 male chess players participated in training under the new Chess Program, applying exercises to overcome common mistakes in chess selected by the topic.

Identify common mistakes and corresponding causes in the practice of Chess players in the initial training phase by conducting interviews with 30 experienced Chess coaches from the southern provinces, Vietnam and 16 athletes are practicing Chess at the initial training stage of Binh Duong province.

The selection of tests to evaluate the knowledge, techniques and skills of chess players in the initial training period was carried out through 4 steps as follows.

Step 1. Synthesize the tests. Through reference to documents, tests have been used to select and evaluate the professional qualifications of chess players in the initial training period of domestic and foreign experts (Alechxeev, 1984), (Zlotnik, 1996), (Sokonsky, 1995), (Duong Thanh Binh, 2016), (Dang Van Dung, 1999), (Nguyen Hong Duong, 2015)... We found that there was a uniformity in the assessment of knowledge, techniques and skills of Chess players in the early training period and totalled 30 tests.

Step 2. Eliminate duplicate, less common tests. However, the topic has found that there are some tests that have overlapping purposes, and it is difficult to organize tests in the locality. So we removed 8 tests and kept 22 tests.

Step 3. Interview with experts. In order to ensure objectivity when selecting tests, on the basis of 22 tests that were preliminarily selected in step 2, the topic developed an expert interview form. The interviewees are 30 coaches with good qualifications and experience in Chess training. The value of using the tests is determined by the percentage of opinions rated at 2 levels, Very Important and Important. However, in order to ensure objectivity as well as avoid subjective errors while selecting tests, in each of the questionnaires in addition to the above selected tests, the topic was left blank. The coaches can

add other tests that they think are very important and necessary to evaluate the knowledge, techniques s and professional skills of Chess athletes during the initial training period at ST&CCBDVN.

Step 4. Check the reliability of the selected tests. Tests used to assess knowledge, techniques and professional skills for Chess athletes in the initial training phase must be simple, easy to conduct, easy to organize and implement, and must ensure the specificity of Chess athletes and suitable for practical conditions. As is known, a test that can be used in scientific research, as well as in testing and evaluation in training and teaching practice, must ensure reliability and informability. The reliability of the tests is the degree of concordance between the results of the tests on the same experimental object and under the same conditions.

Select exercises to overcome common mistakes in practice of chess players based on training perspectives combined with pedagogical observation methods of Chess players in the initial training stage at strong centers and observe the practice of Chess training at elite units such as Hanoi, Quang Ninh, Ho Chi Minh City, Can Tho, Bac Giang, the Army, Thua Thien Hue... These exercises must comply with the training principles:

1) must be oriented to correct and overcome common mistakes made by chess players;

2) ensure feasibility;

3) ensure the reasonableness, content, form, difficulty must be suitable with the objects' characteristics and practical conditions;

4) must be effective;

5) diversify and create excitement for athletes to practice;

6) being approachable with the trend of using specialized training methods and methods in modern Chess training.

The experimental process was conducted for a period of 6 months by experimentally applying exercises to correct mistakes in training for Chess athletes in the initial training stage of ST&CCBDVN. According to the annual training plan arranged by duration, each week athletes practice 6 times, each training session is 1,5 hours, during the training time there are about 30 minutes for athletes to solve professional exercises.

The use of exercises for the experimental group has the following characteristics: in each experimental period the selected exercises are used repeatedly, in rotation order, with abundant content. This process was built on the basis of factors: training volume, training time, training density, training intensity. The content of the remedial exercises has been specifically distributed in the practice schedule table and detailed sample lesson plan.

During the experiment, the training cycle will be divided, paying attention to the schedule and nature of the competition attributes to divide the periods appropriately. The annual training cycle is divided into 3 periods: the preparation period, the competition period, the transition period. In which, the experimental period is from September 2018 to February 2019).

Analyzing of Data

Frequency analysis (%) to calculate and identify common mistakes and find corresponding causes in chess players' training. At the same time, these algorithms are also used to select exercises to overcome common mistakes made by Chess players in the initial training phase of ST&CCBDVN.

