Научная статья на тему 'Prospects of sports training individualization among cadets of military higher educational establishments, going in for military-sports multiathlon, using d&k - test express-diagnostics method'

Prospects of sports training individualization among cadets of military higher educational establishments, going in for military-sports multiathlon, using d&k - test express-diagnostics method Текст научной статьи по специальности «Науки о здоровье»

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Ключевые слова
cadets / express diagnostics D & K TEST / questionnaire survey / functional state / reserve capacities

Аннотация научной статьи по наукам о здоровье, автор научной работы — Kitaev P. A.

The article is about the aspects of functional state and reserve capacities of an organism study, which condition physical and mental working capacity o f cadets. Sports results and cadets’ health became an important part of scientific research works. However, without modern technologies of urgent functional readiness level determination it is impossible to correct training effects. Research methods: Scientific and methodical literature analysis, pedagogical observation, functional state and cadetsreserve capacities indices. Material. The use of express-diagnostics D&K TEST is demonstrated for organism functional state and reserve capacities determination among cadets, who go in for military-sports multiathlon. Results. A questionnaire survey among cadets showed that during the lessons they have to overcome great physical and psychic loads, which lead to organism over-tension. Conclusion. The technology of functional state testing among cadets in practice will provide training and competitive loads fulfillment, functional abilities of an organism improvement and the planned competitive activity results achievement in terms of health preservation.

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Текст научной работы на тему «Prospects of sports training individualization among cadets of military higher educational establishments, going in for military-sports multiathlon, using d&k - test express-diagnostics method»

DOI 10.14526/2070-4798-2018-13-3-32-41

PROSPECTS OF SPORTS TRAINING INDIVIDUALIZATION AMONG CADETS OF MILITARY HIGHER EDUCATIONAL ESTABLISHMENTS, GOING IN FOR MILITARY-SPORTS MULTIATHLON, USING D&K - TEST EXPRESS-DIAGNOSTICS

METHOD

Kitaev P.A.1

1 Federal State Municipal Military Educational Establishment of Higher Education "Tyumen Higher Military-Engineering Command School (Military Institute) Named After Corps of Engineers

Marshal A.I. Proshlyakov", Russia, Tyumen, kitaevp@yandex.ru

Annotation. The article is about the aspects of functional state and reserve capacities of an organism study, which condition physical and mental working capacity of cadets. Sports results and cadets' health became an important part of scientific research works. However, without modern technologies of urgent functional readiness level determination it is impossible to correct training effects. Research methods: Scientific and methodical literature analysis, pedagogical observation, functional state and cadets' reserve capacities indices. Material. The use of express-diagnostics D&K - TEST is demonstrated for organism functional state and reserve capacities determination among cadets, who go in for military-sports multiathlon. Results. A questionnaire survey among cadets showed that during the lessons they have to overcome great physical and psychic loads, which lead to organism over-tension. Conclusion. The technology of functional state testing among cadets in practice will provide training and competitive loads fulfillment, functional abilities of an organism improvement and the planned competitive activity results achievement in terms of health preservation.

Key words: cadets, express diagnostics D & K - TEST, questionnaire survey, functional state, reserve capacities.

For citations: Kitaev P.A. Perspectives of sports training individualization among cadets of military higher educational establishments, who go in for military-sports multiathlon, using D&K-TEST express diagnostics method. The Russian Journal of Physical Education and Sport (Pedagogico-Psychological and Medico-Biological Problems of Physical Culture and Sports). 2018; 13(3): 26-32. DOI 10.14526/2070-4798-2018-13-3-32-41.

INTRODUCTION Urgency. Going in for sports is an important part of cadets' health. Cadets' health preservation and improvement during sport nowadays becomes one of the most important state objectives. In modern society military specialists training is considered as a complex system of all sides of training realization [1,2,3]. At the same time, functional part of training by means of physical culture and sport is always considered only in terms of sports training. Cadets' sports training by means of militarysports multiathlon demands physical loads use individualization. Without modern technologies of urgent functional readiness

level determination it is impossible to correct training effects.

