Научная статья на тему 'Roles of Medicinal Plants in Organic Live Stock Production'

Roles of Medicinal Plants in Organic Live Stock Production Текст научной статьи по специальности «Животноводство и молочное дело»

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Ключевые слова
Traditional herbal medicine / Natural products / Livestock production / Sheep / Cattle

Аннотация научной статьи по животноводству и молочному делу, автор научной работы — Mohamad Hesam Shahrajabian, Wenli Sun, Qi Cheng

Eco-friendly management is important for farm animals healthy, so the use of naturally occurring compounds like herbs, herbal preparations and other botanicals are important for enhancement of overall animal health and satisfy consumer concerns. Key considerations in organic livestock production are the origins of livestock, livestock feed, living conditions, waste management, health care and record keeping. Some of the medicinal plants which are reported in livestock production are Hypoxis hemerocallidea, Peltophorum africanum, Drimia sanguine, Elephantorrhiza elephantine, Curcuma longa, Azadirachta indica, Myrsine Africana, Ficus thonningii Blume, Vitex thomasii De Wild, Boswellia frereana, Tillandsia recurvata, Solanum incanum L., Harrisonia abyssinica Oliv., Echinaceae purpurea, Moringa oleifera, Trichilia claussenii, Artemisia absinthium, Ecklonia cava, Carcia papaya, Acacia angustissima, Sesbania sesban, Cajanus cajan, Origanum vulgare, Annona senegalensis, Picrorhiza kurroa, Azadirachta indica, Morinda citrifolia, Rheum nobile, Carduus pycnocephalus, Herba agastaches, Cortez phellodendri, Gypsum fibrosum, Chenopodium album, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Zingiber officinale, Echinacea, and Devil ,s claw. Medicinal plants have been used effectively for health care treat-ment to make a significant increase in both health and animals productivity. The utilization of traditional medicinal plants are cheaper, easier and more sustainable compare to synthetic drugs and pharmaceuticals. The goal of this manuscript is review on functions of important medicinal plants in livestock production.

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Текст научной работы на тему «Roles of Medicinal Plants in Organic Live Stock Production»

Journal of Stress Physiology & Biochemistry, Vol. 17, No. 1, 2021, pp. 106-119 ISSN 1997-0838 Original Text Copyright © 2020 by Shahrajabian, Sun and Cheng

REVIEW

Roles of Medicinal Plants in Organic Live Stock

Production

Mohamad Hesam Shahrajabian1#, Wenli Sun1#, and Qi Cheng1,2*#

1 Biotechnology Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China

2 College of Life Sciences, Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding, Hebei, 071000, China; Global Alliance of HeBA U-CLS&HeQiS for BioAl-Manufacturing, Baoding, Hebei 071000, China.

*E-Mail: chengqi@caas.cn

Received November 5, 2020

Eco-friendly management is important for farm animals healthy, so the use of naturally occurring compounds like herbs, herbal preparations and other botanicals are important for enhancement of overall animal health and satisfy consumer concerns. Key considerations in organic livestock production are the origins of livestock, livestock feed, living conditions, waste management, health care and record keeping. Some of the medicinal plants which are reported in livestock production are Hypoxis hemerocallidea, Peltophorum africanum, Drimia sanguine, Elephantorrhiza elephantine, Curcuma longa, Azadirachta indica, Myrsine Africana, Ficus thonningii Blume, Vitex thomasii De Wild, Boswellia frereana, Tillandsia recurvata, Solanum incanum L., Harrisonia abyssinica Oliv., Echinaceae purpurea, Moringa oleifera, Trichilia claussenii, Artemisia absinthium, Ecklonia cava, Carcia papaya, Acacia angustissima, Sesbania sesban, Cajanus cajan, Origanum vulgare, Annona senegalensis, Picrorhiza kurroa, Azadirachta indica, Morinda citrifolia, Rheum nobile, Carduus pycnocephalus, Herba agastaches, Cortez phellodendri, Gypsum fibrosum, Chenopodium album, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Zingiber officinale, Echinacea, and Devil ,s claw. Medicinal plants have been used effectively for health care treat-ment to make a significant increase in both health and animals productivity. The utilization of traditional medicinal plants are cheaper, easier and more sustainable compare to synthetic drugs and pharmaceuticals. The goal of this manuscript is review on functions of important medicinal plants in livestock production.

