Научная статья на тему 'PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING AS COGNITIVE-EMOTIONAL COMPONENT OF STUDENT SELF-REGULATED LEARNING'

PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING AS COGNITIVE-EMOTIONAL COMPONENT OF STUDENT SELF-REGULATED LEARNING Текст научной статьи по специальности «Психологические науки»

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Ключевые слова
COGNITIVE-EMOTIONAL FACTORS / LEARNING ACTIVITY / PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING / SELF-REGULATED LEARNING / STUDENT

Аннотация научной статьи по психологическим наукам, автор научной работы — Balashov Eduard

The manuscript reports the theoretical aspects of studying the concepts of students’ psychological well-being in the process of self-regulated learning. The essence of student psychological well-being through a prism of cognitive and emotional personality factors has been theoretically studied. The role of psychological well-being and its components in the process of self-regulated learning activities of HEI students has been described. Psychological well-being has been viewed as an integral indicator of the level of personality, which affects resistance, and manifests itself in subjectively tangible satisfaction and life satisfaction. Self-regulated learning has been considered as a metacognitive level of initiation, motivation, monitoring, evaluation and control of all kinds and forms of internal and external activities by the subject of learning, which are aimed at reaching the predetermined goals of learning, personal and professional self-development and self-realization. The results of empirical research with the use of K. Ryff’s questionnaire entitled “Scales of Psychological Well-being,” as adapted by S. Karskanova, allowed us to evaluate personal growth, positive relationships with others, goals in life, managing environment, autonomy and self-acceptance which are indicators of individuals’ psychological well-being. Methods of statistical data processing such as descriptive statistics (group median - Me, arithmetic mean - M, standard deviation - σ) and the Kruskal-Wallis test, confirmed the existence of a statistically significant linear age-related decrease in indicators on the “Autonomy” Scale for the senior students. Analysis of the empirical data on the levels of defined psychological well-being has showed a linear correlation between psychological well-being and its levels. It has been concluded that the cognitive-emotional aspects of psychological well-being of modern student youth in learning activities have been dominated by dependent types of self-regulation in learning. The results have indicated that the most appropriate means to improve the psychological well-being of students, as a component of the emotional and behavioral level, is the formation of their active life position, responsibility for their own activities, motivation and autonomy in self-regulated learning activities. Prospective directions for future research have been described.

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Текст научной работы на тему «PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING AS COGNITIVE-EMOTIONAL COMPONENT OF STUDENT SELF-REGULATED LEARNING»

Original scientific paper

UDK:

159.953.5.075-057.875(477)

Received: December, 26.2021. Revised: March, 26.2022. Accepted: May, 06.2022.

Psychological Well-Being as Cognitive-Emotional Component of Student

Self-Regulated Learning

Abstract: The manuscript reports the theoretical aspects of studying the concepts of students' psychological well-being in the process of self-regulated learning. The essence of student psychological well-being through a prism of cognitive and emotional personality factors has been theoretically studied. The role of psychological well-being and its components in the process of self-regulated learning activities of HEI students has been described. Psychological well-being has been viewed as an integral indicator of the level of personality, which affects resistance, and manifests itself in subjectively tangible satisfaction and life satisfaction. Self-regulated learning has been considered as a metacognitive level of initiation, motivation, monitoring, evaluation and control of all kinds and forms of internal and external activities by the subject of learning, which are aimed at reaching the predetermined goals of learning, personal and professional self-development and self-realization. The results of empirical research with the use of K. Ryff's questionnaire entitled "Scales of Psychological Well-being," as adapted by S. Karskanova, allowed us to evaluate personal growth, positive relationships with others, goals in life, managing environment, autonomy and self-acceptance which are indicators of individuals' psychological well-being. Methods of statistical data processing such as descriptive statistics (group median - Me, arithmetic mean - M, standard deviation - a) and the Kruskal-Wallis test, confirmed the existence of a statistically significant linear age-related decrease in indicators on the "Autonomy Scale for the senior students. Analysis of the empirical data on the levels of defined psychological well-being has showed a linear correlation between psychological well-being and its levels. It has been concluded that the cognitive-emotional aspects of psychological well-being of modern student youth in learning activities have been dominated by dependent types of self-regulation in learning. The results have indicated that the most appropriate means to improve the psychological well-being of students, as a component of the emotional and behavioral level, is the formation of their active life position, responsibility for their own activities, motivation and autonomy in self-regulated learning activities. Prospective directions for future research have been described.