Conventional topic only selects tests to evaluate knowledge, techniques and professional skills for Chess athletes in the initial training stage must achieve at least 80% of the total score (votes) at 2 levels, very important and important. A test that can be used in scientific research, as well as in testing and evaluation in training and teaching practice, must be tests that ensure reliability and informability.

To determine the reliability of the tests, we tested the subjects twice, the test conditions between the two times were the same. Then proceed to calculate the correlation coefficient (r) of the contents between the two tests. If the coefficient r > 0,8 and P < 0,05, the test is reliable enough. The results have shown that 10 selected tests have been published by scientists on reputable documents, so they have ensured the announcement, so the topic does not test the announcement of the tests but only test the reliability of the tests.

Experimental application of exercises to correct mistakes for Chess athletes: To evaluate the development of knowledge, techniques and skills of Chess athletes in the initial training period after the experiment, the topic has conducted a test. Check the data twice (before and after the experiment). Algorithms used to calculate and analyze data include: mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, growth rate, and student t. In the Independent-samples T-test, it should be noted that based on the results of testing the equality of two population variances (Levene test). Variance describes the degree of uniformity or non-uniformity (dispersion) of observed data. If the Sig value in the Levene test (F test) < 0,05, then the variances of the two populations are different, then use the t test results in the line Equal variances not assumed; If Sig. > 0,05, then the variances of the 2 populations are not different, then use the t-test results in the line Equal variances assumed. If Sig. of the t < a (significance level) test, there is a significant difference in the mean of the 2 populations and vice versa.

Results

Identifying common mistakes and causes in the practice of Chess athletes in the initial training period at ST&CCBDVN

In order to determine the common mistakes made in the practice of Chess athletes during the initial training period, the study conducted interviews with 30 experienced Chess coaches from Vietnam southern provinces of along with 16 chess players practicing Chess at the initial training stage of Binh Duong province.

The research results have identified the 8 most common mistakes and corresponding causes in the practice of Chess athletes during the initial training period that the coach and the athlete have given (accounting for over 80% of the survey opinions). The results are presented in Table 1.

Table 1 - Common mistakes and corresponding causes of Chess athletes in the initial training period at ST&CCBDVN

DOI: https://doi.org/10.23670/IRJ.2023.128.8.1

No Common mistakes Reasons

- Lazy thinking - Not work hard to solve the

1 Abuse of blitz exercises for a long time - There is a gap in basic knowledge

- Too much emphasis on the

2 Investing too much research in the opening stage opening stage - Lazy practice - There is a lack of knowledge about the middle and the end

3 Frustrated, surrendering too soon - Poor will to compete - The ending skill is still weak - Mistakes in changing forces - Distributing game time is not reasonable - Limits on game analysis skills

4 Pay little attention to learning endgames - Overemphasizing the role of the opening and middle stage - Feeling bored when studying the endgames

5 Only choose to play against weak opponents - Fear of losing/haunting to win - Poor will to compete

6 Competition without a plan - Lack of playing experience - Knowledge of analyzing and evaluating the game is still limited - Overemphasize the tactical role - Deficit in strategic knowledge

- Too subjective, look down on

7 Hasty decisions when calculating moves opponents - Haste, impatience - The ability to calculate the plan is still weak - Poor sense of danger due to lack of practice and experience

- Indecisive nervous type

8 The speed of thinking and calculation is too slow - Choosing the opening and the way to play is too complicated - Overly perfectionist personality - Poor planning ability - The capacity to calculate the plan is still weak. - Knowledge of the opening, middle, and endgame has many holes

Note: selecting of tests to assess professional knowledge, skills and techniques for Chess athletes in the initial training stage at ST&CCBDVN

Through a survey of experts (who are directly training at sport centers in the southern provinces of Vietnam), the topic has selected tests to assess knowledge, skills and professional techniques for Chess athletes at ST&CCBDVN. The results of the interview for the selection of tests are shown in Table 2.