Key words: Traditional herbal medicine; Natural products; Livestock production; Sheep;

Cattle

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Medicinal and aromatic plants and herbs have been used in traditional medicine, food preparation and preservation, animal husbandry, religious observances and cosmetic purposes for many years (Shahrajabian et al., 2019a,b). Nutrition is one of the most important parameters for the maintenance of animal health (Sun et al., 2019a,b), and organic products in organic production systems may lead to organic life (Shahrajabian et al., 2020a,b,c). Organic animal husbandry is defined as a system of livestock production which promotes the use of organic and biodegradable inputs from the ecosystem in term of animal nutrition, animal health, animal housing and breeding. The main goal of organic farming is to create an integrated, humane, environmentally and economically sustainable agricultural system (Nicholas et al., 2004). Due to the growing demand for animal products, there is an urgent need to design new livestock production systems which allow the combination of food security and sustainability. It is also necessary to grow the number of organic livestock farms in response to the necessity to fulfill the growing demand for animal products. Herbal remedies have been reported useful as a therapeutic alternative for treatment of livestock (Aarestrup et al., 2008; Schmid et al., 2012). The goal of this manuscript is review on some important medicinal plants which have been used in live stock production.

Organic Livestock production

Livestock play an important role in the food and economic security of smallholders, and serves as an asset and source of income at the household level and provide food for rural and urban consumers (Rojas-Downing et al., 2017; Campell et al., 2019; Timler et al., 2020). Organic standards require that animals be treated humanely; also, it is important to design an alternative health care strategy that focuses on optimizing animal health through high quality feed and optimal environmental conditions and avoid the use of veterinary medicines or use them under certain circumstances (Lillehoj et al., 2018). The organic standards should be paid attention for both indoor and outdoor systems. General principles for organic livestock productions are a) the areas dedicated for organic

livestock production shall be managed and maintained according to the organic agriculture principles on production, processing, labeling and marketing, b) the organic livestock production shall improve and maintain soil fertility, enhance biodiversity and ecology, and diversify the farming system, c) In organic livestock production, herbivores animals should have access to pasture for grazing and open-air exercise areas appropriate to their health, weather conditions, and geography, or to the traditional farming systems with access to pasture, providing an appropriate welfare for the animals, d) stock densities for livestock shall be appropriate to animal species, feeding, stock health, nutrients balance, and environmental impact, e) livestock breeding shall be natural breeding to minimize stress and prevent diseases, f) avoid the use of chemicals or veterinary drugs and livestock by products except milk as raw materials for feedstuff, and maintain animal health and welfare. The most notable rules which apply for livestock productions are shown.

Livestock production and medicinal plants

Traditional livestock management with considering medicinal plants is of great socio-economic importance for farmers and pastoral populations (Greathead, 2003; Gauer et al., 2010; Bhatt, 2015; Traore et al., 2020). Medicinal plants are cheaper than western drugs (Yinegar et al., 2007; Kone and Atindehou, 2008; Parthiban et al., 2016). Many studies have shown the potential use of aromatic plants, herbs and their extracts, such as essential oils, as alternatives to the antibiotics use in ruminant nutrition (Caroprese et al., 2020). Naturally occurring plants compounds including tannins, saponins and essential oils are extensively assessed as natural alternatives to in-feed antibiotics (Huang et al., 2018). Greathead (2003) reported that plant secondary metabolites are a natural resource that is largely unexploited in conventional animal production systems. The implementation of fruit waste and farm residues also as a supplement for livestock feed is becoming urgent, as the nutritive compounds plant a critical role in metabolic reactions and physiological transformations on the animal bodies, while the secondary metabolites available in plants waste

products may inhibit certain degenerative disease-causing agents which can potentially cause harm in livestock (Achilonu et al., 2018). The application of plant extracts containing high level of plant secondary metabolites such as saponins, alkaloids, essential oils, glucosides, flavonoids and tannins could improve animal performance and resolve human safety issues (Hirstov et al., 2013; Kliebenstein, 2013). Plant secondary metabolites varies from species to species and also in the plants of same species (Barton and Koricheva,

2010); also they are dependent on the growing conditions and metabolic pathways of related secondary metabolites of plants (Ramakrishna and Ravishankar,

2011). Terpenes, also known as terpenoids or isoprenoids, are generally insoluble in water and plant important role in the growth of plants and a vital role in defense, as toxic to insects and mammals (pyrethroids) (Dhanasekaran et al., 2019). The main examples of phenolic compound groups are flavonoids and tannins (Fang et al., 2011). Nitrogen containing compounds such as alkaloids, glucosinolates and cyanogenic glycosides are another important category of secondary metabolites (Dhanasekaran et al., 2019).