Keywords: cognitive-emotional factors, learning activity, psychological well-being, self-regulated learning, student.

One of the most relevant indicators influencing the formation of the future professional is the psychological well-being of the individual, which is perceived as an integral indicator of the level of personality affecting resistance and manifesting itself in subjectively tangible satisfaction and life satisfaction (Pavliuk, Shopsha and Tkachuk, 2018). It is believed that this phenomenon affects all aspects of human life, including the personal inclination toward self-actualization and self-development, as well as life satisfaction and the realization of personal choices (Kashliuk, 2016).

Experiencing a sense of satisfaction with one's own activities based on personal experience is an important component of an individual's psychological well-being, along with such components as a positive cognitive-evaluative attitude toward the world in general and toward themselves as the subject of life activity. Personal aspects of individual psychological well-being has been studied by Arshava and Nosenko (2012) defining it as the positive cognitive-evaluative attitude of a person toward the surrounding world and toward themselves as the subject of life, as well as the personal feeling of satisfaction with their activities. Therefore, based on general theoretical approaches to determining the structural components of psychological well-being, we can elaborate on their significance in the implementation of students' self-regulated learning activities. These components include: an emotional component (a positive or

'Corresponding author: eduard.balashov@oa.edu.ua

© 2022 by the authors. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by/4.0/).

Eduard Balashovr

1National University of Ostroh Academy, Department of Psychology and Pedagogy, Ostroh, Ukraine

e-mail: eduard.balashov@oa.edu.ua

Introduction

negative attitude in the implementation of educational goals, needs and intentions) (Arshava, Znanetska and Nosenko, 2011); a cognitive component (a student's assessment of their student life, satisfaction with it as the main indicator) (Balashov, 2020); and a conative component (a set of functional components that ensure the positive functioning of the individual, such as autonomy, focus on personal growth, positive relationships, self-acceptance, life goals, etc. ) (Kashliuk, 2016).

The issue of the study of individual psychological well-being of a student in context of their cognitive and emotional spheres is critically relevant due to the insufficient level of generalization and development of methods for studying this issue with regards to self-regulated learning. This topic is especially relevant in the context of studying the learning activities of students in the context of their leaning efficiency and success. Setting the own learning goals, learning educational material, performing the learning tasks, formative assessment, analysis and correction of the own learning activities requires activation not only of cognitive processes of students, but also includes their emotions which allows analyzing the learning methods and strategies, and, if necessary, correcting them. An important factor influencing success is the students' ability to self-regulate the learning process, which plays a significant role in their learning activities. Given that students' metacognitive abilities and learning motivation largely determine learning efficiency and success, we find it significantly relevant and appropriate to study the relationship between the cognitive and emotional components of students' psychological well-being and their self-regulated learning.

A large number of scientists have carried out the study of self-regulated learning and psychological well-being of students. New areas of research in psychology and the attitude toward the individual as the highest value have presented scientists with the task of determining the mechanisms and factors of successful fully-fledged personal life in society. In modern psychological science, the concept of well-being has a variety of definitions, including: well-being based on virtue, the definition of the true "I," individual self-realization and professional growth. Most often in the theoretical works of scientists we come across the definition of well-being as a set of certain personal qualities or states, or the study of one of the criteria of well-being. Individual achievement of psychological well-being is often seen as a process of forming such individual qualities or states, as well as being the result of this process (Leontyev, 1992).

The assessment of a person's life, its individual parts and characteristics is based on cognitive-emotional experience, which is formed on the basis of the subjective perception of the surrounding circumstances, taking into account the individual's personal characteristics. This assessment can be considered a determinant of subjective well-being, the concrete embodiment of which is the psychological well-being of the individual. Psychological and subjective well-being in the context of objective and subjective characteristics of the phenomenon of well-being have also been distinguished by some scientists (Leontyev et al., 2007).

Psychological well-being is a complex integral phenomenon that includes a number of components. Cognitive and emotional (affective) components can be distinguished. It is understood that a person's positive or negative emotions, their mood, emotional balance, etc. determine the emotional and behavioral component of psychological well-being. Moreover, its cognitive component is manifested in a person's ideas about their own life and its comparison with the imaginary ideal life, which in turn is crucial for overall life-satisfaction or its specific parts and the projection of self into reality (Balashov, 2020).