In the works of many specialists different approaches to cadets' functional training optimization are considered. In the works of professor I.G. Gibadullin, doctor of pedagogics, and other authors the effectiveness of D&K - TEST express-diagnostics method is substantiated [4,5,6,7,8,10]. This method helps to get quick information about athletes' current, operative state and integral indices, which characterize the work of muscles activity energy supply system. This method helps to define the level of functional state and reserve capacities of an organism functioning within the following

ranges: minimal, mediocre, average, high, maximum.

R.E. Petrov (2013) almost revealed the abilities of physical training effectiveness increase among racing-skiers at the age of 1516, taking into account bioenergetics profile [9]. The author took into consideration the influence of different kinds of training loads on nervomuscular system, taking into account bioenergetics profile. He revealed the leading factors, which influence sports result with the help of express diagnostics and gave the formula of the main GPT (general physical training) and SPT (special physical training) means volume distribution, taking into account bioenergetics profiles, such as: anaerobic, mixed and aerobic. Such kind of an approach helped to individualize physical loads influence on racing-skiers' organism. There are a lot of such kind of examples. Taking into account all mentioned above, we come to the conclusion that «D&K - TEST» method use according to Dushanin helped to organize sports activity of military higher educational establishment.

Military-sports multiathlon means use in cadets' physical training helps to improve cadets' military readiness.

In this connection, the aim of this work is the effective ways of express-diagnostics method D&K - TEST use revelation in sports training of cadets, who go in for military-sports multiathlon, as the base for sports training individualization.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Methods and research organization. In the work we fulfilled literature analysis connected with the problem of the research, we used pedagogical observation, functional state indices and cadets' organism reserve capacities indices.

For the functional state, organism reserve capacities determination and bioenergetics type of cadets revelation we used express diagnostics method according to Dushanin «D&K - TEST».

Picture 1 presents electrodes overlay on a chest wall according to Wilson.

Picture 1. Active electrode position on a chest wall during monopolar ECG derivations recording

according to Wilson

A complex program of functional state and reserve capacities express diagnostics «D&K - TEST» works according to the principle of ECG recording in standard (I, II,III, aVR, aVL, aVF) derivations and chest (V3R, dV3R, V1, V2, dV2, V4, V5, V6, dV6) derivations according to Wilson. In chest derivations V3R, V1, V2, V4, V5, V6 gradually percentage ratio of R wave is calculated till the sum of R and S waves

amplitude according to (R/R+S) * 100% formula, which came out during the process of ECG registration.

dV3R, dV2 h dV6 indices calculation, receives in chest derivations, is realized according to the mentioned formula with the help of specially created scheme, implanted into electrical chain of interface (INTF). With the help of special formulas-algorithms of the software program 9 bioenergetic parameters

of an organism are calculated. These parameters characterize volume, effectiveness (efficiency) and power of metabolic aerobic and creatine phosphate and glycolytic anaerobic components, which form energy supply of the working muscles.

The research was held on the basis of Federal State Municipal Military Educational Establishment of Higher Education "Tyumen Higher Military-Engineering Command School (military Institute) named after corps of engineers marshal A.I. Proshlyakov". Cadets, who go in for military-sports multiathlon took part in the research.

RESEARCH RESULTS AND THEIR DISCUSSION

Specialists underline that high results in sports activity are accompanied by maximum physical loads during cadets' training lessons and competitive activity. A questionnaire survey among the cadets showed that during the lessons cadets have to overcome great physical and psychic loads, which lead to organism tiredness. Extracurricular sectional lessons according to different kinds of sport also lead to overtraining, sports results decrease, functional state change, physical working capacity change, health level decrease. Group military-sports multiathlon lessons demand individual approach during physical loads distribution, as each organism has its own reaction to the load. Cadets also underlined that their motivation to achieve high results increased, but it is not always reasonable, as it leads to subjective health state estimation violation.

27 respondents underlined (100%) a high level of importance answering the following question: "What is the meaning and place of military-sports multiathlon in physical training?", characterizing this kind of sport as the base for psychological qualities of the future military men demonstration. Answering the question "What place does functional training of an organism take?", 24% underlined the importance of functional training in terms of physical training, 35% underlined the necessity of an individual approach, taking into account current and

operative state of an organism, 21% of the respondents underlined that it is necessary to include innovative methods into the training process, which will help to get quickly an integral level of functional state, 22% of the respondents mentioned that not all means and methods are chosen, taking into account the orientation of muscular activity energy supply.