Tannins are a group of polyphenolic compounds which possess various biological activities including antimicrobial, anti-parasitic, anti-viral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulation, etc (Waghorn, 2008; Wang and McAllister, 2011; Redondo et al., 2014). The use of nutraceuticals such as tannin containing legumes has been recommended for digestive parasites in livestock for many years (Ole-Miaron, 2003; Hoste et al., 2015); plant bioactives for ruminant health and productivity (Benchaar et al., 2008; Rochfort et al., 2008). Application of Chinese herbal mixtures also recommended in the diet in ruminant production (Githiori et al., 2006 Wang et al., 2011). Tannin-rich plants as anti-nutritional compounds can be a valuable component of sustainable small ruminant production systems (Alonso-Diaz et al., 2010). Allium cepa, Azadirachta indica, Curcuma domestica, Piper nigrum, Trachyspermum ammi, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Zingiber officinale have multiple usages in animal health care (Rastogi et al., 2015).

Anaplasmosis is a tickborne disease caused the bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum which is spread by the bite of infected blacklegged ticks; it is also known as yellow-bag or yellow-fever. For managing anaplasmosis, East coast fever and ectoparasites, two plant families are frequently in usage which are Asteraceae and Lamiaceae, the most important utilized plant species are Synadenium compactum N.E.Br. (Euphorbiaceae), Solanecio manii (Hook.f.) C. Jeffrey (Asteraceae) and Senna didymobotrya (Fresen.) Irwin and Barneby (Caesalpinaceae) (Njoroge and Bussmann, 2006). Durmic et al. (2010) found that Australian woody perennial plants can be considered for grazing systems because they may manipulate rumen fermentation with tremendous plant compounds associated with bioactivity in the rumen. Sideroxylon mascatense, Raphanus sativus, Salix babylonica, Solanum nigrum, Sophora mollis, Taraxacum campylodes, Tulipa stellata, Boerhavia erecta, Celtis australis, Chamaecyparis obtuse var. obtuse, Eryngium biehersteinianum, Gossypium arboreum, Narcissus tazetta, Opuntia littoralis and Streblus asper are important indigenous plants' which are traditionally uses against livestock s diseases in tribal areas in Pakistan (Aziz et al., 2018).

A wide variety of herbs and spices such as thyme, oregano, rosemary, marjoram, yarrow, garlic, ginger, green tea, black cumin, coriander and cinnamon have been used in poultry for their potential application as antibiotic growth promoters (Gadde et al., 2017). Herbs and spices which contain essential oils such as thymol, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, coriander, star anise, ginger, garlic, rosemary, turmeric, basil, caraway, lemon and sage have been used individually or as blends to improve animal health and performance (Gadde et al., 2017). The immune-activating properties of medicinal plants such as dandelion (Tarazacum officinale), mustard (Brassica juncea) and safflower (Carthamun tinctorius) have been evaluated in vitro using avian lymphocytes and macrophages (Lee et al., 2010).

It has been reported that Calendula officinalis, Matricaria recutita, Picea abies, Sanicula europaea and Senecio ovatus use for skin disorders, orally

