Научная статья на тему 'Rescuers empathy empirical study as professionally important quality of the helping professions representatives'

Rescuers empathy empirical study as professionally important quality of the helping professions representatives Текст научной статьи по специальности «Языкознание и литературоведение»

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Ключевые слова
EMPATHY / SUBJECT OF EMPATHY / COMPASSION / PERSONALITY / HELPING PROFESSION / RESCUERS

Аннотация научной статьи по языкознанию и литературоведению, автор научной работы — Vavryniv Olena Stepanivna

. The article describes the problem of necessity to enhance the role of empathy in personal development, considering that the empathy has long been a subject of scientific research in psychology. To determine the level of empathy as one of the important professional qualities of future rescuers, we carried out an empirical study. Also, we can argue that empathy directsthe choice ofthe helping profession.

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Текст научной работы на тему «Rescuers empathy empirical study as professionally important quality of the helping professions representatives»

Section 1. Military psychology

Vavryniv Olena Stepanivna, lecturer at the department of practical psychology and pedagogy

Lviv State University of Life Safety, E-mail: vavryvivolena@gmail.com

RESCUERS EMPATHY EMPIRICAL STUDY AS PROFESSIONALLY IMPORTANT QUALITY OF THE HELPING PROFESSIONS REPRESENTATIVES

Abstract. The article describes the problem of necessity to enhance the role of empathy in personal development, considering that the empathy has long been a subject of scientific research in psychology. To determine the level of empathy as one of the important professional qualities of future rescuers, we carried out an empirical study. Also, we can argue that empathy directsthe choice ofthe helping profession.

Keywords: empathy, subject of empathy, compassion, personality, helping profession, rescuers.

The need to increase empathy in personal devel- pacity, as a process, as a status, linking it to different

opment has long been a subject of scientific research in psychology. This is due to the fact that empathy as a psychological phenomenon has a significant impact on the entire personality as a whole, increases motivation and productivity and expands the idea of effectiveness.

Psychologists consider empathy in the following areas: determining the qualitative nature of empathy (T. Gavrylova, R. Karamuratova, M. Mukanov, M. Obozov, G. Orlov, N. Sardzveladze, etc.); the study of the relations of the structural characteristics of empathy with the different mental processes and psychological characteristics of the individual (A. Bodalev, L. Vygovskaia, O. Dashkevych, G. Mykhalchenko, V. Mikaelian, A. Roiak, L. Strel-kova, O. Sannikova, etc.); the study of the empathy procedural nature(V. Ageev, S. Borysenko, O. Kova-lev, M. Pashukova, L. Strelkova, etc.).

Indigenous scientists accurately interpret the content of the concept of empathy. They define it as a ca-

mental processes and psychological characteristics of the individual. In this regard, in the works of many researchers empathy is considered under the terms of social sensitivity, friendliness, emotional identification, humane treatment, empathy, sympathy.

Psychologists O. Sannikova and O. Oryshchenko consider empathy as a complex multi-level integral property of the individual. Scientists distinguish three levels in the empathy structure: a formally-dynamic level, content-personality and social-imperative levels. Formally-dynamic level includes qualitative (modal) and dynamic (characteristics and the occurrence of empathy reactions) properties of empathy. Contentpersonality includes the aspects ofempathy, concerning the choice of space for empatia experiences and ethical content ofits object. Social and personal views on the existing socio-cultural 'norms' empatia reflects the socio-imperative level [3].

Russian researcher V. V. Boiko offered an unusual view of empathy. He considers it as a manipulative

mechanism to influence the partner in the right direction. The scholar distinguishes the following stages of empathy on the criterion of modality leading component of empathy: 1) the rational empathy, which is implemented in the form of belonging, intensive analytical information processing about it; 2) emotional empathy, is implemented in the form of emotional experience in the process of reflection otherstates; 3) intuitive empathy that allows to process information about the partner on an unconscious level [2, 54-56].

Empathic interaction occurs in the presence of three main factors: empatogenna situation, that is, the circumstances that caused a person's emotional state and the need of support from another person. Thus, a situation can be both stressful and enjoyable. Accordingly, emotions are positive or negative; the object of empathy is the person (entity) that needs support or perception, the subject of empathy is a person who is experiencing certain feelings towards the object of empathy, and the ability to provide appropriate support [4, 68-69].

In spite of numerous studies, which show certain aspects of empathy in psychology there are no comprehensive studies, where empathy is seen as a whole property of the individual, combined qualitative (modality) and content indicators (empathic focus).The studies of empathy as professionally significant qualities of the representatives of the helping professions have not been shown.

According to the theoretical analysis of scientific literature, it can be argued that empathy is a multilevel, complex phenomenon that represents a set of emotional, cognitive and behavioral abilities of the individual.

Empathy is the ability to give an emotional response to the experiences, thoughts and feelings of the object of empathy. Some scientists believe that empathy is the emotional capacity to respond to signals that convey the emotional experience of another. Others define empathy as a behavioral ability that is manifested in helping and altruistic behaviour

in response to emotions or problems of another person. M. Hoffman sees empathy as a biologically determined predisposition to altruistic behavior. In his writings he stresses that sincere sympathy (empathy) produces altruistic motivation of caring behavior [5, 187-188].

