Научная статья на тему 'PROBLEMS IN THE STUDY OF POLLUTION COMPENSATION AND THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ENVIRONMENTAL MEASURES'

PROBLEMS IN THE STUDY OF POLLUTION COMPENSATION AND THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ENVIRONMENTAL MEASURES Текст научной статьи по специальности «Социальная и экономическая география»

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Ключевые слова
ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY / ROAD TRANSPORT / ECONOMIC MECHANISM / ECONOMIC EFFECT / INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT / ENVIRONMENT

Аннотация научной статьи по социальной и экономической географии, автор научной работы — Sidikov Fakhriddin

The article analyses current problems in the study of compensation for environmental pollution and the effectiveness of environmental measures.

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Текст научной работы на тему «PROBLEMS IN THE STUDY OF POLLUTION COMPENSATION AND THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ENVIRONMENTAL MEASURES»

A UNIVERSUM:

№ 5 (98)_-V, r ■■■ - ._май. 2022 г.

PROBLEMS IN THE STUDY OF POLLUTION COMPENSATION AND THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ENVIRONMENTAL MEASURES

Fakhriddin Sidikov

Senior teacher, Tashkent State Transport University, Uzbekistan, Tashkent city E-mail: 753 7767@gmail.com

ПРОБЛЕМЫ ПО ИЗУЧЕНИЮ КОМПЕНСАЦИИ ЗА ЗАГРЯЗНЕНИЕ ОКРУЖАЮЩЕЙ СРЕДЫ И ЭФФЕКТИВНОСТЬ ЭКОЛОГИЧЕСКИХ МЕРОПРИЯТИЙ

Сидиков Фахриддин Шамситдинович

ст. преподаватель, Ташкентский государственный транспортный университет, Республика Узбекистан, г. Ташкент

ABSTRACT

The article analyses current problems in the study of compensation for environmental pollution and the effectiveness of environmental measures.

АННОТАЦИЯ

В статье анализированы актуальные проблемы по изучению компенсации по загрязнению окружающей среды и эффективность экологических мероприятий.

Keywords: environmental security, road transport, economic mechanism, economic effect, innovative development, environment.

Ключевые слова: экологическая безопасность, автомобильный транспорт, экономический механизм, экономический эффект, инновационное развитие, окружающая среда.

Transport companies are constantly working to reduce environmental pollution. Environmental protection activities are aimed at improving the environmental friendliness of stationary and mobile sources of emissions.

Stationary sources are easier to equip with devices that ensure efficient cleaning of pollutants: special technical solutions have been developed to capture particu-late matter and gaseous emissions. On vehicles, such devices are of limited use because they increase the weight, require additional space on the rolling stock and are expensive to produce.

In order to motivate enterprises to implement environmental protection measures at both stationary and mobile emission sources, economic leverage and incentives from the state are needed. The amount of pollution charges imposed on enterprises and organizations should be high enough to stimulate their efforts to develop effective pollution reduction measures and carry out environmental protection measures.

The modern payment system is based on the methodology for determining the economic efficiency of the implementation of environmental measures and the assessment of the economic damage caused to the national economy by environmental pollution.

Efficiency of carrying out measures on environment protection should be evaluated from the point of view of nature, society and individual enterprise.

With properly constructed system of payments, the option, which is the most effective from the point of view of enterprises, should provide the bigger effect for the nature and society as a whole.

The environmental, or nature effect, is a reduction in the amount of pollution in ecosystems.

The economic result, which represents the effect from a societal perspective, is measured by the amount of avoided annual damage that occurs when people are polluted.

This damage is expressed in the loss of part of the national income due to increased morbidity, reduced longevity, reduced ability to work and other factors.

The economic effect for an enterprise is determined by the increase in its profits due to the reduction in payments to environmental authorities as a result of environmental protection measures.

Economic efficiency is calculated by measuring the economic effect obtained and the cost of pollution reduction measures.

Библиографическое описание: Sidikov F.S. PROBLEMS IN THE STUDY OF POLLUTION COMPENSATION AND THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ENVIRONMENTAL MEASURES // Universum: технические науки : электрон. научн. журн. 2022. 5(98). URL: https://7universum. com/ru/tech/archive/item/13793

№ 5 (98)

А1

UNIVERSUM:

ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ

Pollution fee is a form of compensation for economic damage from emissions of pollutants into the environment. Fees are levied for the following types of harmful impacts on the environment:

• emission of pollutants into the atmosphere from stationary and mobile sources;

• discharge of pollutants into surface and underground facilities, waste disposal;

In accordance with the approved procedure, two types of basic rates of payment for emissions of 1t of pollutants into the atmosphere have been established:

• o for emissions, discharges of pollutants, waste disposal, other types of harmful impact within permissible limits (at the level of maximum permissible emissions MPE and maximum permissible discharges MPD);

• o for emissions, discharges of pollutants, waste disposal, other types of harmful impact within the established limits (temporarily agreed emission TAC and temporarily agreed discharge TAC).

Payments in excess of the established emission or discharge limits are levied at five times the amount of the GHG (GWP).

Pollution charges are a form of economic compensation for emissions and discharges of pollutants into the natural environment, which compensates the costs of compensating the impact of emissions and discharges of pollutants and encourages the reduction or maintenance of emissions and discharges within the established limits. These payments also compensate for the costs of designing and constructing environmental protection facilities.

Payments for environmental pollution are made

• at the cost of products, works and services for actual emissions within permitted norms and limits;

• from the profits of natural users for exceeding the actual emission limit value.

май, 2022 г.

The fee for emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere by DPs within the permitted limits by mobile sources may be calculated:

a) at the rates of payment set per 1 tonne of fuel combusted (if data on the amount of fuel consumed is available);

b) the rates of payment stipulated for stationary sources of pollution for emission of 1 ton of pollutants (if there is no data on the amount of fuel consumed but there is reliable information on the mass emission of pollutants);

c) on the rates of annual fee for emissions by one vehicle (if data on the amount of fuel used and the mass of pollutants emitted are not available).

If exhaust gas neutralization systems are used on vehicles, a reduction coefficient is applied in payment calculations: for motor vehicles using unleaded petrol and gas fuel - 0.05, for other vehicles - 0.1.

Payments for allowable emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere of technically serviceable vehicles complying with applicable standards and manufacturer's

specifications are determined by the following formula

j

Ptr = ^^ Ye ■ Te ■ Ke ■ Ka

i=i

where Ptr - payments for allowable emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere from mobile sources, Ye - specific payments for allowable emissions of pollutants generated from the use of 1 ton of j -th type of fuel, sum/t (Table 1); Ke - coefficient of environmental situation and environmental significance of the atmosphere in a given region; Ka - indexation coefficient of pollution charges.

The main regulated pollutants for mobile sources are carbon and nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, carbon black, lead compounds and sulphur dioxide.

Reference:

1. Akimova T.S., V.V. Haskin, Ecology textbook, Moscow, "Unity" 2009.

2. Life Safety, Textbook, ed. by E.A. Arustamov, Damkov & Co, Moscow 2000.

3. Life safety, Textbook, ed. by S.V. Belov, A.V. Ilnitskaya, A.F. Koziakov. Edited by S.S. Belov, A.A. Ilnitsky and A.F. Koziakov. 2009 r.,

4. A.S. Grishin, V.N. Novikov, Ecological Safety, textbook, "Grand" Moscow 2007. 5.

5. Ecology and life safety, textbook edited by L.A. ant, "unity", Moscow 2008.

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