administered plant species are Artemisia absinthium, Avena sativa, Citrus x limon, Quercus robur, for gastrointestinal diseases and metabolic dysfunction, Matricaria recutitia, Linum usitatissimum and Camellia sinensis; and Quercus robur is mainly used to treat diarrhea in calves (Bischoff et al., 2016). Capsaicin, ginger, feverfew, turmeric, devils claw, ginseng (for fibromyalgia), kava-kava (for neuropathic pain), St. Johns Wort (for sciatica, arthritis, and neuropathic pain), and valerian root (for spasms and muscle cramps) are certain common herbal remedies which are used for natural relief to pain (Sengar et al., 2017). Githiori et al. (2003) found that A. sanguineum, D. angustifolia and H. sepalosa had no impact on either total worm (TWC) counts and faecal egg counts (FEC); the application of santonin and M. Africana significantly reduced the number of TWC, but not FEC, and the use of embelin, R. melanophloeos and A. indica reduced EFC but not TWC. Feeding of maca (Lepidium meyenii), and khat (Catha edulis) have been shown to positively affect sperm production and quality in animals (Clement et al., 2012). Gathuma et al. (2004) reported that herbal anthelmintic remedies, viz. Myrsine Africana, Albizia anthelmintica and Hilderbrantia sepalosa were administered in the traditional way by the healers and their efficacy determined using percent fecal egg count reduction test. Elghandour et al. (2018) found that garlic, ginseng, primerose, and rose hip possess potent antioxidative properties, and their supplementation in regular diet may lessen the chance of occurrence of oxidative stress-related diseases. Shrubby vegetations types called maquis and garrigue may lead to reduction livestock productivity, cause significant toxicity and abortion problems, and reduce efficiency of use of rangeland shrubs (Rogosic et al., 2008). The extracts from Maytenus macrocarpa, Dracontium loretense, Tabebuia impetiginosa, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Uncaria tomentosa exhibited significantly antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Ulloa-Urizar et al., 2015). Towhidi (2007) indicated that Atriplex lentiformis, Alhagi persarum, Seidlitzia rosmarinus, Saueda fruticosa, Haloxylon ammodendron, Salsola tomentosa, Hammada salicornica, Tamrarix kotschyi, Salsola yazdiana, Tamarix aphylla and Artemisia siberi

were pleasure feed for camels in Iranian desert rages. Different parts of Alhagi species are good sources of antioxidant, cardiovascular, anti-ulcer, hepatoprotective, antispasmodic, antidiarrheal, antinociceptive, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, anti-rheumatic, antibacterial, and antifungal (Muhammad et al., 2015). Abdallah et al. (2019) found that Astragalus by-product could be reclaimed through dietary inclusion in animal feed since it had beneficial impacts on rumen fermentation patterns and lipid metabolism and had no adverse impacts on performance and humoral immunity in sheep.

Aqueous extracts of the roots of Artemisia absinthium L. has significant anthelmintic impacts on eggs and larvae of Haemonchus contortus (Varadyova et al., 2018). Olagaray and Bradford (2019) revealed that flavonoids can increase ruminant productivity with beneficial impacts.

Lourenco et al. (2008) concluded that some plant secondary metabolites, present in herbs of botanically diverse forages, are suggested to be potential modifiers of rumen biohydrogenation based on their impacts on rumen methanogenesis. Khaya senegalensis, Anacardium occidentale, Cassia sieberiana, Pterocarpus erinaceus and Vitellaria paradoxa are species with the highest value for relative frequency of citation (RFC) and use for treat gastrointestinal disorders (Ouachinou et al., 2019). Rhizomes and roots of Rheum officinale (rhubarb), bark of Frangula alnus (frangula or alder buckthorn) and bulbs of Allium sativum (garlic) may decrease methane production and acetate to propionate ration (Garcia-Gonzalez et al., 2008). Allium sativum, and Bunium persicum have potential candidate species for the development of novel veterinary drugs with low cost and fewer side effects against mastitis of dairy animals (Amber et al., 2018). Grazing an association of Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) and Stargrass (Cynodon nlemfuensis) can replace part of the concentrate without detrimental impacts on milk production and reproduction on dual purpose cows (Peniche-Gonzalez et al., 2014). Habibi and Ghahtan (2019) recommended Trachyspermum copticum, Stachys lavandulifolia, Zingiber officinale, and Majorana hortensis as a natural food additive in Quail and Quail products. Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium

L.) and mallow (Malva sylvestris L.) as dietary supplements do not have a sufficient effect on lambs infected with Haemonchus contortus (Mravcakova et al., 2020). Hashemi and Davoodi (2011) reported that the future of using herbs in animal nutrition will depend on the knowledge of chemical structure, herbs' values and characteristics, well-being of animal and consumer s preferences and expectations. Kama-Kama et al. (2016) reported that extracts from five plants namely: Solanum aculeastrum, Albizia coriaria, Ekebergia capensis, Piliostigma thonningii and Euclea divinorum showed the Table 1. The most important rules which apply to livestock

highest activities against the Mycoplasma strains tested, and Mycoplasma negatively affect the agricultural sector especially in developing countries. Chinsembu et al. (2014) found that skin rashes were managed using Aloe esculenta, Ziziphus mucronata healed wounds and it was a remedy for diarrhea, Fockea angustifolia was a treatment for anthrax and eye infections were treated using Ximenia americana (Chinsembu et al., 2014). The important functions of some important medicinal plants which are common in livestock production in shown in Table 2.

farms.

