Научная статья на тему 'Regulation of the advertising in the context of the Sustainable development of Ukraine (archetypical approach)'

Regulation of the advertising in the context of the Sustainable development of Ukraine (archetypical approach) Текст научной статьи по специальности «Экономика и бизнес»

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Ключевые слова
ADVERTISING / ARCHETYPES / SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY / REGULATION OF THE ADVERTISING / РЕКЛАМА / АРХЕТИПИ / СТРАТЕГіЯ СТАЛОГО РОЗВИТКУ / РЕГУЛЮВАННЯ В РЕКЛАМНіЙ СФЕРі / АРХЕТИПЫ / СТРАТЕГИЯ УСТОЙЧИВОГО РАЗВИТИЯ / РЕГУЛИРОВАНИЕ В РЕКЛАМНОЙ СФЕРЕ

Аннотация научной статьи по экономике и бизнесу, автор научной работы — Serdechna Liudmyla Vasylіvna

The article covers the actual questions of the theory and practice of regulation of the advertising in the process of formation and implementation of state policy in the field of advertising. In particular, the methodological problems of using the archetypical approach for analyzing the regulation of advertising in the context of the sustainable development of Ukraine. Advertising activity in modern conditions affects the formation of key value orientations of society and is one of the causes of aggravation of social contradictions. One of the main objectives of advertising is to stimulate consumption, and therefore the solution of the problem of balanced consumption, as defined by the Strategy of Ukraine’s Sustainable Development till 2030, creates a contradiction. Solving the problem requires the transformation of the conceptual framework of regulation of advertising sphere. The author advocates the necessity of developing a paradigm of regulation of advertising on the basis of value systems based on the concept of sustainable development and, in particular, on balanced consumption. Certain value systems (archetypes), which predetermine the development of regulation, respectively, have an impact on the level of corporate social responsibility of the advertising business and contribute to the harmonization of relations advertising business, society and the state. It is substantiated in the article that the question of value systems in regulation of the advertising from the standpoint of tasks of the Strategy of Sustainable Development in relation to balanced consumption should not be considered as a choice of alternative. The optimal ratio of the material interests of the business and the intangible values of society in the regulation of the advertising sphere depends on the ratio of value-semantic archetypes, when the subjects of advertising activity have an effective motivation regarding social responsibility, which complements, but does not exclude corporate interests.

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РЕГУЛИРОВАНИЕ СФЕРЫ РЕКЛАМЫ В КОНТЕКСТЕ УСТОЙЧИВОГО РАЗВИТИЯ УКРАИНЫ (АРХЕТИПНЫЙ ПОДХОД)

Рассматриваются актуальные вопросы теории и практики регулирования в процессе формирования и реализации государственной политики в сфере рекламы, в частности, методологические проблемы применения архетипного подхода для анализа регулирования рекламы в контексте устойчивого развития Украины. Реклама в современных условиях влияет на формирование ценностных ориентаций общества и является одной из причин обострения социальных противоречий. Массовый характер рекламы обусловливает проблемы ее функционирования, в частности, такую как влияние на рациональность потребления в современном обществе. Одной из основных задач рекламы является стимулирование потребления, а следовательно, решение задачи сбалансированного потребления, поставленной в Стратегии устойчивого развития Украины до 2030 г., создает противоречие. Решение проблемы требует трансформации концептуальных основ регулирования рекламной сферы. Обоснована необходимость выработки парадигмы регулирования рекламы на основе ценностных установок, на которых основывается концепция устойчивого развития и в частности сбалансированного потребления. Определенные ценностные установки (архетипы), обусловливающие развитие регулирования, соответственно имеют влияние на уровень корпоративной социальной ответственности рекламного бизнеса и способствуют достижению гармонизации отношений рекламного бизнеса, общества и государства. Обоснован вывод, что вопрос ценностных установок в регулировании рекламы с позиции задач Стратегии устойчивого развития по сбалансированному потреблению не должен ставиться как выбор альтернативы. Оптимальное соотношение материальных интересов бизнеса и нематериальных ценностей общества в регулировании рекламной сферы зависит от соотношения ценностно-смысловых архетипов, когда субъекты рекламной деятельности имеют действенную мотивацию социальной ответственности, которая дополняет, а не исключает корпоративные интересы.