Table 2 - Results of interviews to select tests used to assess knowledge, skills and professional techniques for Chess athletes in

the initial training phase of ST&CCBDVN

DOI: https://doi.org/10.23670/IRJ.2023.128.8.3

No Test Very suitable Suitable Not suitable

Total Score % Total Score % Total Score %

1 Simultane ous chess competitio n (mark) 12 40,00 8 26,67 10 33,33

2 Knowledg e of the rules of Chess (mark) 13 43,33 4 13,33 13 43,33

3 Move Knight in a 3x3 square (mark) 9 30,00 4 13,33 17 56,67

4 Checkmat e with Queen (mark) 13 43,33 8 26,67 9 30,00

5 Checkmat e with Rook (mark) 15 50,00 5 16,67 10 33,33

6 Checkmat e with Bishop pair (mark) 24 80,00 5 16,67 1 3,33

7 Draw in chess (mark) 24 80,00 3 10,00 3 10,00

8 Basic Pawn endgame (mark) 25 83,33 4 13,33 1 3,33

9 Opening knowledg e (mark) 3 10,00 24 80,00 3 10,00

10 Central control (mark) 9 30,00 9 30,00 12 40,00

11 Selection direction for castling (mark) 7 23,33 5 16,67 18 60,00

12 Find the opponent' s wrong move in the opening (mark) 25 83,33 4 13,33 1 3,33

13 Swap troops for 12 40,00 4 13,33 14 46,67

benefits

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(mark)

Types of

14 tactic combinati on (mark) 26 86,67 4 13,33 0 0,00

Find a

15 Tempo favorable move (mark) 26 86,67 4 13,33 0 0,00

Checkmat

16 e in one move (mark) 8 26,67 2 6,67 20 66,67

Checkmat

17 e in two moves (mark) 29 96,67 1 3,33 0 0,00

18 King Attack Strategy (mark) 25 83,33 3 10,00 2 6,67

Evaluatio

n and

analysis

19 of the game in the middle stage (mark) 22 73,33 6 20,00 2 6,67

Calculatio

n of

schemes

20 in the middle stage (mark) 19 63,33 5 16,67 6 20,00

Choose a

move in

21 the middle stage (mark) 20 66,67 8 26,67 2 6,67

22 Simple planning in the middle stage (mark) 25 83,33 3 10,00 2 6,67

Note: n=30

To determine the reliability of the tests, we tested the research object twice, the test conditions between the two times were the same. Then we also calculated the correlation coefficient (r) of the contents between the two tests. If the coefficient r > 0,8 and P < 0,05, the test is reliable enough. The test results and calculations are shown in Table 3.

Table 3 - Correlation coefficient between 2 times of performing tests to assess knowledge, skills and professional techniques

for Chess athletes in the initial training period

DOI: https://doi.org/10.23670/IRJ.2023.128.8.4

No Test r P

1 Checkmate with Bishop pair (mark) 0,91 < 0,05

2 Draw in chess (mark) 0,82 < 0,05

3 Basic Pawn endgame (mark) 0,9 < 0,05

4 Opening knowledge (mark) 0,81 < 0,05

5 Find the opponent's wrong move in the opening (mark) 0,95 < 0,05

6 Types of tactic combination (mark) 0,83 < 0,05

7 Find a Tempo favorable move (mark) 0,82 < 0,05

8 Checkmate in two moves (mark) 0,89 < 0,05

9 King Attack Strategy (mark) 0,88 < 0,05

10 Simple planning in the middle stage (mark) 0,83 < 0,05

Through Table 3 shows, 10/10 tests all have r > 0,8 and P< 0,05, so they are reliable enough to use.

Thus, through 4 steps of synthesizing, briefly selecting tests that are suitable for practical conditions, interviewing coaches and testing the reliability of selected tests, the topic identified 10 evaluation tests of professional knowledge, skills and techniques for Chess athletes in the initial training phase at ST&CCBDVN. Specifically the following 10 tests:

1) checkmate with Bishop pair (mark);

2) draw in chess (mark);

3) basic Pawn endgame (mark);

4) opening knowledge (mark);

5) find the opponent's wrong move in the opening (mark);

6) types of tactic combination (mark);

7) find a Tempo favorable move (mark);

8) checkmate in two moves (mark);

9) king Attack Strategy (mark);

10) simple planning in the middle stage (mark).

