REVIEW OF UNIVERSITY-INDUSTRY-GOVERNMENT LINKS IN TURKEY Текст научной статьи по специальности «Экономика и бизнес»

i Надоели баннеры? Вы всегда можете отключить рекламу.
Sciences of Europe
Область наук
Ключевые слова

Аннотация научной статьи по экономике и бизнесу, автор научной работы — Soylu D., Andekina R.

Turkey has a strong university-industry cooperation mechanism, important activities and programs are carried out with the contributions of many institutions and organizations with the leadership of the Ministry of Science, Industry and Technology. The establishment of the institutional infrastructure and legal arrangements for communication between stakeholders, the development of financial resources and incentive mechanisms for cooperation, and various actions under these targets have been determined. The given article reviews these programs and evaluates the effects of govenmental initiavies.

i Надоели баннеры? Вы всегда можете отключить рекламу.
iНе можете найти то, что вам нужно? Попробуйте сервис подбора литературы.
i Надоели баннеры? Вы всегда можете отключить рекламу.




Soylu D.


Ankara Yildirim Beyazit University, Ankara, Turkey

Andekina R. PhD

Associate professor, Turan-Astana University, Kazakhstan

DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.7107056


Turkey has a strong university-industry cooperation mechanism, important activities and programs are carried out with the contributions of many institutions and organizations with the leadership of the Ministry of Science, Industry and Technology. The establishment of the institutional infrastructure and legal arrangements for communication between stakeholders, the development of financial resources and incentive mechanisms for cooperation, and various actions under these targets have been determined. The given article reviews these programs and evaluates the effects of govenmental initiavies.

Keywords: Triple Helix, university, government, industry, road map, Turkey.

Aknowledgment: The research was carried out in the frame of AP08052656 "Readiness assessment of Kazakhstani higher educational institutions for transformation within the context of "Triple Helix" project, funded by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

The triple helix activities carried out in Turkey have important legal basis. The first of these is the 5th Five-Year Development Plan (2014-2018), under the title of science, technology and innovation, under the heading of university-industry cooperation, and policies aimed at increasing the coordination between stakeholders through cooperation under the guidance of the public.

A second legal basis utilized for the provision of cooperation between Turkey Industrial Strategy and Action Plan (2011-2014). Within the scope of this document, an emphasis is placed on a university-industry cooperation policy to be carried out under the control of the public, and it is pointed out that the relevant stakeholders will be engaged in efforts to strengthen the R&D and innovation infrastructures and commercialize the research results [1].

One of the legal regulations that forms the basis of triple helix is the National Science, Technology and Innovation Strategy (2011-2016) [2]. Within the scope of this strategy document, the need for a platform where university-industry cooperation will be established is emphasized and the role of entrepreneur companies in the establishment of cooperation is reminded. It was stated that especially the number of interdisciplinary studies carried out in the academy and the increase in the number of entrepreneur companies established to perform R&D activities will contribute to the triple helix. Based upon these reforms, Strategy Action Plan was prepared (2015-2018). With this document, which entered into force in 2015, many policy recommendations such as the preparation of platforms for cooperation, the development of cooperation mechanisms for the production of high-technology products, and the development of incentives for the

inclusion of the academy in the cooperation process are listed [1, p25].

Triple Helix Cooperation Strategy Document and Road Map

Considering the goal of being among the top ten economies in 2023 in line with the vision of Turkey, the R&D and innovation ecosystem is among the most important elements in achieving this goal. In this sense, first of all, considering the governance structure, the Ministry of Science, Industry and Technology, which was established in 2011, is the first Ministry of Science and Technology in our country, and unlike many developed countries, the unity of industry and technology appears as an important advantage.

Within the ecosystem, healthy legislative arrangements, effective evaluation of supports, appropriate policies regarding relations between actors and most importantly all public institutions and organizations should act in coordination. In addition to public institutions and organizations, it is important that Private Sector R&D Centers, Technology Development Centers, Technology Transfer Offices and Public Research Centers work effectively and together. For this, the Law No. 4691 on Technology Development Zones and the Law No. 5746 on Supporting Research and Development Activities provide the necessary legal basis.

Various incentives are provided in Turkish system in order to strengthen entrepreneurship and risk capital. Strengthening the risk capital with 1514 Venture Capital Support Program given by TUBiTAK and Investment Support given by the Undersecretariat of Treasury Techno-entrepreneurship Capital Support provided by the Ministry of Science, Industry and Technology, Entrepreneurship Progressive Support Program by TUBiTAK and the Entrepreneurship Support of KOSGEB, efforts are made to activate and expand entrepreneurship [3].

The commercialization of research results is also an important element in terms of the efficiency of the ecosystem. In this context, the Technological Product Investment Support, which is being prepared with the

Technological Product Promotion and Marketing Support provided by the Ministry of Science, Industry and Technology, the support for Technology Transfer Offices in Technology Development Centers and the 1513 Technology Transfer Offices Support provided by TUBiTAK are the supports designed for the dissemination of commercialization.