Текст научной работы на тему «Regulation of the advertising in the context of the Sustainable development of Ukraine (archetypical approach)»

UDC:351.82:659.1]-027.21(477)

DOI: https://doi.org/10.32689/2617-2224-2019-18-3-394-402

Serdechna Liudmyla Vasylivna,

Candidate of sciences in public administration, doctoral candidate, National Academy for Public Administration under the President of Ukraine, 03057, Kyiv, Str. Anton Tsedik, 20, tel.: +38 (095) 551 7885, e-mail: lvser-dechna@gmail.com

ORCID: 0000-0002-4311-3596 Сердечна Людмила BacunieHa, кандидат наук з державного управлтня, докторант, Нацональна академя державного управлтня при Пре.зидентовi Украти, 03057, м. Kuïe, вул. Антона Це-джа, 20, тел.: +38 (095) 551 7885, e-mail: lvserdechna@gmail.com

ORCID: 0000-0002-4311-3596 Сердечная Людмила Васильевна, кандидат наук по государственному управлению, докторант, Национальная академия государственного управления при Президенте Украины, 03057, г. Киев, ул. Антона Цедика, 20, тел.: +38 (095) 551 7885, e-mail: lvserdechna@gmail.com

ORCID: 0000-0002-4311-3596

regulation OF THE ADVERTiSiNG iN THE

context of the sustainable development of ukraine (archetypical APPROACH)

Abstract. The article covers the actual questions of the theory and practice of regulation of the advertising in the process of formation and implementation of state policy in the field of advertising. In particular, the methodological problems of using the archetypical approach for analyzing the regulation of advertising in the context of the sustainable development of Ukraine. Advertising activity in modern conditions affects the formation of key value orientations of society and is one of the causes of aggravation of social contradictions. One of the main objectives of advertising is to stimulate consumption, and therefore the solution of the problem of balanced consumption, as defined by the Strategy of Ukraine's Sustainable Development till 2030, creates a contradiction. Solving the problem requires the transformation of the conceptual framework of regulation of advertising sphere. The author advocates the necessity of developing a paradigm of regulation of advertising on the basis of value systems based on the concept of sustainable

development and, in particular, on balanced consumption. Certain value systems (archetypes), which predetermine the development of regulation, respectively, have an impact on the level of corporate social responsibility of the advertising business and contribute to the harmonization of relations advertising business, society and the state. It is substantiated in the article that the question of value systems in regulation of the advertising from the standpoint of tasks of the Strategy of Sustainable Development in relation to balanced consumption should not be considered as a choice of alternative. The optimal ratio of the material interests of the business and the intangible values of society in the regulation of the advertising sphere depends on the ratio of value-semantic archetypes, when the subjects of advertising activity have an effective motivation regarding social responsibility, which complements, but does not exclude corporate interests.

Keywords: advertising, archetypes, Sustainable development strategy, regulation of the advertising.

РЕГУЛЮВАННЯ СФЕРИ РЕКЛАМИ В КОНТЕКСТ СТАЛОГО РОЗВИТКУ УКРАШИ (АРХЕТИПНИЙ П1ДХ1Д)