Answering the question "What are the factors, which determine military-sports multiathlon means influence?" 67% of cadets said, that the most general factors were the following: pedagogically correct lesson organization and control, expediency of methods and methodical techniques of cadets' sports training organization. 13% of cadets mentioned the necessity of individual and age-related peculiarities change of functional state under the influence of different orientation sports loads (anaerobic, aerobic and mixed). 10% defined the conditions of lessons organization and equipment use. 10% of cadets underlined the necessity to take into account physiological basis of load influence on an organism.

Thus, the effectiveness of lessons organization increase using military-sports multiathlon means is the result of successful innovative methodologies use directed at functional state revelation and training and competitive loads individualization.

Many specialists use only heart rate index, as an integral index of organism state. We determined that cadets have varied range of heart rate indices.

Express-diagnostics methodology D&K - TEST use in cadets' sports training helps to create a functional model, which includes training and competitive loads distribution according to the volume and intensity, taking into account functional state and cadets' reserve capacities.

Further we present the protocol of cadets' functional state and reserve capacities study. Before the sports season and during the year the indices are registered in order to correct training and competitive loads. During the season 12 protocols for each athlete are created.

Table 1 presents a protocol of cadets' diagnostics.

functional state and reserve capacities

Table 1

Protocol of cadets' functional state and reserve capacities diagnostics

Diagnostics according to D&K method 04-16-2014 12:13 Abkelyamov R

Date of birth: Experience according to the specialty: Qualification: candidate master Sex : M Height: Weight: Blood pressure SBP: DBP:

Derivations V3R dV3R V1 V2 dV2 V4 V5 V6 dV6

R mv. 0.115 0.234 0.161 0.281 0.719 1.323 1.969 1.286 0.995 S mv. 0.807 0.583 1.109 1.975 1.575 0.365 0.219 0.115 0.453 R/R+S% 12.43 28.66 12.70 12.46 31.33 78.39 90.00 91.82 68.70

Functional state and reserve capacities indices

ANAMC Anaerobic metabolic capacity (anaerobic capacities) 37.60

%ANAMC Capacity of anaerobic utilization (anaerobic genotype) ( AHAMC/GMC) 12.62

AMC Aerobic metabolic capacity (aerobic capacities) 260.20

%AMC Capacity of aerobic utilization (aerobic genotype) (AMC/GMC) 87.38

GMC General metabolic capacity (level of working capacity) 297.80

PCP Power of creatine phosphate source of energy supply (power endurance, reactivity, temperament) 28.66

PGL Power of glycolytic source of energy supply (speed endurance) 31.33

PASES Power of aerobic source of energy supply (maximum oxygen consumption) 68.70

W tanm Threshold of anaerobic metabolism (efficiency, technicality, learning capability) 68.68

HR tanm Heart rate at anaerobic metabolism threshold (effectiveness criterion of aerobic source use) 168.71

Recommended zones of work intensity (HR beats per minute.) 1. (recovery) 145 - 157 2. (aerobic) 158 - 169 3. (aerobic-anaerobic) 170 - 181 4 .(anaerobic-aerobic) 182 - 193 5. (anaerobic) more than 193

Indices Current state Individual model Deviation from the current state (%) Integral Current Operative

ANAMC 37.60 38.41 -2,1 2 2 2

%ANAMC 12.62 12.96 -2,6 2 2 2

AMC 260.20 258.12 +0,8 4 4 4

%AMC 87.38 87.04 +0,4 4 4 4

GMC 297.80 296.53 +0,4 3 3 3

PCP 28.66 30.28 -5,4 3 3 3

PGL 31.33 30.77 +1,8 3 3 3

PASES 68.70 67.87 +1,2 4 4 4

Wtanm 68.68 68.81 -0,2 4 4 4

HR tanm 168.71 170.68 +1,16 4 4 4

Sum of points 33 33 33

The level of functional state and reserve capacities of an organism (minimal, mediocre, average,

high, maximum)

Integral:..... .... HIGH

Current: .............HIGH

Operating ............. AVERAGE

Bioenergetic group.....................(1-5) 2

Number of points .(1-45) 33

The results of the initial protocol for each athlete are accumulated in the data bank. Taking into account all protocols in dynamics the final table of the average absolute values

For cadets' sports training individualization we present the scheme of data bank of cadets' functional state and reserve capacities accumulation (Picture 1).