In addition to the legislative arrangements made by the public, the policies and supports carried out, both the adoption of public initiatives by other actors and the activities of these actors are necessary for the formation of the ecosystem. In this context; Another prominent issue is public orientation through cooperation between actors. The involvement of stakeholders in the prepared strategy studies and legislative arrangements ensures that the experiences gained in the field of implementation are transferred to the texts. Impact assessment studies on the supports also allow the review of the failing aspects.

The 2012 performance index of private sector R&D centers was prepared and announced to the public at the RE&DE Centers Performance Evaluation and Cooperation Workshop with Technology Transfer Office held on 04/03/2014. In the index study, criteria were determined in terms of input, process and output. In this context; RE&DE personnel employment in the context of input, cooperation and interaction including triple helix in the context of the process, and intellectual property competence criteria in the context of the result.

The impact assessment studies of the Industrial Thesis Projects and Techno-entrepreneurship Capital Support Programs given by the Ministry of Science, Industry and Technology were carried out. Following an evidence-based policy method, measuring the effectiveness of support and exemptions and transforming them into a better one are of great importance for the effectiveness of the R&D and innovation ecosystem.

One of the initiatives that strengthen inter-actor cooperation mechanisms is clustering activities. A group of companies operating in a certain field, formed by institutions that have direct or indirect impact on the business world, in a specific geographic area and have a positive effect on the competitiveness of each company are called clusters.

The other institutions mentioned can be universities, non-governmental organizations, public institutions or banks. In other words, clustering; It plays an active role in increasing regional and national competitiveness through cooperation networks, partnerships and platforms to be established by enterprises among themselves and with stakeholder public-private institutions. A Clustering Support Program has been implemented in order to generalize the clustering in Turkey. Clustering Support Program Regulation entered into force after being published in the Official Newspaper dated 15/09/2012 and numbered 28412.

In summary; ecosystem is a result of actors and interaction between these actors. Therefore, a functioning structure can be achieved with the actors working towards the development of RE&DE and innovation, having sufficient level of interaction, and

establishing networks. Below, institutional distribution of the RE & DE supports according to this strategy.

There are various support mechanisms and practices within the body of the Ministry of Science, Industry and Technology, TUBITAK, KOSGEB and universities in order to develop and expand the university-industry-government cooperation.

Technology Development Zones (TGB) and technology transfer offices are among the important actors of triple helix structuring in our country. Technology Development Zones are the areas where the academic, economic and social structure of entrepreneurs, academics, research institutions and industrial organizations, who want to produce new or advanced technology goods and services, carry out their industrial and commercial activities with technology transfer.

Technology Development Zones Law No. 4691 was published in the Official Newspaper No. 24454, dated 06/07/2001 and Technology Development Zones Law Implementation Regulation was published in the Official Gazette No. 24790 dated 19/06/2002. It regulates the establishment, operation, management and control of the regions and the duties, powers and responsibilities of the persons and organizations related to them.

Technology Development Zones are among the leading organizations of technological development as platforms that will facilitate the operation of triple helix There are technology transfer offices (TTO) in the said Regions to ensure cooperation between academics and businesses. The way for the aforementioned offices to be institutionalized is the amendment made in the Law No. 4691 on Technology Development Zones on March 12, 2011. Thus, the obligation to provide both technology transfer services and incubation services in Technology Development Zones has been imposed. The Implementation Regulation of Law No. 6170 was published in the Official Newspaper on March 12, 2014, and the legislation in question entered into force as of April 1, 2014.

Technology Transfer Offices can work as university units apart from Technology Development Zones. In this context, besides the project or academy-business cooperation offices opened in some universities, application and research centers focusing on the research of technology transfer activities also conduct research on these issues. With regard to the technology transfer office of Ege University's EBÍLTEM Technology Transfer Office; The Application and Research Center in cooperation with Antalya University can be given as an example for a research center. The Technology Transfer Offices Support Program coded 1513 has been put into effect in order for these offices to work effectively.

Apart from Technology Development Centers and Technology Transfer Offices, incubation centers can be shown as examples of KUSI structures. Technology Centers (TEKMER) and Technology Incubators (DTI) are units established to support the development and growth of SMEs, which are R&D and innovation projects. In this context, TEKMER and Technology Incubators are established by KOSGEB in universities

within the framework of the Law No. 3624 on the Establishment of the Small and Medium Enterprises Development and Support Administration.

These centers start their activities by signing a joint cooperation protocol between the university-industry-government and trade chambers and Technology Development Centers.TEKMERs are platforms that enable SMEs to work together with universities and act as an incubator. In addition, TEKMERs play an important role in the development of micro companies, especially with the support they provide to university-based companies at the beginning stage.

