Научная статья на тему 'PRODUCTIVITY OF MULBERRY LEAF AND ITS USE'

PRODUCTIVITY OF MULBERRY LEAF AND ITS USE Текст научной статьи по специальности «Биологические науки»

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Mulberry / Morus alba / leaf of mulberry / leaves productivity / leaves quality.

Аннотация научной статьи по биологическим наукам, автор научной работы — Nodar Stephanishvili, Natalia Togonidze, Margalita Bachilava

The white mulberry leaf has a lot of different uses, because it has a very rich phytochemical composition. It is used in medicine as a hypoglycemic, anti-heart disease, anti-cancer, mulberry leaf extract can reduce the risk of atherosclerosis, prevent cell damage and high blood pressure etc. The aim of our work is study the productivity (leaf yield and also leaf quality) of varieties and forms resistant to mulberry phytoplasma disease in the village of Mtskheti district, on the mulberry collection in the plot of Jighaura, Georgia. It was selected 16 forms of Morus alba L. This will allow us of gradually enrich of the gene pool. Based on the research results, from our studied mulberries, we selected forms that are highly productive and accordingly give high quality leaves. Therefore, in the future, we will able to obtain an abundant harvest of mulberry leaves that can be used for different purposes.

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Текст научной работы на тему «PRODUCTIVITY OF MULBERRY LEAF AND ITS USE»

"SUSTAINABLE FORESTRY"

14-15 October 2022 | scientists.uz

PRODUCTIVITY OF MULBERRY LEAF AND ITS USE Nodar Stephanishvili

Doctor in Agrarian Sciences. Scientific-Research Center of Agriculture. nodari .stepanishvili@yahoo.com Natalia Togonidze

Doctor in Life Science. Institute of Botany, Ilia State University natalia.togonidze.1@iliauni.edu.ge Margalita Bachilava

PhD Student. Scientific-Research Center of Agriculture m.bachilava@agruni.edu.ge https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7193953

Abstract. The white mulberry leaf has a lot of different uses, because it has a very rich phytochemical composition. It is used in medicine as a hypoglycemic, anti-heart disease, anticancer, mulberry leaf extract can reduce the risk of atherosclerosis, prevent cell damage and high blood pressure etc. The aim of our work is study the productivity (leaf yield and also leaf quality) of varieties andforms resistant to mulberry phytoplasma disease in the village ofMtskheti district, on the mulberry collection in the plot of Jighaura, Georgia. It was selected 16 forms of Morus alba L. This will allow us ofgradually enrich of the gene pool. Based on the research results, from our studied mulberries, we selected forms that are highly productive and accordingly give high quality leaves. Therefore, in the future, we will able to obtain an abundant harvest of mulberry leaves that can be used for different purposes.

Keywords: Mulberry, Morus alba, leaf of mulberry, leaves productivity, leaves quality.

Introduction

Mulberry leaf have a lot of benefits as it has multiple - medicinal, culinary and industrial uses. Its composition is rich in: organic substances, vitamins and minerals. Protein and carbohydrate content of mulberry leaves is much richer than that of other green foods and also distinguished by high quality (Doran et al., 2007).

Mulberry leaf has rich phytochemistry and contains substances such as: flavonoids, polysaccharides, tannins, coumarins, polyphenols, steroids that have progesterone or estrogenic effects (Sánchez-Salcedo et al., 2015; Hou et al., 2020a).

In general, some plant extracts of Morus genus are used to treat and prevent diabetes because they have hypoglycemic effects and help the body maintain blood sugar levels in a healthy range.

This is provided by one of the most important compounds in the mulberry leaf - 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) (also called moranol), an important alkaloid of piperidine, is a strong a-glucosidase inhibitor, which affects the digestion of disaccharides and the absorption of glucose in the intestine. So it can be said that the compound 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) significantly reduces the absorption of glucose in the intestine (Yatsunami et al., 2008).

The substances contained in the mulberry leaf help to reduce the level of cholesterol and inflammation in the blood. Therefore, it can be used as an anti-heart disease (Ren et al., 2015).

Studies have found that mulberry leaf extract can reduce the risk of atherosclerosis, prevent cell damage and high blood pressure. It prevents development of tumor metastases. Mulberry leaf

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extract prevents fatty liver disease, can be used against neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. It is also known to significantly improve skin tone (Qi et al., 2016; Azman et al., 2012; Aramwit et al., 2011).