These tests will be the basis to verify the effectiveness of the exercises selected and applied experimentally to overcome common mistakes of Chess athletes in the initial training stage at ST&CCBDVN.

Choosing exercises to correct mistakes in training of Chess athletes in the initial training period at ST&CCBDVN Based on the characteristics of the research object (the training subject), we systematized 40 exercises and divided them into 8 groups to overcome training mistakes for Chess athletes during the initial training period at ST&CCBDVN. As follows:

(A) Group of remedial exercises for athletes abuse blitz:

1) draw exercises for the move first side;

2) standard chess competition;

3) positions with execution time more than 5 minutes;

4) analysis and assessment of the game;

5) quick chess competition.

(B) Group of corrective exercises for athletes invest too much in the opening:

6) practicing competition;

7) optimizing troop placement;

8) continue the game after the opening period;

9) solving exercises in the middle stage;

10) handling chess space dominance.

(C) Group of remedial exercises for athletes who surrender too soon:

11) analysis of the game played;

12) playing to the end of the game;

13) defending against the risk of checkmate;

14) doing the exercise to change troops;

15) counter attacking on the opponent's weak point.

(D) Group of remedial exercises for athletes who do not learn the endgame:

16) solving the endgame exercise;

17) playing chess games that are moving to the end;

18) learning technical endgames;

19) breaking files;

20) breaking the pawn structure.

(E) Group of corrective exercises for athletes playing only against weak opponents:

21) competing with equal or stronger players;

22) competing against software with ascending Elo;

23) participating in tournament competition;

24) attacking the defenders force;

25) find weaknesses in the opponent's position.

(F) Group of corrective exercises for unplanned athletes:

26) putting the pieces in an active position;

27) attacking the king;

28) analyzing and evaluate the game;

29) simple planning exercise;

30) plan of attack.

(G) Group of remedial exercises for athletes with hasty decisions:

31) calculating reserve moves;

32) planning;

33) counter-attack exercises;

34) exercises with a duration greater than 10 minutes;

35) exercises with high difficulty.

(H) Group of corrective exercises for athletes who think too long:

36) exercises with a duration of less than 2 minutes;

37) thoroughly studying the opening rules;

38) handling of force superiority;

39) playing according to the sample plan;

40) playing under given circumstances.

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Next, we interviewed 30 coaches with qualifications and extensive experience in coaching Chess athletes at the initial training stage. The value of using the exercises is our convention >75% of opinions agree at 2 levels Very often and Often.

Table 4 - Interview results on selection of exercises to correct mistakes in training for chess players in the initial training period

