Научная статья на тему 'Risk of disadaptational reactions development among students at mass sports events'

Risk of disadaptational reactions development among students at mass sports events Текст научной статьи по специальности «Фундаментальная медицина»

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Ключевые слова
athletes / students / spare capacities of an organism / disadaptational reactions

Аннотация научной статьи по фундаментальной медицине, автор научной работы — Alexsandr V. Dorontsev, Nina A. Zinchuk

The research results analysis among 432 students of Astrakhan State Medical University (167 boys and 265 girls) within the age range 18-23 years-old, who took part in competitions of different kinds of sport, showed that disadaptational reactions development to competitive load most often happens at track and field competitions – average distance running and basketball. Timely spare capacities of cardio-respiratory system determination and the level of general and special physical readiness revelation will help to avoid stress situations development in cardiovascular and respiratory systems, both at educational-training lessons and during competitive activities. Materials. The article presents stress-reactions study among students of Astrakhan State Medical University at mass sports events. Research methods: scientific literature analysis and summarizing; clinical data, electrocardiography (ECG) indices, standard functional tests, control normatives and competition results analysis. Results. The research works were held in order to avoid disadaptational reactions of an organism development at different kinds of sport competitions on the basis of standard functional tests results and the levels of general and special physical readiness analysis. The research results showed, that students should be allowed to take part in sport-mass events, especially in those, where there are running distances (average distance running), on the basis of current pedagogical control and additional medical checkup. Conclusion. Cardiovascular system study helps to select adequately physical loads of health-improving and competitive character. Special attention should be paid to such indices, as left ventricular hypertrophy, the processes violation of myocardium repolarization, short interval of PQ. Rational use of the training loads will help to avoid stress-reactions of cardiovascular system during competitive activity, both among highly-qualified sportsmen and students, who go in for physical culture in terms of educational process.

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Текст научной работы на тему «Risk of disadaptational reactions development among students at mass sports events»

RISK OF DISADAPTATIONAL REACTIONS DEVELOPMENT AMONG STUDENTS AT

MASS SPORTS EVENTS

Alexsandr V. Dorontsev — Candidate of Pedagogics, Associate Professor Astrakhan State Medical University, 121, Bakinskaya str., Astrakhan, 414000, Russia Nina A. Zinchuk — Candidate of Pedagogics, Associate Professor Astrakhan State University, Taticheva str., Astrakhan, 414056, Russia

E-mail: aleksandr.doroncev@rambler.ru

Annotation. The research results analysis among 432 students of Astrakhan State Medical University (167 boys and 265 girls) within the age range 18-23 years-old, who took part in competitions of different kinds of sport, showed that disadaptational reactions development to competitive load most often happens at track andfield competitions - average distance running and basketball. Timely spare capacities of cardio-respiratory system determination and the level of general and special physical readiness revelation will help to avoid stress situations development in cardiovascular and respiratory systems, both at educational-training lessons and during competitive activities. Materials. The article presents stress-reactions study among students of Astrakhan State Medical University at mass sports events. Research methods: scientific literature analysis and summarizing; clinical data, electrocardiography (ECG) indices, standard functional tests, control normatives and competition results analysis. Results. The research works were held in order to avoid disadaptational reactions of an organism development at different kinds of sport competitions on the basis of standard functional tests results and the levels of general and special physical readiness analysis. The research results showed, that students should be allowed to take part in sport-mass events, especially in those, where there are running distances (average distance running), on the basis of current pedagogical control and additional medical checkup. Conclusion. Cardiovascular system study helps to select adequately physical loads of health-improving and competitive character. Special attention should be paid to such indices, as left ventricular hypertrophy, the processes violation of myocardium repolarization, short interval of PQ. Rational use of the training loads will help to avoid stress-reactions of cardiovascular system during competitive activity, both among highly-qualified sportsmen and students, who go in for physical culture in terms of educational process.

Keywords: athletes, students, spare capacities of an organism, disadaptational reactions.

INTRODUCTION.