To a large extent, youths' psychological well-being is influenced by the level of formation of the system of behavioral self-regulation and their own motivation (Golovey and Rybalko, 2002; Ryan and Deci, 2001). Motivation of student learning activity includes a number of factors which determine the level of self-regulation. We share the views presented in the theory of self-determination (autonomy) by Ryan and Deci (2001). In this theory, the scientists distinguished the extrinsic or external motivation, when behavior and activities are determined by rewards and punishments; introjected motivation, in which behavior is determined by the set rules and requirements; identified motivation, when behavior is determined by a sense of personal choice, previously regulated from the outside; and intrinsic or internal motivation, when the students show interest in this activity. Students' academic efficacy can be predetermined, according to this theory, by intrinsic motivation, which has been based on the student's need for competence (choosing the optimal task difficulty, positive feedback) and self-determination (autonomy, internality of personality) (Ryan and Deci, 2001). Comprehensive research examining the correlation between psychological well-being and the self-regulation of student learning activities is lacking (Balashov et al., 2018, p. 1-22).

Psychological well-being as a holistic subjective experience is of great importance for a person, because it is associated with basic human values and needs, as well as with everyday concepts such as happiness, a happy life, life satisfaction etc. In this situation, a person emphasizes their own subjective emotional assessment of their own life, as well as aspects of self-actualization and personal growth. These two aspects were successfully synthesized and characterized in the six-component theory of

psychological well-being by Ryff (1989), who substantiated the phenomenon of a person's psychological well-being as the perception and evaluation of their inner functioning in terms of reaching the peak of human potential. Improving a person's quality of life and reducing their fear of aging were considered signs of well-being. The author considered a psychologically prosperous person to be one who is self-realized and whose needs were met (Ryff, 1989).

Components of psychological well-being can be viewed in Ryff (1989) structure of the components of this phenomenon, which contains six separate scales of psychological well-being of the individual. This combination included characteristics such as: well-being, which combined a positive assessment of themselves and their past (self-acceptance); a sense of constant personal growth and development (personal growth); the belief in goals and meaning of life (purpose in life); quality relationships with others (positive relationships with others); the ability to take responsibility for their own life and the world around (mastery of the world around); and a sense of personal self-determination (autonomy) (Balashov, 2020).

Self-acceptance is a phenomenon that determines a person's positive attitude toward themselves, conscious evaluation of previous life experiences, and acceptance of their own positive and negative individual characteristics. According to Ryff (1989), positive relationships with others indicate the presence of empathy, the ability to find compromises with others, trusting relationships with others and feelings about one's own well-being. Autonomy characterizes the level of the person's independence in society, their ability to reflect on and regulate their own behavior, self-assessment in terms of their own value sphere, and ability to effectively use life circumstances to create opportunities. The characteristics of environmental management explain the level of personal confidence and competence in the effective management of daily affairs, the self-creation of conditions for the realization of one's own needs and values. The "goals in life" scale characterizes the presence of the person's life orientation, life goals, and their meaningful implementation. The personal growth of the subject refers to their continual self-development and self-improvement, learning from new life experiences and the desire to reach their full potential in life.

People with a low level of psychological well-being do not have the experience of positive close relationships with others and, therefore, have a constant need to find resources to improve this type of well-being. They constantly expect a positive attitude towards themselves from others, but are afraid of being unacceptable in different groups. They mostly have a negative emotional background and underdeveloped self-control. According to them, the socio-cultural environment is mostly unfair and is threatening to them.

Individuals with an average level of psychological well-being focus mainly on controlling the external environment, but at the same time seek to develop their own competence. This, in turn, increases the level of psychological well-being. Such individuals are mostly overly focused on the socio-cultural environment, idealizing others. They usually have a negative emotional background, and they mostly focus on a small circle of communication, even at the cost of personal changes that are harmful to their personal development. Individuals, who are characterized by a high level of psychological well-being, have constructive relationships with others, personal harmony and a high level of personal reflexivity. They are resistant to stress, are more socially adapted and have a developed ability to internally overcome interpersonal conflicts (Balashov et al., 2018).

According to Pozdniakova (2007), the personal experience of feeling well-being includes the cognitive component of life satisfaction and depends on the presence of a person's stable positive emotional background and a positive subjective assessment of reality. It should be borne in mind that the level of psychological well-being depends on whether or not the needs of different levels are met. This includes social needs because a person's motivations include the desire to belong to a social group (community) and occupy a certain place in this group, have good relations, the attention of others and be the object of their respect and love.