*Non-organically raised animals may be not brought onto holding unless for breeding purposes and then only comply

with specific rules._

*Farmers have to provide 100% organic feed to their animals in order to market their products as organic._

*The feed should primarily be obtained from the farm where the animals are kept or from farms in the same region.

*Cloning animals and transferring embryos is strictly forbidden._

*Growth promoters and synthetic amino-acids are prohibited._

*Suckling mammals must be fed with natural, preferably maternal, milk._

*Natural methods of reproduction must be used, artificial insemination is however allowed._

*Non-organic feed materials from plant origin, feed materials from animal and mineral origin, feed additives, certain products used in animal nutrition and processing aids can only be used if they have been specifically authorized for use in organic production._

Table 2. The function of some important medicinal plants and herb in Livestock production.

Medicinal plants

Plant family Livestock Function

References

Hypoxis hemerocallidea

Peltophorum africanum

Drimia sanguine

Elephantorrhiza elephantina

Curcuma longa

Hypoxidaceae Cattle

Ficus thonningii Blume

Vitex thomasii De Wild

Boswellia frereana

Fabaceae

Moraceae

Lamiaceae Burseraceae

Cattle

Asparagaceae Cattle

Fabaceae Cattle

Zingiberaceae Cattle

Azadirachta indica Meliaceae Cattle Myrsine africana Myrsinaceae Sheep

Ruminant livestock

Cattle Goat Small ruminants

a. Constipation, intestinal parasites, anaemia, pain, inflammation, diarrhoea

a. Constipation, intestinal parasites, anaemia, pain, inflammation, diarrhoea

a. Constipation, intestinal parasites, anaemia, pain, inflammation, diarrhoea

a. Constipation, intestinal parasites, anaemia, pain, inflammation, diarrhoea

a. Aliment, followed by diarrhea and horn avulsion.

b. Its p-glucan shows a beneficial effect on growth, nutrient digestibility of dry matter and ATTD of nitrogen, and beneficial microbial Lactobacillus of weanling pig.

a. Aliment, followed by diarrhea and horn avulsion

a. It has anthelmintic efficacy and safety against mixed gastrointestinal nematodes

a. Its leaves are a good source of nutrients (protein, fats, carbohydrates and minerals), and it is an appropriate

supplement/substitute livestock feed. a. Gastrointestinal parasitic diseases

a. Administration of Boswellia carteri-PPR vaccine (Intranasal Peste des

Moichwanetse et al. (2020)

Moichwanetse et al. (2020)

Moichwanetse et al. (2020)

Moichwanetse et al. (2020)

Jayakumar et al. (2018)

Serpunja et al. (2018)

Jayakumar et al. (2018)

Muthee (2018)

Berhe and Tanga (2013)

Embeya et al. (2014) Mumin et al. (2020)

Tillandsia recurvata Bromeliaceae Ruminants

Solanum incanum L. Solanaceae Rutaceae

Harrisonia abyssinica Oliv.

Echinaceae Asteraceae

purpurea

Moringa oleífera

Moringaceae

Trichilia claussenii Meliaceae

Artemisia Asteraceae

absinthium

Ecklonia cava Carcia papaya

Lessoniaceae Caricaceae

Acacia angustissima Fabaceae

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Sesbania sesban Fabaceae

Cajanus cajan

Fabaceae

Origanum vulgare Lamiaceae

Annona senegalensis

Picrorhiza kurroa

Annonaceae

Scrophulariac eae

Azadirachta indica Meliaceae

Morinda citrifolia

Rheum nobile

Carduus pycnocephalus

Rubiaceae

Asteraceae

Laying hens

Pigs Rabbits

Sheep Ruminants

Pigs Goats

Small

ruminants in the tropics Small

ruminants in the tropics Small

ruminants in the tropics Sheep

Goats

Dairy cows

Polygonaceae Ruminants

Ruminants

petits ruminants) combination through intranasal or subcutaneous route, elicited similar antibody titre. a. It has nutritional and mineral characteristics and can be included in the diet of ruminants. a. Treatment of gastrointestinal disorders

a. Treatment of gastrointestinal disorders

a. Its powder can improve egg production, improve yolk oxidative and decrease yolk cholesterol content.