Sport, being an antistress factor, has a great role in the life of young people. Sports physical loads play an important role in functional spare capacities of an organism formation [1]. Specialists set an interconnection between students' physical development, physical readiness and health state indices [3,4,5,6,7]. At the same time, training and competitive activity together with educational loads, make great demands on functional abilities of an organism. Nonconformity of physical load intensity and adaptive abilities of an organism can cause a

range of changes in the functional systems of homeostatic level, change regulating-adaptive status of an organism, predicting present and further process of adaptation [2]. In this connection we held stress-reactions development analysis to the competitive load among students of Astrakhan State Medical University at sports festivals in different kinds of sport.

RESEARCH ORGANIZATION.

We examined 432 students of the main medical group from Astrakhan State Medical University (167 boys and 265 girls), within the age range 18-23 years-old, who took part

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in mass sport events in 2015/2016. Clinical data, electrocardiography (ECG) indices, standard functional tests, control normatives and competition results in different kinds of sport were analyzed. During the research the following means were used: fitness-trackers Garmin Vivosmart HR +, the program for work with electronic tables MicrosoftExcel 2007 with macro- supplement XLSTAT - Pro (Microsoft, the USA), program package for statistical analysis Statistica10

(StatSoftInc.,the USA). The research works were held on the basis of Astrakhan State Medical University.

RESEARCH RESULTS

According to the research results, disadaptational reactions development was among 7,4% of Astrakhan State Medical University students (from 432 participants of the competitions), who took part in an annual sports festival of the University in different kinds of sport. Regulatory function of an organism change was stated mainly during track and field competitions among 15 students (general number of the participants -231people) during 1000 meters running (boys) and 500 meters running (girls). At short distances (100-200 meters) disadaptational reactions development was less evident. Stress-reactions development analysis to competitive load shoed, that the dominating factor at the competitions in average distance running was vegetative-vascular dystonia syndrome (VVD), which was demonstrated by headache, weak giddiness, pale skin and general discomfort -46,3%, then there were muscles spasms, mainly gastrocnemius muscle- 33,9%, then there was digestive tract (DT) dysfunctions, hypodynamia and stress-reaction to competitive load of unclear etiology- 6,6% each. Research results helped to set that stress-reactions development to competitive load was in most cases (72,7%) among the students from the 1st and the 2nd courses and it proves low level of physical readiness and insufficient ability to regulate psycho-emotional state. During basketball competitions (general number of participants - 120 people) stress-reactions development

was set among 10 people and was demonstrated by vegetative-vascular dystonia syndrome - 5 cases, which were set among students-beginners and sportsmen after a long-term break during the lessons, three students had muscles spasm of lower extremities and 2 students had stress-reaction to competitive load of unclear etiology. At swimming competitions (50-100 meters distances) disadaptational reactions development to a load was stated not so often - 3 cases from 87 participants of competitions, which was demonstrated with the rhythm of breathing violation during entry of water into respiratory tract and 2 cases of general discomfort. At the same time, it is necessary to mention, that all participants of different kinds of sport competitions, according to the results of functional tests, had normotonic type of cardiovascular system (CVS), students with hypertonic, hypotonic and dystonic type of reaction of CVS to physical load were not allowed to take part in the competitions.

Conclusion

Thus, the held research work showed, that disadaptational reactions development among students were mainly during average distance running competitions and basketball competitions, stress-reactions to competitive load in swimming are weak. In terms of competitive activity, especially in average distance running, there was maximum compensation of all functional systems of an organism and in some cases it caused spare capacities of an organism decrease and disadaptational reactions development. The main factor of stress-reactions appearance to competitive load can be considered a low level of general and special physical readiness and also insufficient ability to regulate psycho-emotional state. Students, who have insufficient sport qualification (I-III sports categories), less subjected to disadaptational reactions development to competitive load and, on the contrary, students, who had great breaks in physical culture and sport lessons or those, who went in for physical culture only in terms of school/University program, more often have regulatory-adaptive status

disorders. Low indices of stress-reactions development to competitive load in swimming, in our opinion, is connected with more thorough selection of participants, both according to medical tests and the level of special physical readiness. All mentioned above helps to come to the conclusion that thorough pedagogical and pre-competitive medical control will help to avoid adaptation abilities disorder among students during competitive loads in different kinds of sport. Special attention should be paid to the indices of standard functional tests and the level of general and special physical readiness when students are allowed to take part in mass sports events.