In regard to student learning, it is especially important to determine the relationship between psychological well-being and self-regulated learning. In the context of this study, we consider self-regulation as "the systemic process of integrating an individual's motivational sphere in accordance with the holistic "I" and the available opportunities, as well as a set of means to initiate, program and control actions to implement these products of motivational integration into self-regulated learning activities" (Balashov, 2020, p. 98). Self-regulation in learning has been considered as a "metacognitive level of initiation, motivation, monitoring, evaluation and control of all kinds and forms of internal and external activities by the subject of learning, which are aimed at reaching the predetermined goals of learning, personal and professional self-development and self-realization" (Balashov, Pasichnyk and Kalamazh, 2021).

The main goals and purpose of our study was aimed at helping to improve the understanding

of students' psychological well-being through the possible impact on their system of self-regulation in learning, as well helping to identify the optimal quality of cognitive-emotional factors of self-regulation for psychological well-being. We aimed to determine the cognitive-emotional characteristics of psychological well-being in student self-regulated learning.

Materials and Methods

In the study, we relied on K. Ryff's definition of psychological well-being, in which it was considered as a basic subjective construct that reflects the perception and evaluation of its functioning in terms of human potential, including the following parameters: positive relationships with others (trust and care for them, empathy); autonomy (independence from social pressure and self-regulation); competence in managing the environment (the presence of control, the ability to choose and create situations that meet one's own needs and values); the presence of life goals; and personal growth (belief in one's own ability to reach one's personal potential) (Ryff, 1989). K. Ryff's questionnaire entitled "Scales of Psychological Well-being," as adapted by S. Karskanova, allowed us to evaluate personal growth, positive relationships with others, goals in life, managing environment, autonomy and self-acceptance which are indicators of individuals' psychological well-being.

The research sample consisted of 526 first-year (N = 263) and fifth-year (N = 263) students at the National University of Ostroh Academy (M = 20.2; SD = 1.97). The study was conducted and empirical data was collected during September-December, 2021. The sample was formed by a spontaneous method from the full-time students. To evaluate the level of students' psychological well-being, we used K. Ryff's "Scales of Psychological Well-being" as adapted by S. Karskanova, which consists of six scales: personal growth, positive relationships with others, goals in life, environmental management, autonomy and self-acceptance. These scales are indicators of the psychological well-being of the individual. The questionnaire consisted of 84 statements, for each of which the answer options are from 1 ("Absolutely disagree") to 6 ("Absolutely agree") (Karskanova, 2011). In addition, the following methods of data processing were used: qualitative - methods of analysis, synthesis, comparison and generalization to compare the data with other studies in this direction and interpret it; quantitative - methods of statistical data processing; descriptive statistics (group median - Me, arithmetic mean - M, standard deviation - a); the Kruskal-Wallis test; and Fisher's F-Test. The statistical program SPSS 15.0 was used for statistical data processing.

The accuracy and validity of the research conducted was ensured by representativeness of the sample, the use of the method relevant to the topic, aim and tasks of the study, the use of quantitative and qualitative analysis of the received empirical data by using the following methods of mathematical statistics.

Results and Discussion

Table 1 presents the descriptive statistics of the junior students' diagnostic results according to K. Ryff's questionnaire "Scale of Psychological Well-being."

Among the indicators of psychological well-being in the study group of students, the highest results have been noticed on the scales "Personal Growth" and "Self-Acceptance." This means that the studied junior students are quite open to new experiences, have a sense of reaching their potential and continuous development. They are quite positive about themselves in learning and accept different aspects of their personality. However, the lowest indicators on the scale "Environmental Management" have indicated that respondents are not sufficiently competent in managing the environment and controlling their external activities. They do not use opportunities, conditions and circumstances to achieve goals. Attention has been drawn to a zone for development by the indicators of autonomy, positive relationships and goals in life.

Table 1

Descriptive statistics of evaluation of junior students' characteristics of well-being according to K.Ryff's "Scale of Psychological Well-being"

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Me M a Sten score

Personal growth 62.44 61.50 12.00 6

Goals in life 59,50 60.08 11.60 5

Self-perception 59,30 57,53 11.87 6

Positive relationships 56;68 56,84 10.88 5

Managing environment 53,78 53,55 10.68 4

Autonomy 53,30 53,12 10.88 5

Note: descriptive statistics (group median - Me: arithmetic mean - M, standard deviation - a)

Student autonomy is associated with: confidence and competence in the management of daily affairs; the ability to choose and create conditions that meet individual and personal needs and values (competence, environmental management); the ability to withstand environmental pressures; and the ability to regulate their behavior and self-esteem based on their own beliefs or values. According to the results of our study, this has a relatively smaller impact.