a. It has high content of crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and acid detergent lignin, and it may cause a low content of metabolizable energy. a. It has anti-parasite potential and anthelmintic activity. a. Wormwood can be an important factor to enhance animal production, product quality and also to lower feed cost in developing countries. a. Ecklobia cava and probiotics are beneficial for weanling pigs a. Papaya leaf supplementation could be a useful feeding strategy to modulate the biohydrogenation of linoleic acid in rumen of goat. a. The can improve nutrition at simultaneously limited methane emissions

a. The can improve nutrition at simultaneously limited methane emissions

a. It can improve nutrition at simultaneously limited methane emissions

a. The dietary supplement may increase production efficiency and the production of higher-quality meat. a. It has anthelmintic activity and shows larval recovery when whole ground plant material is being used. a. It can decrease total gas production and ammonia concentration and increase propionate production. a. The goats treated with A. indica almond showed anti-coccidian effects.

a. Feeding with M. citrifolia fruit juice to dairy cows showed improvement in the quality and biophysical parameters of milk of mastitis-infected dairy animals. a. It may decrease methane production without negatively affecting other parameters of the rumen fermentation. a. It may decrease methane production without negatively affecting other parameters of the rumen fermentation.

Gamez Vazquez et al. (2018)

Guadie et al. (2020) Guadie et al. (2020) Jahanian et al. (2017)

Jalilzadeh-Amin et al. (2012)

Falowo et al. (2018) Valdivie-Navarro et al. (2020) Cala et al. (2012)

Beigh and Ganai (2017)

Choi et al. (2016) Jafari et al. (2018)

Soliva et al. (2008) Soliva et al. (2008) Soliva et al. (2008) Dudko et al. (2018) Alawa et al. (2003)

Alexander et al. (2008)

Affian et al. (2017) Sunder et al. (2013)

Bodas et al. (2008) Bodas et al. (2008)

Cortez phellodendri Rutaceae Beef Cattle

Gypsum fibrosum Menispermace Beef Cattle ae

Chenopodium album

Amaranthacea e

Glycyrrhiza glabra Fabaceae

Sheep

Zingiber officinale Zingiberaceae Sport

horses Rabbit

Echinacea

Asteraceae Horse

a. Improve nutrient digestibility and ruminal enzyme activity and modified fermentation and microbial community.

a. Improve nutrient digestibility and ruminal enzyme activity and modified fermentation and microbial community.

b. It is a good source of retinol precursors and biologically active lutin; and it can be exploited to meet carotenoid requirements.

a. Licorice dry powder may decrease lactic acid bacteria, and increased feed conversion ration.

a. Ginger extract as a feed additive is encourageable as it manages to attain quick recovery after exhaustion in racing and jumping events.

b. Ginger powder could be a potential supplementation in diet of rabbits for increasing meat shelf-life. a. It is able to stimulate the equine immunocompetence on addition to the regular diets of equine species.

Zhu et al. (2018)

Zhu et al. (2018)

Sangeetha et al. (2010)

Rahchamani et al. (2019)

Elghandour et al. (2018)

Mancini et al. (2018)

Elghandour et al. (2018)

Conclusions

Medicinal plants and herbs have been used for the remedy of different diseases and its domestic use is from a very long period of time that have gets its start from early human civilization for the proper treatment of a variety of diseases. The main compositions of botanical origins are terpenes, saponin, flavonoids, phenylpropanoid and etc. The most important medicinal plants which are common in livestock production are Hypoxis hemerocallidea, Peltophorum africanum, Drimia sanguine, Elephantorrhiza elephantine, Curcuma longa, Azadirachta indica, Myrsine Africana, Ficus thonningii Blume, Vitex thomasii De Wild, Boswellia frereana, Tillandsia recurvata, Solanum incanum L., Harrisonia abyssinica Oliv., Echinaceae purpurea, Moringa oleifera, Trichilia claussenii, Artemisia absinthium, Ecklonia cava, Carcia papaya, Acacia angustissima, Sesbania sesban, Cajanus cajan, Origanum vulgare, Annona senegalensis, Picrorhiza kurroa, Azadirachta indica, Morinda citrifolia, Rheum nobile, Carduus pycnocephalus, Herba agastaches, Cortez phellodendri, Gypsum fibrosum, Chenopodium album, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Zingiber officinale, Echinacea, and Devil s claw. Considering the importance of medicinal plants livestock production, more researches are need to find their functions in animal production.

Funding

This work was supported by the National Key R&D

Program of China (Research grant 2019YFA0904700)

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