Анотащя. Розглядаються актуальш питання теори i практики регулю-вання в процес формування та реалiзащ! державно! полггики в сферi ре-клами, зокрема, методолопчш проблеми застосування архетипного шдходу для аналiзу регулювання реклами в контекст сталого розвитку Укра!ни. Рекламна дiяльнiсть в сучасних умовах впливае на формування щншсних орieнтацiй сусшльства i е одшею з причин загострення сощальних супе-речностей. Багатовекторшсть реклами i масовий характер зумовлюють проблеми !! функщонування, зокрема, таку як вплив на ращональшсть споживання в сучасному сусшльствь Одним iз основних завдань реклами е стимулювання споживання, а отже, виршення завдання збалансованого споживання, що визначене Стратепею сталого розвитку Украши до 2030 р., створюе суперечшсть. Виршення проблеми вимагае трансформаци концеп-туальних основ регулювання рекламно! сфери. Обгрунтовано необхвдшсть вироблення парадигми регулювання реклами на основi щншсних установок, на яких грунтуеться концепщя сталого розвитку i, зокрема, збалансованого споживання. Певш щншсш установки (архетипи), що зумовлюють розвиток регулювання, вщповщно мають вплив i на рiвень корпоративно! сощально! вiдповiдальностi рекламного бiзнесу i сприяють досягненню гар-монiзацi! вiдносин рекламного бiзнесу, сусшльства i держави. Обгрунтовано висновок, що питання щншсних установок в регулюванш реклами з пози-цiй завдань Стратеги сталого розвитку щодо збалансованого споживання не повинно ставитися як вибiр альтернативи. Оптимальне сшввщношення ма-терiальних iнтересiв бiзнесу й нематерiальних цiнностей суспiльства в регу-люванш рекламно! сфери залежить вiд сшвввдношення цiннiсно-смислових архетипiв, коли суб'екти рекламно! дiяльностi мають дieву мотивацiю щодо сощально! ввдповщальносл, яка доповнюе, а не виключае корпоративш iн-тереси.

Ключовi слова: реклама, архетипи, Стратепя сталого розвитку, регулювання в рекламнш сферь

РЕГУЛИРОВАНИЕ СФЕРЫ РЕКЛАМЫ В КОНТЕКСТЕ УСТОЙЧИВОГО РАЗВИТИЯ УКРАИНЫ (АРХЕТИПНЫЙ ПОДХОД)

Аннотация. Рассматриваются актуальные вопросы теории и практики регулирования в процессе формирования и реализации государственной политики в сфере рекламы, в частности, методологические проблемы применения архетипного подхода для анализа регулирования рекламы в контексте устойчивого развития Украины. Реклама в современных условиях влияет на формирование ценностных ориентаций общества и является одной из причин обострения социальных противоречий. Массовый характер рекламы обусловливает проблемы ее функционирования, в частности, такую как влияние на рациональность потребления в современном обществе. Одной из основных задач рекламы является стимулирование потребления, а следовательно, решение задачи сбалансированного потребления, поставленной в Стратегии устойчивого развития Украины до 2030 г., создает противоречие. Решение проблемы требует трансформации концептуальных основ регулирования рекламной сферы. Обоснована необходимость выработки парадигмы регулирования рекламы на основе ценностных установок, на которых основывается концепция устойчивого развития и в частности сбалансированного потребления. Определенные ценностные установки (архетипы), обусловливающие развитие регулирования, соответственно имеют влияние на уровень корпоративной социальной ответственности рекламного бизнеса и способствуют достижению гармонизации отношений рекламного бизнеса, общества и государства. Обоснован вывод, что вопрос ценностных установок в регулировании рекламы с позиции задач Стратегии устойчивого развития по сбалансированному потреблению не должен ставиться как выбор альтернативы. Оптимальное соотношение материальных интересов бизнеса и нематериальных ценностей общества в регулировании рекламной сферы зависит от соотношения ценностно-смысловых архетипов, когда субъекты рекламной деятельности имеют действенную мотивацию социальной ответственности, которая дополняет, а не исключает корпоративные интересы.

Ключевые слова: реклама, архетипы, Стратегия устойчивого развития, регулирование в рекламной сфере.

Target setting. Modern advertising plays an important role not only as a tool for a market economy. In Ukraine, in a rather short period of time, it was formed into a developed industry and a

powerful social institution that affects the economy, politics, culture, the state of social morality, and other spheres of socio-economic life of society. The multi-directional nature of advertising

and its mass character, respectively, determine the problems of its functioning, particularly, such as the impact on the rationality of consumption in modern society. At the same time, the goals and objectives of the country's sustainable development strategy, aimed at ensuring economic growth, social justice and rational use of nature, include the need to balance consumption and production, and to create a culture of consumption. Consequently, new approaches to researching the problems of the regulation of advertising in the context of sustainable development through the prism of archetypes are particularly important for developing an adequate understanding of the relevant social phenomena and interconnections, in particular, for understanding the modern areas of effective regulation in the field of advertising.