Based on the above mentioned, in our opinion it important to study the productivity (leaf yield and also leaf quality) of varieties and forms resistant to mulberry phytoplasma disease in the village of Mtskheti district, on the mulberry collection in the plot of Jighaura. This will allow us of gradually enrich of the gene pool.

Methodology and object research

Mulberry is an angiosperm crop of subtropical origin at the highest level. In optimal agro-ecological conditions, it grows 15-20 m. height, lives up to 200 years, reproduces both by seeds and vegetatively - cuttings and bud grafting. extends from sea level to 1600 m. Prefers heat, light and moisture. The genus Morus belongs to the Moraceae family. The most common species of the genus are: Morus alba - white mulberry, M. nigra - red mulberry and M. rubra - red mulberry. M. alba - white mulberry and M. nigra - black mulberry grow in our country, these species are spread throughout Georgia. Distribution area includes: South Caucasus, South Europe, Middle and Minor Asia, Iran.

Morus alba is a deciduous tree widely cultivated and a very popular medicinal plant. Morus alba is commonly known as white mulberry. This plant is characterized by a very wide distribution and accordingly, this is reflected in its physical and chemical characteristics.

Morus alba is also cultivated in our research plot, in Mtskheta Municipality, village Jighaura, which experimental plot is characterized by moderate and humid climate, with the average air temperature (12°C) and by hot months, especially in July and August (23-25°C).

In the collection plot, where several forms of Morus alba are grown, the method of structural analysis is used to estimate of leaf harvest, which was carried out on 14 forms. In order to study each form, samples of 3-5 kg should be taken from the model plant and the following indicators should be determined: weight and number of branches, number and weight of leaves on branches, number of growing and non-growing shoots. After that, leaf yield percentage will be calculated. This method gives us possibility of revealing the right indicators to define the overall level of leaf harvest.

Research results and discussion

Through the structural analysis of the crop, the leaf yield per plant was determined. The highest rate (per plant - 6 kg and more) was found on 4 forms (No. 5, No. 9, No. 11, No. 12). Average weight (from 5 to 6 kg) was found on 6 forms (No. 2. No. 7. No. 8. No. 10. No. 13. No. 14). And relatively low leaf yield was noted on 4 forms (No. 1. No. 3. No. 4. No. 6). While the mulberry leaf has such diversify uses, its productivity is very important. If the plant produces a large number of leaves, the benefits will be on a larger scale (Mahesh, 2022).

Table 1.

Structural analysis of yield of resistant forms of mulberry.

Plant № Sample weight, kg Weight of branches. kg Leaf weight,kg Leaf yield % Number of branches per one tree, number The average length of the branch,m.

11- grafted 1.70 0.52 0.96 56.3 12 160.5

1 369 1

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12- 2.25 0.85 1.25 55.6 14 166.5

grafted

26- 1.62 0.64 0.87 53.7 13 171.2

grafted

11- 2.50 1.25 1.15 46.0 16 177.4

hybrid form

7- 2.70 1.15 1.35 50.0 14 163.8

grafted

22- 1.72 0.63 0.94 54.7 14 165.2

grafted

3- 2.10 0.74 1.25 59.5 12 170.2

grafted

7- 2.0 0.55 1.20 60.0 13 155.5

grafted

8- 3.10 1.10 1.65 57.1 15 172.5

grafted

6- 2.68 1.13 1.45 54.0 12 166.8

grafted

21- 2.44 1.04 1.40 57.4 13 159.4

grafted

1-hybrid 3.10 1.59 1.49 46.2 17 176.3

form

6- 2.80 1.20 1.54 55.5 13 157.6

grafted

13- 2.50 1.03 1.41 56.6 15 161.6

grafted

As a result of the research, it was established that the percentage of leaf yield on the varietal forms is quite high and exceeds the leaf yield of hybrid plants (Table 1). A large number of growing and semi-growing shoots on the branches determines the yield of the variety or form and also the nutritional value of the leaf. In the future during the selecting of the best form, more attention should be paid to this indicator.