It should be noted that the need to develop this characteristic in terms of self-regulated learning is important, as a person with high autonomy is able to be independent, is not afraid to oppose the opinion of the majority and can allow in themselves non-standard thinking and behavior. The lack of a sufficient level of autonomy leads to conformism and excessive dependence on the opinions of others.

To determine the dynamics of cognitive-emotional indicators of students' psychological well-being in terms of self-regulated learning, the entire sample was divided into groups according to the year of study. Graphically the results are presented on Fig. 1.

Diagnostics of dynamics in indicators of student psychological well-being

!

■ lyear 5 year

Figure 1. Diagnostics of dynamics in indicators of student psychological well-being according to K.

Ryff's "Scale of Psychological Well-being"

The groups were compared by the method of variance analysis to check the differences in the expression of qualities on the scales of psychological well-being. The Kruskal-Wallic test confirmed the existence of a statistically significant linear age-related decrease for the 5th year students by the indicator on the "Autonomy" Scale (p<0,01) (Table 2).

Table 2

Results of diagnostics of dynamics in indicators of student psychological well-being according to K. Ryff's "Scale of Psychological Well-being"

Me (group) Kruskal-Wallis criterion

Year 1 5 X 2 P

Personal growth 63,12 61,92 1,02 0.570

Goals in life 60,75 59,90 3,14 0.176

Self-perception 58,50 59,16 3,68 0.144

Positive relationships 53,90 56,12 0.266 0.780

Managing environment 53,66 54,80 0.490 0,764

Autonomy 57,68 50,90 8.902 0.008

The results of correlation analysis based on the obtained empirical data have shown the direct or inverse correlation of psychological well-being of students in learning with its levels. Students' skills such as motivational management, which is the ability to set important goals and implement them, are important for the development of psychological well-being in the process of self-regulated learning. Personal indicators such as positive relationships and self-acceptance have also been identified as important for the senior students.

Analysis of the empirical data on the level of defined psychological well-being has shown the linear nature of the correlation between psychological well-being and its levels. It is evident that the development of self-regulated educational activities requires certain educational conditions that characterize psychological well-being and determine it in the learning process.

Theoretical analysis of different approaches to the determination of the phenomenon of psychological well-being in self-regulated learning enabled the identification of the main components and factors of psychological well-being. Among them are: life satisfaction as an integral cognitive-emotional assessment; functional status - mental and psychophysiological state, i.e. the absence of negative experiences, states that have negative consequences for the body and psyche in learning activities (Pozdniakova, 2007); the value-motivational sphere as the general awareness of life and individual coordinate system of priorities; the ability to use available opportunities to achieve significant goals, as well as the overall consistency of needs and opportunities (Ryff and Keyes, 1995); social well-being which requires social support, openness in relationships, the absence of conflicts and a favorable social environment; self-esteem, including confidence in one's own abilities to overcome negative circumstances, take personal responsibility for one's own learning activities, and the absence of internal conflict; and self-efficacy, the achievement of certain learning goals and the presence of meaningful learning prospects (Kashliuk, 2016).

The theoretical analysis of the aspects of personal aspirations in our study has shown the balance between adaptation as an adjustment to the requirements of society, and self-realization as the embodiment of their potential, i.e., the most effective use of all the forces, abilities, skills and other resources in their self-regulated learning. Actually, this supports the thought that such balance determines whether a person feels psychologically and emotionally well during learning activities (Kashliuk, 2016).

Our theoretical results are similar to findings of Grigoryeva's (2009) scientific theory, in which it has been shown that neither the level of physical health, nor material well-being, nor satisfaction of the set needs are directly associated with experiences of happiness and well-being. Real prosperity involves the perception of life, a subjective attitude toward the situation and to one's own capabilities, and a sense of self-realization of one's own potential in learning and professional activity. It is also fair to assume that different components of well-being will be combined differently and have different meanings depending on the individual, profession and other factors (Balashov, 2020). The empirical data has made it possible to find a correlation between psychological well-being, and a positive relationship with friendliness ("positive relations" scale), and openness to new experiences ("goals in life"scale), which confirms the existing studies on this problem (Lamers, 2012).

Keyes (1998) assessed the level of psychological and social well-being in terms of signs of a person's sense of comfort in the surrounding environment, confidence in their own ability to self-actualize, perception of their social environment and the feeling of being a part of it, which allows their contribution to this environment. The social and emotional dimensions of well-being are reflected in its five-factor structure, elements of which have been analyzed and assessed in our current study.