Analysis of recent research and publications. The question of studying advertising is devoted to numerous scientific studies and publications. Modern advertising is being studied by sociologists and economists, psychologists and philologists, cultural scientists and linguists, and its impact on people has become the subject of study even in medicine.

Among the research in the field of advertising a significant proportion of work devoted to the problems and aspects of advertising as a kind of mass communication. In particular, the questions of the theory and practice of advertising communication are reflected in the works of T. Ambler, D. Burnett, V. Freiburger, F. Kotler, J.-J. Lamben, S. Moriarty, D. Ogilvy, K. Rotzol, J. Segel, D. Traut, W. Wales and in the scientific researches of Ukrainian sci-

entists G. Pocheptsov, E. Romat and others.

Aspects of public administration, including in the field of communications and advertising, problems of value regulation were studied by domestic scientists in the field of public administration, economics, sociology, law. In particular, the works of V. Bakumen-ko, O. Valevsky, V. Golub, L. Gonjukov, V. Kozakov, G. Pocheptsov, V. Rebkalo, E. Romat, V. Tertychka should be noted among the others.

An archetype became a new scientific direction in social sciences, including the public administration, largely due to the research of Ukrainian scientists E. A. Afonin, O. A. Donchenko, O. V. Sushiy and others, whose works are devoted to the influences of archetypes on social life and politics, as well as management and public administration.

As the theoretical basis of this study the author used scientific works, which raise issues of social responsibility advertising, in particular, J. Baudrillard, E. Fromm and G. Lipovetsky.

The purpose of the article. The purpose of the article is to analyze the regulation of advertising in the context of sustainable development of Ukraine, justification of the ways of balancing the interests of society and advertising business, the need for adequate regulation, including state and public on the basis of an archetypal approach.

The statement of basic materials. In a relatively short historical period, advertising in Ukraine has gained not only economic significance, but began to play a variety and important roles in many spheres of socio-economic and political life of society. In the difficult

conditions of the transformation period in the economy of the Ukrainian state, against the backdrop of a decline in many spheres of production and even the disappearance of entire industries, the advertising industry was rapidly gaining momentum.

The formation of the industry took place in times difficult for the country's economy. Domestic and foreign scholars, specialists and politicians, World Bank experts noted that the reforms that took place during the quarter century of independence in the Ukrainian economy had devastating consequences for its rather high industrial potential. In particular, according to the World Bank, for the period of 1991-2014, the real gross domestic product (GDP) set the world record for the fall and declined by 35 %, which was the worst result in the world. Domestic production "got bottom" in the 90's. Due to its constant downfall in the first nine years of independence, Ukraine lost almost 60 % of GDP [1].

But it was in those years that the emergence and rapid growth of the advertising industry, which for almost a few years has evolved from the sphere of small business to a powerful industry and industry, and also formed into an influential social institution. According to the results of the author's study, the beginning of the formation of advertising as an economic phenomenon in the recent history of Ukraine has its roots in the 1990's. By the same period in the then Ukrainian SSR the concept of "advertising" was generally absent as a type of economic activity [2, p. 37]. At the end of the 1990's and the beginning of the 2000's, the most active and fruitful period of the formation and

development of the industry came. For example, for only five years from 1997 to 2002, the volume of the domestic advertising market, which was already formed at that time, increased 6 times and reached almost $1 billion [2, p. 38]. And such a relative indicator of the effectiveness of advertising as the level of advertising costs of $1,000, the income of the population in 2001 was higher than that of the USA [2, p. 47]. That is, the advertising load on the average Ukrainian at that time was higher in relative terms than even the average American. In the value of consumer goods and services, more than 1 % averaged the cost of advertising. The ratio of advertising expenditures and GDP in the early 2000's exceeded 2 %, outpacing the same ratio in the advanced countries.