Productivity, the quality of the mulberry leaf is also important. in recent years maximum attention has been given for the improvement of mulberry both in terms of quality and quantity (Murti et al., 2013). Along with the main organic substances (carbohydrates, proteins, lipids), the concentration of water and dry substances was additionally determined, content of silicium, ascorbic acid and the ph level, which was approximately the same in all forms, was neutral and ranges from 6.5 to 6.7.

Form-1,2,3 is distinguished by ascorbic acid content (vitamin C). These indicators are the main markers of resistance to phytoplasma disease. The most dry matter was found in forms - 2, 3, 4. The level of the pigment - chlorophyll A - is in the form of 2.4.

Table 2.

Indicators of pigment and dry matter in leaves of resistant forms of mulberry.

Ascorbic acid Level of Ph Dry matter

Control gr 1050 C RWC % Dry matter %

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24 hour, gr

1 155 6.8 8.237 7.756 2.307 2.247 71.99 70.95 28.01 29.05

2 149 6.5 8.037 8.230 2.233 2441 69.21 69.03 30.79 30.97

3 141 6.8 5.028 6.031 1.496 1.909 69.24 69.44 30,76 31.56

4 133 6.3 8,018 7.982 2.462 2.535 71.24 70.24 28.71 29.76

5 138 6.8 8,383 8,428 2.354 2.374 71.56 71.83 28.44 28.17

Coclusions

As a result of the conducted research, in our experimental plot, we isolated from the mature mulberries the forms that showed the durability markers characteristic of resistant forms: fine cellularity of the leaf conduction system, high replacement of ascorbic acid and silicium, and low replacement of cell acidity. With resistance markers, a formula for resistance strength of mulberry forms - resistance coefficient was developed. By using this formula, we selected forms with high resistance and prepared cuttings from them.

Based on the research results, from our studied mulberries, we selected forms that are highly productive and accordingly give high quality leaves. Therefore, in the future, we will able to obtain an abundant harvest of mulberry leaves that can be used for different purposes.

REFERENCES

1. Aramvit, P. Petcharat, K. supasyndh, O. "Efficacy of mulberry leaf tablets in patients with mild dyslipidemia". 2011 Mar;25(3): 365-9.

2. Azman K. F., Amom Z., Azlan A., et al. Antiobesity effect of Tamarindus indica L. pulp aqueous extract in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. Journal of Natural Medicines. 2012; 66(2):333-342

3. Doran M., Laca E., Sainz R. Total tract and rumen digestibility of mulberry foliage (Morus alba), alfalfa hay and oat hay in sheep. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech. 2007;138:239-253.

4. Hou Q.R., Zhang J., Chen T., Zhao W.G., Li L. Effects of dietary supplement of mulberry leaf (Morus alba) on growth and meat quality in rabbits. Indian J. Anim. Res. 2020;54:317-321.

5. Mahesh R., Anih P., Debashish Ch., Sivaprasad V. Improved mulberry productivity and resource efficiency through low-cost drip fertigation. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science. Volume 68, 2022 - Issue 6.

6. Murti VN., Ramesh HL., Lokesh G., Munirrajapa, Yadav RB. Leaf Quality Evaluation of Ten Mulberry (Morus) Germplasm Varieties through Phytochemical Analysis. 2013. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res., 21(1).

7. Qi S.-Z., Li N., Tuo Z.-D., et al. Effects of Morus root bark extract and active constituents on blood lipids in hyperlipidemia rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2016;180:54-59.

8. Ren, C. Zhang, Y. Cui, W. Lu, G. Wang, Y. Gao, H. Huang, L. Mu, Z. "A polysaccharide extract of mulberry leaf ameliorates hepatic glucose metabolism and insulin signaling in rats

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with type 2 diabetes induced by high fat-diet and streptozotocin" Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 72 (2015), pp. 951-959.

9. Sánchez-Salcedo, E.M.; Mena, P.; García-'Viguera, C.; Martínez, J.J.; Hernández, F. "Phytochemical evaluation of white (Morus alba L.) and black (Morus nigra L.) mulberry fruits, a starting point for the assessment of their beneficial properties. J. Funct". Foods 2015, 12, 399-408.

10. Yatsunami, K. Ichida, m. Onodera S, "The relationship between 1-deoxynojirimycin content and a-glucosidase inhibitory activity in leaves of 276 mulberry cultivars (Morus spp.) in Kyoto, Japan. (2008). Journal of Natural Medicines volume 62, pages63-66.

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