Among these factors is social acceptance. Individuals with developed social acceptance trust others, recognize their diligence and kindness, have a positive attitude toward human nature and feel comfortable among others. Social acceptance is a kind of social analogue of self-acceptance, which has

been explored in our study and is true for student self-regulated learning.

Self-actualization is another factor that is important for psychological well-being, which involves the assessment of learning potential and trajectory, social responsibility, which is realized through social institutions and civil society, etc. Socially healthy individuals feel responsible for the development of society and their own self-actualization in it via learning and an active social role.

Consistent with the learning environment, is the perception of quality, organization and the students' active participation in creating their own learning environment. Psychologically well students understand the essence of the processes occurring in the learning environment. Such individuals do not mislead themselves about the fact that they do not live in an ideal world. The adequate perception of social and education realities stimulates their search for the meaning of life in the real world and relevant self-regulated activities in learning. The personal contribution and growth of students is reflected in the assessment of their values and dynamics in personal development. Being a vital member of the educational environment, feeling confidence in one's own values and clearly understanding one's own learning goals make student self-regulated learning and its motivation more autonomous (internal), efficient and conscious.

Today, many scientists have focused on exploring the different cognitive and metacognitive factors determining the quality of psychological well-being in self-regulated learning (Savchenko, 2016; Radchuk, 2015; Voloshyna, 2014; Balashov, Pasichnyk and Kalamazh, 2021). Our current theoretical analysis and empirical data have supported the conclusion that the definition and analysis of cognitive and emotional aspects of students' personal well-being in self-regulated learning can be an effective tool for university professors who should consider the individual characteristics of every student and properly build their activities to improve the learning process. This is especially important as we consider students to be subjects of their own cognitive and metacognitive learning activities. Such conclusions support the previous studies of Brown, Andrade and Chen (2015), Schunk and Greene (2018), Andrade and Heritage (2018) and Balashov, et al. (2018), who emphasize the importance of psychological well-being in increasing the efficiency of student self-regulated learning, and consider academic self-regulation, the psychological and emotional well-being of students at higher educational institutions as a factor of their academic motivation and learning self-efficacy.

Conclusions

Summarizing the results of theoretical analysis and the empirical evaluation, it can be concluded that the cognitive-emotional aspects of psychological well-being of modern student youth in learning activities have been dominated by dependent types of self-regulation in learning. Students with external self-regulation are primarily described by a passive subjective position in their own learning. Introjected self-regulation determines that students rely on the instructions of teachers in learning and their emotional dependence on such instructions increases. Students with predominantly identified self-regulation are proactive, confident, independent and they create their own behavioral paths. The autonomous (internal) type of self-regulated learning supports the development of students' cognitive and metacognitive abilities, their creativity, self-organization and active subjective attitude toward learning, which leads to an increase in their level of psychological well-being.

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Theoretical analysis and empirical research have confirmed the close relationship between the psychological well-being of students and the indicators of the levels of psychological well-being studied. Empirically, it was found that students' "autonomy" significantly decreases with the transition to their senior year of studying. The number of highly autonomous students during their studies does not significantly change statistically. Among the factors of psychological well-being, the highest indicators were "personal growth" and "goals in life", and the lowest - "environmental management" and "autonomy". Autonomy and the ability to manage the environment are deep personal formations, the preconditions of which were laid in early childhood under the influence of meaningful relationships.

Modern higher education has been designed to ensure equal access to the best educational resources and practices for all participants in the educational process, and ensure the formation of an intelligent, competent and competitive professional in the labor market. In order to prepare a student to function in such conditions, academic knowledge, functional skills, personal and communicative-organizational competencies are not sufficient. It is necessary to develop their completely new personal characteristics, such as emotional, cognitive and metacognitive skills and competencies. The study emphasizes that the most appropriate means for improving the psychological well-being of students, as a component of the emotional and behavioral level, is the formation of their active life position, responsibility for their own activities, and autonomy in self-regulated learning activities.

It is especially important to determine the relationship between psychological well-being of students and their academic performance. This will help develop metacognitive components of student learning that increase efficiency of such academic performance. Determining the right balance of student learning motivation and personal factors crucial for successful student learning activities is one of the most topical issues of modern higher education and is seen to be the prospective direction for the future research.

Acknowledgements

Authors would like to express sincere words of gratitude to all participants of the research (students of the National University of Ostroh Academy) and to the editorial team members for their patience, kindness and professional assistance.

Conflict of interests

The author declares no conflict of interest.

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