The development of the advertising market and favorable conditions for advertising business have led to stable growth of incomes, the advertising industry today is one of the most profitable in the Ukrainian economy. Active growth was largely due to the very favorable conditions of regulation, including the regulatory and institutional framework. During this period, two types of advertising regulation were formed and successfully co-existed in Ukraine: state and the self-regulation of advertising. At the same time, regulation of such a sphere, acting as a powerful means of forming the values of society, is an issue that, without exaggeration, determines the state of society.

Advertising in modern social life generates social and spiritual problems, advertising activity creates new challenges, to some extent deepens the crisis

state of society. Such a situation is not unique for Ukraine alone. For example, in the opinion of American communication specialists, advertising has been influenced by the American way of life not less than the Bible. However, in Ukraine, these changes took place very rapidly, which led to a lag in the development of regulation of advertising sphere from the pace of transformation in society, caused by the influence of advertising. Therefore, the study of the problem of elimination of this imbalance requires new approaches, one of which is based on the study of archetypal features of advertising activity and the formation of the principles of its effective regulation. It should be noted that the advertising industry itself is actively using the archetypal approach to improving the effectiveness of advertising.

According to an American research on archetypes in the advertising conducted by Margaret Mark and Carol S. Pearson of Saybrook University, "for the first time in the history of mankind, common myths began to take their positions, and the place of general sacred revenues was occupied by advertising" [3, p. 322]. The use of archetypes in advertising is the use of their positive potential for profit. At the same time there is a "stream of advertising, which reinforces the negative potential of the archetype or its manifestations at the lowest levels" [3, p. 326].

The results of a special research conducted by the American company Brand Asset Valuator (BAV), which surveyed 120,000 respondents in 33 countries, showed that under conditions where the companies' brands clearly correspond to a certain arche-

type, profit is steadily increasing [3, p. 42]. This leads to a situation where the potential of archetypes is intensively exploited in modern branding and advertising in general. The study of the action of archetypal advertising, aimed at children and adolescents showed that in some cases, there was a "social pressure" [3, p. 324].

Negative phenomena associated with advertising, including the stimulation of inappropriate demand and excessive consumption, create problems for society. So, the World Health Organization (WHO) in a special study on obesity in Europe highlighted advertising among its causes. It is about advertising harmful products, promoting unhealthy lifestyles, stimulating irrational demand and consumption of food products, which in turn is designed taking into account archetypes. WHO also recognized the important role of advertising food products aimed at children, the emergence and development of this problem among the latter [4, p. 132-164].

The problem of balanced consumption in modern society is much deeper and of a global nature. At the United Nations Summit on Sustainable Development, which took place in September 2015 in New York, new development benchmarks were approved. The final document of the Summit "Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development" includes 17 sustainable development goals and 169 objectives, including balanced consumption.

Ukraine, like other UN member states, has joined the global sustainable development process. In order to establish the strategic framework for national development in 2017, a draft

Strategy for Sustainable Development of Ukraine until 2030 (hereinafter referred to as the Strategy) was developed, and in February 2019, the Verk-hovna Rada of Ukraine included in the agenda the Draft Law on the Strategy of Sustainable Development of Ukraine until 2030. Among the goals defined by the Strategy, Strategic Goal #5: ensuring the transition to models of balanced consumption and production, tasks for achieving this goal include, among others, the following measures [5, p. 15-16]:

• to provide information to consumers and producers regarding the importance and benefits of balanced consumption and production and the formation of a modern consumption culture, in particular, the economical use of resources by the year 2030;

• to implement a national strategy for education for sustainable development by the year 2030.

One of the main objectives of advertising is to stimulate consumption, and therefore the solution of the problem of balanced consumption, as defined by the Strategy of Ukraine's Sustainable Development till 2030, creates a contradiction.