References

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Authors information:

Alexander V. Dorontsev — Candidate of Pedagogics, Associate Professor, Astrakhan State Medical University, 121, Bakinskaya str., Astrakhan, 414000, Russia

Nina A. Zinchuk — Candidate of Pedagogics, Associate Professor, Astrakhan State University, Taticheva str., Astrakhan, 414056, Russia, E-mail: aleksandr.doroncev@rambler.ru

For citations: Dorontsev A.V., Zinchuk N.A. Risk of disadaptational reactions development among students at mass sports events, The Russian journal of physical education and sport (pedagogico-

psychological and medico-biological problems of physical culture and sports), 2017, Vol. 12, No.3, pp. 184-187. DOI 10.14526/03_2017_257

DOI 10.14526/03_2017_258

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ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD" CRITERION USE FOR ENDURANCE DEVELOPMENT

AMONG STAYER SWIMMERS

Eduard V. Feroyan - Candidate of Biological Associate Professor, Georgian State Teaching University of Physical Education and Sport 49 str., Chavchavadze, Tbilisi, 0163, Georgia

E-mail: Eduardferoyan@gmail.com

Annotation. For an objective estimation of the load influence orientation in endurance improving kinds of activity the most prospective criterion is the threshold of anaerobic metabolism (TANM).The effectiveness of threshold loads use mainly depends on the accuracy of their determination and control during the training, for this purpose it is necessary to take into account individual peculiarities, the level of sportsman's readiness and the specificity of physical exercise. Material. This work substantiates noninvasive way of an individual TANM revelation, the method of threshold intensity control is created, the evaluation of the loads effectiveness at the level of TANM is given and optimal volumes of threshold loads, taking into account swimmers' readiness, are revealed. Research methods: scientific literature analysis and summarizing, for physical activity study and TANM determination swimmers were given step-increasing load at the treadmill, external respiration and gaseous metabolism indices, pulse and lactate were revealed. Results. Noninvasive method of an individual TANM revelation was selected and substantiated on the basis of the results comparison of TANM change according to typical changes (fractures) in the dynamics of different cardiorespiratory indices and lactate concentration in blood during step-increasing load. The effectiveness of threshold load influence depends on the accuracy of its intensity revelation and control and it is possible only on the basis of an individual approach. Threshold intensity control should be fulfilled according to an individual volume of heart rate (HR), calculated at the level of an individual TANM (HRtanm). Individual HRtanm preserves its volume for a long time period irrespective of the level of TANM change. Intensity control according to individual HRtanm provides gradual increase of threshold load intensity with the increase of readiness. Conclusion. Individual anaerobic threshold (TANM), revealed according to lung ventilation, is highly informative index of stayer swimmers' readiness, which helps to estimate objectively the orientation of the training load influence and determine an optimal volume of threshold loads for endurance development. The effectiveness of threshold load influence depends on the accuracy of its intensity determination and control, which is possible only on the basis of an individual approach.

Keywords: swimming, anaerobic threshold, pulse at the level of an anaerobic threshold, load intensity and volume at the level of an anaerobic threshold.

influence orientation in endurance improving Introduction. The quality of the kinds of activity the most prospective training activity is conditioned, first of all, by criterion is the threshold of anaerobic the degree of the training influence orientation metabolism (TANM). This index corresponds correspondence with the necessary adaptive with maximum intensity of the load, fulfilled transformations in a sportsman's organism mainly in an aerobic regimen and it helps to [2,17]. For an objective estimation of the load preserve this intensity for a long time period

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