DOI: https://doi.org/10.23670/IRJ.2023.128.8.5

No Exercises Very often Frequently Not often

Total Score % Total Score % Total Score %

1 Draw exercises for the move first side 2 6,67 5 16,67 23 76,67

2 Standard chess competiti on 29 96,67 1 3,33 0 0,00

3 Positions with execution time more than 5 minutes 26 86,67 2 6,67 2 6,67

4 Analysis and assessme nt of the game 24 80,00 3 10,00 3 10,00

5 Quick chess competitio n 2 6,67 5 16,67 23 76,67

6 Practice competiti on 26 86,67 2 6,67 2 6,67

7 Optimizin g troop placement 2 6,67 5 16,67 23 76,67

8 Continue the game after the opening period 29 96,67 1 3,33 0 0,00

9 Solving exercises in the middle stage 2 6,67 26 86,67 2 6,67

10 Handling chess space dominanc e 12 40,00 8 26,67 10 33,33

Analysis

11 of the game played 30 100,00 0 0,00 0 0,00

12 Playing to the end of the game 30 100,00 0 0,00 0 0,00

Defend

13 against the risk of checkmate 12 40,00 8 26,67 10 33,33

14 Doing the exercise to change troops 26 86,67 4 13,33 0 0,00

15 Counteratt ack on the opponent' s weak point 12 40,00 8 26,67 10 33,33

Solving

16 the endgame exercise 23 76,67 5 16,67 2 6,67

17 Playing chess games that are moving to the end 2 6,67 23 76,67 5 16,67

18 Learning technical endgames 12 40,00 8 26,67 10 33,33

19 Breaking files 1 3,33 11 36,67 18 60,00

20 Breaking the Pawn structure 2 6,67 2 6,67 16 86,66

21 Competin g with equal or stronger 26 86,67 4 13,33 0 0,00

players

22 Competin g against software with ascending Elo 26 86,67 4 13,33 0 0,00

23 Participat ing in tournaille nt competiti on 24 80,00 5 16,67 1 3,33

24 Attacking the defenders force 9 30,00 9 30,00 12 40,00

25 Find weakness es in the opponent' s position 25 83,33 4 13,33 1 3,33

26 Putting the pieces in an active position 3 10,00 24 80,00 3 10,00

27 Attacking the king 9 30,00 9 30,00 12 40,00

28 Analyzin g and evaluate the game 26 86,67 4 13,33 0 0,00

29 Simple planning exercise 25 83,33 4 13,33 1 3,33

30 Planning of attack 12 40,00 4 13,33 14 46,67

31 Calculatin g reserve moves 10 33,33 9 30,00 11 36,67

32 Planning 14 46,67 5 16,67 11 36,67

33 Counterattacking exercises 24 80,00 5 16,67 1 3,33

34 Exercises with a duration greater than 10 minutes 26 86,67 4 13,33 0 0,00

35 Exercises with high difficulty 24 80,00 5 16,67 1 3,33

36 Exercises with a duration of less than 2 minutes 29 96,67 1 3,33 0 0,00

37 Thorough 25 83,33 3 10,00 2 6,67

ly studying the

opening rules

38 Handling of force superiorit y 22 73,33 6 20,00 2 6,67

39 Playing according to the sample plan 24 80,00 5 16,67 1 3,33

Playing under

40 given circumsta nces 20 66,67 8 26,67 2 6,67

Note: n = 30

Thus, through the results in Table 5, 24 exercises have been selected (belonging to 8 groups). These are exercises with more than 75% of votes in favor at 2 levels Very often and Frequently. Specifically, the following exercises:

Table 5 - Groups of exercises to correct mistakes in practice DOI: https://doi.org/10.23670/IRJ.2023.128.8.6

(1) Standard chess competition

Group of remedial exercises for athletes abuse blitz (2) Positions with execution time

A more than 5 minutes

(3) Analysis and assessment of the game;

(4) Practicing competition

Group of corrective exercises (5) Continue the game after the

B for athletes invest too much in opening period

the opening (6) Solving exercises in the middle stage

(7) Analysis of the game played

C Group of remedial exercises for athletes who surrender too (8) Playing to the end of the game

soon (9) Doing the exercise to change troops

(10) Solving the endgame

Group of remedial exercises for athletes who do not learn the endgame exercise

D (11) Playing chess games that are moving to the end

(12) Learning technical endgames

(13) Competing with equal or

stronger players

E Group of corrective exercises for athletes playing only against weak opponents (14) Competing against software with ascending Elo

(15) Participating in tournament competition (16) Find weaknesses in the opponent's position

F Group of corrective exercises (17) Analyzing and evaluate the

for unplanned athletes game

(18) Simple planning exercise

(19) Counter-attack exercises

Group of remedial exercises (20) Exercises with a duration

G for athletes with hasty greater than 10 minutes

decisions (21) Exercises with high difficulty

(22) Exercises with a duration of

less than 2 minutes

H Group of corrective exercises for athletes who think too long (23) Thoroughly studying the opening rules

(24) Playing under given

circumstances

Note: evaluating the effectiveness of exercises to correct mistakes in training for Chess athletes in the initial training period at ST&CCBDVN

In order to verify the effectiveness of the selected exercises to correct mistakes for Chess athletes in the initial training period at ST&CCBDVN, we conducted an experiment for a period of 12 months. According to the annual training plan arranged by duration, athletes practice 6 times a week, each training session is 1,5 hours in which spend about 30 minutes for athletes to solve professional exercises.

The control group consisted of 8 male chess players participating in training under the old, existing Chess Program of ST&CCBDVN. The experimental group of 8 male chess players participated in training under the new Chess Program, applying exercises to overcome common mistakes in chess selected by the topic.