On the other hand, some public supports offer incentive mechanisms for the establishment of triple helix structures. Within the scope of the Techno-entrepreneurship Capital Support Program within the scope of the Law No. 5746 on Supporting Research and Development Activities and the Regulation on the Support of Industrial Theses prepared on the basis of the Legislative Decree No. 635, the Industrial Thesis (San-Tez) Program is applied. Similarly, supports such as Entrepreneurship Progressive Support Program, Industry RE&DE Projects Support Program, Technology Transfer Offices Support Program, Project Markets Support which are supported by TUBiTAK, TEYDEB (Technology and Innovation Support Programs) are also initiatives that encourage triple helix.

National Science, Technology and Innovation Strategy (UTBYS)

National Science, Technology and Innovation Strategy covering 2011-2016 was approved in the 22nd meeting oh Higher Council of Science and Technology held out in 15/12/2010. That document is prepared annually after getting the opinions of the public organizations and institutions. In order to find out whether Turkey has good performance in University-Industry-Government Triple Helix, SWOT analysis was carried out. Basing upon TOBB University-Industry Cooperation 2014 Report and Regional Plans, weak and strong points were identified.


- Shareholders have a strong consensus (agreement).

- There are many mechanisms strengthening the cooperation between the research and business environment

- Many universities have a strong research infrastructure and well-established capacity,

- There are success stories and examples that can be based upon as a role model to have lessons and design successful cooperation mechanisms,

- Defense industry organizations use highesttech and employ qualified engineers and experts,

- There are aggregation activities, which are the most significant instrument of the Regional Innovation System, in some cities such as Ankara, istanbul, izmir, Konya, Bursa, Eski§ehir etc.


- There is not a sustainable structure between the university, pubic organizations and industry,

communication channels are not functional and they are not used correctly.

- Organizational structure was not established and there was not a sustainable dialogue systematic.

- The industry does not have information about in which subjects university and academic staff are expert and qualified.

- The industry expects the universities to solve the problems in a fast way and it does not want to lose time regarding this,

- Universities expect to get such outcomes as scientific publication, new idea, dissertation, educating and training students; in contrast, industry has such expectation as patent, profit, commercial product, new product/process and this situation is problematic.

- Academic staff from different disciplines do not have tendency and experience to work together. Firms do not know about the procedure related to how they can contact with the universities,

- Technology Transfer Offices do not employ full time qualified employees in order to be active in all service fields.

- Firms working in the field actively adopt the technology transfer rather than the producing innovative technology,

- Industry only focuses on the development section of the RE&DE and they do not have the full potential to employ persons with PhD degree.

- Due to the high number of family companies in the industry, some companies are not open to innovation and producing high tech,

- RE& DE centered firms do not have staff, who has sectoral experience, despite the incentives of the Ministry of Science and Technology related to employing employees/staff with PhD degree.

- Universities do not implement post graduate programs (master/PhD) in a way that fulfills the requirements of the industry,

- Human capital which is the most significant component of RE&DE and innovation is not developed enough,

- In selecting the internee, university-industry cooperation is not adopted, students have difficulty in finding a place that conforms to the requirements of his /her department.


Turkey began to be active and still put significant effort to enable the cooperation of academic staff and technology development centers established within the body of universities. New postgraduate and graduate programs are currently developed. Also, incubation centers appealing to different sectors are established to develop the culture of RE & DE. Turkey is in a phase to move to the status of developed countries, focuses on research-based cooperation network and projects and trying to transform the RE&DE culture into sustainable one which will contribute to the economy, as well. In this development phase, government is putting financial supports to improve the status of research laboratories and improve the technological opportunities. Strategy documents and plans are developed and published to determine the plans of the following years and important steps are taken to enable

the economy-based society structure. Supporting the triple helix will have a positive impact upon the economic situation of Turkey. New employment fields will be created for the graduates of university bachelor and post-graduate programs. Also, there are some initiatives and steps to adapt the recent bachelor and post-graduate educational content and curriculum according to the needs of the sector, which is considered to resolve the mismatch between the capabilities and skills of the graduates and lacking points in the sectoral fields. Lack of employment power in the sector will be completed and fulfilled in this way.


1. Bahgeci vd., "Bakanligimizin Kamu-Üniversite-Sanayi ͧbirliginin Güglendirilmesine

Yonelik Faaliyetleri", Anahtar Dergisi, 350, s. 8-15, §ubat 2018.

2. Ministry of Science, Industry and Technology (2014). Kamu Sanayi Universite i§birligi Strateji Belgesi ve Yol Haritasi. Retrieval address: https://docplayer.biz.tr/957561-Kamu-universite-sanayi-isbirligi-kusi-strateji-belgesi-ve-yol-haritasi.html

3. KOSGEB (2020). Kuguk ve Orta Olgekli i§letmeleri Geli§tirme ve Destekleme idaresi Ba§kanligi. Retrieval address: https://www.kosgeb.gov.tr/Content/Upload/Dosya/Ar ge/2020/22.01.2020/Ar-Ge_UE_.pdf.

i Надоели баннеры? Вы всегда можете отключить рекламу.