The humanization of relations in society presupposes the existence of the ability to understand another person, to enter into her situation, and the ability for empathy and compassion, which in turn leads to help. It is the person's ability to empathize with others is one of the main motivational factors of the choice of such varieties of the helping professions as a rescuer, a doctor, a psychologist, a teacher, a social worker, etc.

Empathy of the representatives of helping professions we can explore in two areas: empathy as a factor of successful professional activity and empathy, as a motivational factor of career choice.

Empathy in medical practice is essential, considerably affects the success of treatment and further favorable course of the disease. Empathy in the practice of the doctors allows us to set more accurate and early diagnoses and avoid unnecessary research, allowing to achieve sustainable results in the treatment process. Discovered by Bogacheva A., the structure of empathy of physicians indicates high role of empathy in their daily practice. Empathy for therapists is the essential quality of professional competence, which helps to convey to the patient that he is understood and they are willing to help him. Also empathy as a quality of the doctor will help to set up an emotional connection and trusting atmosphere in communication between a doctor and his patient [1, 122-123].

Also important is empathy in the activities of the representatives of such helping professions as a psychologist and a teacher.

So, empathy for the psychologist serves as a universal «key» to the psychological experiences of the individual client. As a professional psychologist's practice requires not only knowledge and skills but

also professionally important personal qualities. The presence of empathy in the personality structure of a psychologist to help in the process of interaction with the client to demonstrate their sincere desire to help the patient in difficult situations. The ability of a psychologist to hearing helps in creating a positive climate in working with the client and establishing rapport.

Pedagogical activity requires the individual teacher's ability to navigate in unexpected situations, to simulate the possible consequences of the behavior and actions of others. Here, the role of intuitive understanding of another is very important; when the analysis takes place without logic, based on unconscious comparisons with past experience. Empathy for teachers is one of the most important professional qualities and is one of the factors of success in their professional activities.

Examining the activities rescuers, we can say that the success depends not only on knowledge and skills obtained at the University. As rescuers deliberately take a risk by doing their professional duty that is why moral, volitional and personality qualities will also be an important motivational component.

Effective implementation of professional duties by an employee of the service SSofEof Ukraine requires not only a broad and diverse professional knowledge, abilities and skills, but also requires specific psychological qualities. The rescuers professional activities are associated with significant psycho-emotional stress and the risk of life so the desire to help people, in many cases, prevails over fear of death, which enables them to perform professional task.

To determine the level of empathy as one of the important professional qualities of future rescuers, we carried out an empirical study. The study was conducted on the basis of Lviv State University of Life Safety with the help of V. V. Boiko's methods of abilities level empathydiagnostics. According to the obtained resultswe can draw the following conclusions: a high level empathy abilities is observed in 8% of future rescuers, the average - 48%, low rates are observed in 34% of the respondents and a very low level

of empathy we have seen in 11% of participants. This technique also gave us the opportunity to determine which channel of empathy is observed in participants. Therefore, future rescuers havethe channel that dominates to empathy (24%). We can say that the maj ority of future rescuersdo not have installation that prevent empathy. Therefore, nothing prevents them to show compassion, empathy and desire to help people in need. 19% of respondents have the emotional channel of empathy. According to V. V. Boiko emotional channel of empathy involves entering into emotional resonance with the partner. In our case, the emotional channel of empathy of the future rescuers on the basis of emotional empathy mediates the action that is directed to help the victims. The penetrating ability of empathy is seen in 18% of participants. Rescuers often have to communicate with victims and witnesses of accidents, emergencies, fires, and the like. Being able to establish empathycontact and create a trusting atmosphere of communication, rescuers can prevent the occurrence of a panic among participants of an emergency.Future rescuers whohave a rational empathy channel (15%) and empathyidentification (15%) are distinguished by a special ability to analyze the situation. They are always ready to assist and help those in need. The least number of cadets have the intuitive channel ofempathy(only 9%). Future rescuers who have developed an intuitive channel of empathy are characterized by the ability to understand partners in terms of lack of information and time. This is due to the previous experience and empathy perception of the partners.

It should be noted that workers of emergency services knowingly take a risk. And success in the performance of the duty depends not only on knowledge and skills obtained at the University. A motivational component, moral and volitional qualities of personalitywill be also important. The real danger often causes nervous excitement. That is empathy, in the form helping behavior will motivate and encourage them to implement the emergency action to rescue the victims.

Thus, empathy action should be viewed as a and forms helping behavior. You can also argue

complex functional system in which cognitive and that empathy directsthe choice ofthe helping proemotional components are the unity that operate fession.

References:

1. Bogacheva O. Y. Empatiya kak professionalno vazhnoe kachestvo vracha (na primere vrachey terapevtov i vrachey hirurgov): avtoref. diss. ... kand. psihol. nauk.19.00.03.- Yaroslavl, 2014.- 169 p.

2. Boyko V. V. Energiya emotsiy v obschenii: vzglyad na sebya i drugih.- M.: Informatsionno-izdatelskiy dom "Filin", 1996.- 472 p.

3. Orischenko O. A. DifentsIyno-psihologichniy analiz empatiyi: avtoref. dis... kand. psihol. nauk: 19.00.01. Odesa, 2004.- 21 p.

4. Turkova D. M. EmpatIya yak "sposIb buttya" profesIynogo psihologa.- Vol. 8. 2010.

5. Hoffman M.-L. Empathy and Moral Development: Implications for Caring and Justice.- New York: New York University Press, 2002.- 342 p.

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