Under the influence of advertising, a person loses the opportunity of rational free choice, because his or her desires are programmed from the outside. The need to protect children from the negative impact of advertising, the protection of consumers and certain social groups from the influence of individual advertising images, prevention of the deformation of moral principles becomes an urgent need for society. This makes it necessary to establish an adequate state policy in the field

of advertising industry, enhance noncommercial public self-transformation target component in the regulation of advertising, expansion of relations and cooperation with the public in public administration.

E. Fromm in his work "To Have or to Be?" gives a very rigorous assessment of the social role of advertising and its impact on society. Advertisement with its purely suggestive methods, in his opinion, "the man pursues everywhere, not giving her a break, day or night, plunging it into the outskirts of consciousness and loss of sense of reality." He is convinced that "it is necessary to prohibit any method of brainwashing in commercial advertising and political propaganda" [6, p. 413]. Questions of value (archetypal) objectives of to have or to be in the regulation of advertising, from the standpoint of the social concept of E. Fromm, should not be regarded as a choice of alternative. It can be said about the possibility of achieving the optimal ratio of material interests of business and intangible values of society in the regulation of advertising, in particular, through increasing the effectiveness of self-regulation. Value has a relation of value-semantic archetypes of "possession" and "being'. Its most acceptable form is creative possession, when actors of self-government have an effective motivation for "being", which complements, but does not exclude, the corporate interests of "possession".

J. Baudrillard, investigating the crisis phenomena in the culture of the twentieth century, noted that in the society consumption of advertising problem is reduced to the interpretation of desires. Desires materialize in speeches, and things represent desire and mate-

rialize certain functions of social order. Advertising creates a world in which social problems are not solved, people and things: "Any tension, any individual or collective conflict can be solved by means of certain things" [7, p. 105].

In a study by Gilles Lipovetsky it is noted that the postmodernist state of European culture was the result of processes encouraged, among other things, by mass consumption and the media [6, p. 44]. He labels the modern era "the era of mass consumption" [8, p. 17].

In such circumstances, in addition to the development of legislation and external control, effective self-governance and self-regulation in the advertising sphere can contribute to the solution of the problem. That self-regulation can be the answer to the question "to have or to be", or rather to put it in another key -"to have and to be". Erich Fromm's work introduces the concept of "existential possession", defined as efficiently due desire for self-preservation and not contrary to nature of "being" in terms of existence. One manifestation of this principle, creative ownership, can be the basis of the value (archetypal) targeting self-regulation, despite the fact that overall business activity less peculiar archetype of "being", but the motivation of self-regulation may lie in its grounds. The practice of self-regulation shows that it is capable of ensuring a harmonious relationship between advertisers, society and the state quickly, flexibly and without unnecessary expense.

As the historical experience shows, transformations in the economy and the social sphere occur, among the other things, under the influence of certain value systems (archetypes) of the participants in social-power relations.

The goal setting in regulation, based on value systems, helps to balance the interests of the participants.

Conclusions. The concept of sustainable development in contemporary world socio-economic theory and practice is considered as a strategy for addressing the problems of conservation and reproduction of the natural environment and ensuring a high standard of living of the planet's population. Among the tasks defined in the Strategy of Sustainable Development of Ukraine until 2030, there is a particular one, 'ensuring balanced consumption and production and the formation of a modern consumption culture'. In the context of these challenges and taking into account the scale of the advertising industry, its role and the possible impact on society, it is understood that even the most perfect legislation and effective system of external control will not eliminate all the contradictions associated with it. But in terms of interaction with legislative mechanisms, state and public external control systems, the self-regulation of advertising can ensure the existence of a harmonious relationship between advertisers, society and the state.

The question of value systems in advertising regulation, from the standpoint of tasks of the Sustainable Development Strategy for balanced consumption, should not be considered as a choice of alternative. One can mention the possibility of achieving an optimal balance between the material interests of business and the intangible values of society in regulating the advertising sphere, particularly, in increasing the effectiveness of self-regulation. A correlation of value-semantic archetypes that determine creative ownership, when

actors of advertising self-government have an effective motivation for social responsibility, which complements, but does not exclude corporate interests, still matters much.

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