CADETS

Complex of indices:

(ANAMC, AMC, GMC, ANAMC/GMC, AMC/GMC,CP,GL,MOC, HR at TANM, dGMC.

Data bank of individual functional state and

reserve capacities indices

Cadets' individual indices analysis for training and competitive

influences correction

Physical loads planning, physical loads realization according to the

zones of intensity

32

Realization

Picturel. Scheme of individual functional state and reserve capacities indices collection among

cadets, who go in for military-sports multiathlon

Picture 1 shows that each cadet should go through diagnostics several times using D&K, apparatus, where indices are determined automatically, taking into account heart derivations V3R dV3R V1 V2 dV2 V4 V5 V6 dV6. The received protocols are analyzed automatically and information goes to general protocol (ANAMC, AMC, GMC, ANAMC/GMC, AMC/GMC, CP, GL, MOC, HR at TANM, dGMC) according to each athlete.

Individual indices analysis according to athletes is held by a specialist. The received

Absolute average values of functional values and

results of the analysis are used for individualized program creation, taking into account integral functional state of the athletes. Individualized programs realization is held during military-sports training group lessons of cadets.

Table 2 presents the example of absolute average values of cadets' functional state and reserve capacities analysis.

Table 2 shows that individual indices of athletes are varied within a wide range, characterizing individual and typological difference of cadets.

Table 2

reserve capacities among cadets, who go in for multiathlon

Cadets Profile ANAMC AMC GMC Cr.P. GL. PASES HR tanm

Khaertdinov A. 3 50,2 201 251,3 11,5 31,5 63,9 162,5

Luschikov R. 3 85,5 239,1 324,6 33,6 32,8 73,8 175,8

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Haripov M. 2 53,7 268,4 322,1 31,2 29,6 76,2 177,8

Amatov R. 2 38,5 284,3 322,8 31,8 29 70,7 170,6

Safin A. 4 126,9 263,4 390,3 37,1 33,2 74,8 177,2

X 2,80 70,96 251,2 4 322,2 2 29,04 31,22 71,88 172,78

5 0,84 35,79 32,43 49,17 10,07 1,87 4,90 6,41

V% 29,88 50,43 12,91 15,26 34,68 6,00 6,81 3,71

Standard mistake 0,37 16,01 14,50 21,99 4,50 0,84 2,19 2,87

Taking into account the indices of the final table 2 individual yearly plan of cadets training is created. Functional study of cadets showed their belonging to bioenergetics profile with bioenergetics group definition. The source of muscular activity energy supply is determined with cadets' organism advantages and disadvantages mentioning during different physical load fulfillment. Additional functional state study among cadets helps to fulfill integral estimation of readiness. HR tanm and HR indices form a kind of integral index of cadets' organism state and its dynamics is connected with a

complex of physiological changes, which appear as the reaction to physical loads.

CONCLUSION

Thus, we can say that the process of cadets' sports training individualization demands testing equipment use. D&K - TEST use in sports training of cadets helps to create a functional model, which includes training and competitive loads distribution according to volume and intensity, taking into account functional state and reserve capacities of an organism. The necessity to create the system of received information accumulation for cadets' functional state complex estimation. Such kind of an approach helps to increase

the effectiveness of military-sports multiathlon means and methods use. The effectiveness of control increase is achieved by means of considering the integral, current and operative state of cadets during sports training. The methodology of the studied indices accumulating system realization provides timely correction of training means and methods. The factors, which condition the level of cadets' functional training, should be taken into consideration both during planning and during functional readiness diagnostics program creation.

The technology of functional state testing among cadets in practice will provide training and competitive loads fulfillment, functional abilities of an organism improvement and the planned competitive activity results achievement in terms of health preservation.

References

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Author's information:

Kitaev P.A. - Senior Lecturer, Federal State Municipal Military Educational Establishment of Higher Education "Tyumen Higher Military-Engineering Command School (Military Institute) Named After Corps of Engineers Marshal A.I. Proshlyakov", 625028, Russia, Tyumen, L. Tolstoy str., House 1, e-mail: kitaevp@yandex.ru

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