The use of exercises for the experimental group has the following characteristics: in each period, the selected exercises are used repeatedly in the order of rotation with rich content. The experimental program is built on the basis of the following factors: training volume, training time, training density and training intensity. The content of the remedial exercises is specifically distributed in the practice schedule table and detailed sample lesson plan.

To evaluate the development of knowledge, techniques and skills of Chess athletes in the initial training period after the experiment, the topic examined the data twice (before and after the experimental period).

Before the experiment

The results of comparing the performance of the selected exercises of the experimental group and the control group before the experiment are presented in Table 6.

Table 6 - Test results of experimental group and control group before experiment DOI: https://doi.org/10.23670/IRJ.2023.128.87

No Test Control group Experimental group Comparison

x1 + SD1 Cv% x2 + SD2 Cv% t P

1 Check mate with Bishop pair (mark) 4,88 0,64 13,15 5,25 0,89 16,88 0,97 > 0,05

2 Draw in chess (mark) 4,63 0,52 11,19 4,63 0,92 19,81 0,00 > 0,05

3 Basic Pawn endgam e (mark) 4,50 0,93 20,57 4,88 0,83 17,12 0,85 > 0,05

Openin g knowle dge (mark)

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4 5,13 0,64 12,50 5,38 0,52 9,63 0,85 > 0,05

5 Find the 4,63 0,92 19,81 4,63 0,52 11,19 0,00 > 0,05

oppone nt's wrong move in the openin g (mark)

Types of

6 tactic combin ation (mark) 4,25 0,71 16,64 5,13 0,99 19,34 1,03 > 0,05

7 Find a Tempo favorab le move (mark) 4,25 0,71 16,64 4,88 0,99 20,33 1,45 > 0,05

8 Check mate in two moves (mark) 4,50 0,93 20,57 5,25 0,71 13,47 1,62 > 0,05

9 King Attack Strateg y (mark) 5,13 0,83 16,28 4,75 0,89 18,66 0,87 > 0,05

10 Simple plannin g in the middle stage (mark) 4,63 0,92 19,81 5,13 0,99 19,34 1,04 > 0,05

Note: n=8; t0,05= 2,14 (t table)

To clarify more about the effectiveness of the applied exercises, the topic assessed the growth rate of the tests of the control group and the experimental group. The results presented in chart 1 show that the tests in the experimental group had a superior growth (21,28% - 39,13%) compared to the control group (only increased in the range of 11,49% - 38,]n%

Figure 1 - Growth rate of the control group and the experimental group after the exercise period DOI: https://doi.org/10.23670/IRJ.2023.128.8.8

To clarify the experimental effect, the study also compared the performance in 2019 with 2018. We chose to compare the rankings through 2 Chess tournaments; Binh Duong Gifted Prize and Binh Duong Student Championship. Recorded results: Compared to 2018, the experimental group's performance has increased significantly with 08 athletes participating, having won 02 gold medals, 01 silver medal and the athletes' achievement ranking has also increased over the previous year. While the control group also had 8 athletes participating, but only 1 bronze medal. Thereby, it is possible to confirm the clear and convincing effectiveness of the selected exercises for application in the training program to overcome common mistakes in the practice of Chess athletes during the initial training period at ST&CCBDVN.

Discussion

In Vietnam, up to now, there has not been any research that directly goes into the problem of studying common mistakes and giving remedial exercises. The studies were carried out strictly according to the standard program recommended by the Vietnam Chess Federation or the Chess Professional Committees of the provinces and cities throughout Vietnam. However, to some extents, our research direction still finds points that can be referenced related to those topics. It is the tests used in the assessment of skills, techniques, and techniques, and in particular, selected exercises to overcome mistakes in training for Chess athletes in the initial training stage at ST&CCBDVN is a young sport, but it has also achieved some encouraging achievements. For example, athletes Do Hoang Minh Tho (silver medal of age - Asia), Vo Thi Mai Truc (gold medal of age -Southeast Asia), Tao Minh Giang, Nguyen Phuong Anh won the national youth medal. The achievement has been quite good, but through discussions with coaches, parents, and athletes, we see that in the process of training for chess athletes in the initial training phase, there are often mistakes in professional skills. The research results have great significance in overcoming common mistakes in the process of practicing and playing Chess at primary school age.

Conclusion

Research results have discovered 8 common mistakes made in the practice of Chess players in the initial training phase (including Abuse of blitz; Investing too much research in the opening stage; Frustrated, surrendering too soon; Pay little attention to learning endgames; Only choose to play against weak opponents; Competition without a plan; Hasty decisions when calculating moves; The speed of thinking and calculation is too slow)

We have also selected 10 specialized tests to evaluate the technical and professional skills of Chess athletes in the initial training phase. These include of

1) checkmate with Bishop pair (mark);

2) draw in chess (mark);

3) basic Pawn endgame (mark);

4) opening knowledge (mark);

5) find the opponent's wrong move in the opening (mark);

6) types of tactic combination (mark);

7) find a Tempo favorable move (mark);

8) checkmate in two moves (mark);

9) king Attack Strategy (mark);

10) simple planning in the middle stage (mark).

In addition, comparing the results of the tournament in 2019 also noted that the performance of the experimental group also increased significantly compared to the control group's. Specifically, the experimental group with 8 athletes participating in the tournament won 2 gold and 1 silver, while the control group also only won 1 bronze.

Recommendations

Through the research, we suggest that the Training Department and the coaches of BD consider and allow the use of exercises to correct mistakes in training for Chess athletes at the initial training stage that have been built in the topic. Specifically, choose them as official documents to replace the old content for training purposes.

It is necessary to expand the research scope of the topic to another research direction from which to build a more comprehensive training program system (related to psychologically-oriented exercises, motivational education, will through chess program application and the Internet).

Limitations

Because this was a specialist sport training case study, only 16 representative athletes were selected for the study. Moreover, the study only focused on the age group of 8-10 and only limited to male sex, so there are still many limitations that need to be considered and expanded.

Конфликт интересов

Не указан.

Рецензия

Бочкина Е.В., Московский финансово-промышленный университет «Синергия», Москва, Российская Федерация DOI: https://doi.Org/10.23670/IRJ.2023.128.8.8

Conflict of Interest

None declared.

Review

Bochkina E.V., Moscow Financial and Industrial University "Synergy", Moscow, Russian Federation DOI: https://doi.org/10.23670/IRJ.2023.128.8.8

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Список литературы на английском языке / References in English

1. Alechxeev N.G. The problems of selecting young chess talents. Internal reference of the Department of Chess at HCMC University of Sports / N.G. Alechxeev, B.A. Zlotnik. — Moscow, 1984.

2. The Genius Brain and Chess / Ed. by Duong Thanh Binh. — Ho Chi Minh City General Publishing House, 2016. — Vol. 1. The Basics of Chess.

3. Dang V.D. Chess textbook, for sports university students / V.D. Dang, H.D. Nguyen; ed. by Q.C. Dam. — Sports Publishing House, 1999.

4. Dlotnhic. Chess science - experience - level / Dlotnhic. — Sports Publishing House, 1996.

5. Chess Course. Materials for students of sports universities / Ed. by H.D. Nguyen. — Sports Publishing House, 2015.

6. Dang V.D. Research on the application of tests in assessing the training level of male chess athletes / V.D. Dang // Thesis of Master of Science in Education. — 1999.

7. Extrin B. Theory and practice of Chess / B.Extrin. — Sports Publishing House, 1991.

8. Zlotnik B.A. Chess - Science - Experience - Qualification / B.A. Zlotnik. — Sports Publishing House, 1990.

9. Koblentz. Chess: Tactics - Strategy Basic Lessons / Koblentz. — Ho Chi Minh City Chess Federation, 1993.

10. Nhay-Stadt Ia.I. Practice Chess - Tactical tactics / Ia.I. Nhay-Stadt. — Dong Nai Publishing House, 2001.

11. Vontroc. Chess - Tactics - Strategy / Vontroc. — Ho Chi Minh City Publishing House, 1994.

12. Sokonsky. Your first moves / Sokonsky. — Sports Publishing House, 1995.

13. Averbakh Y.L. Endgame technique / Y.L. Averbakh. — Vietnamese Chess Association, 1986.

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