PRAGMATIC ASPECTS OF INTERPRETATION Текст научной статьи по специальности «Языкознание и литературоведение»

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Ключевые слова
oral translation / simultaneous translation / transformations / lexical changings / generalization / modulation

Аннотация научной статьи по языкознанию и литературоведению, автор научной работы — Dildora Abduazizovna Usarova

This article is devoted to the pragmatic aspects of interpretation. Changes in the interpretation and translation process, omissions, lexical transformations, the use of grammatical transformations are given with examples. In addition, the pragmatic aspects of interpretation are also illustrated by examples. Interpreting, in particular the changes used in simultaneous translation, also provides recommendations on how the translator should translate them.

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Текст научной работы на тему «PRAGMATIC ASPECTS OF INTERPRETATION»


ISSN: 2181-1385

Scientific Journal Impact Factor (SJIF) 2021: 5.723 PRAGMATIC ASPECTS OF INTERPRETATION

Dildora Abduazizovna Usarova

Tashkent State University of Law


This article is devoted to the pragmatic aspects of interpretation. Changes in the interpretation and translation process, omissions, lexical transformations, the use of grammatical transformations are given with examples. In addition, the pragmatic aspects of interpretation are also illustrated by examples. Interpreting, in particular the changes used in simultaneous translation, also provides recommendations on how the translator should translate them.

Keywords: oral translation, simultaneous translation, transformations, lexical changings, generalization, modulation


The translator faces significant pragmatic problems when acting as a Receptor for the original and trying to extract as much information from it as possible. In order to more accurately and fully extract information from the original message, the translator must have the same background knowledge as the Sender of the message. For example, the translator may come across descriptions of facts and events that are related to the history, traditions and customs of a given OIA-speaking people, as well as the names of national dishes, clothing items, etc. To adequately convey such realities, it is necessary to correct for the pragmatic differences between the background knowledge of the original recipients and the recipients of the translation. For example, the translator should add explanatory elements so that the Receptors can understand some geographical names, state names, magazine names, etc. The translator must have the necessary background knowledge from the field of history and culture, literature, and other realities of the people who speak the source language. This stock of knowledge will help to adapt this message for the Translation Receptor.


Since the Translation Receptor does not always have the necessary background knowledge, the translator should use such methods of pragmatic adaptation as addition, clarification, concretization or generalization. [1, pp. 211-214].

Sociolinguistic factors also play an important role in the transmission of the content of the original message, which cause differences in the speech of individual groups of native speakers. In this case, the translator may face such difficulties as deviations from the national norm of the source language. For example, the use of such sub-standard forms in speech as territorial-dialectal, social-dialectal. When translating, translators can ignore the dialect and translate the words of the native speaker of the source language using the standard, literary forms of the translating language.

In the case of translating scientific and technical conferences, the translator is much less likely to face pragmatic problems, since specialists in this field have almost the same amount of background information. But even in this case, the translator must provide some additional information, for example, explanations about the names of companies, national units of measurement, specific nomenclature names, etc.

In the process of one-sided translation, the translator may have problems with the transfer of figurative, emotional, evaluative and register-marked elements of the text. All of them indicate how the speaker wanted to convey his idea to the listener, what attitude to the described objects and events he wanted to express, what expressive means he found. The first tactic of an interpreter dealing with a text rich in figurative and idiomatic elements is to simplify the figurative drawing of the text, use a more neutral significant vocabulary, including replacing stable phrases with free phrases or individual words. In simultaneous translation, you can replace the original imagery with some stable English expressions that carry a similar semantic load. You can also use the technique of mentally dividing a figurative or idiomatic expression into a denotative component and "what is beyond the denotative" (and this can be imagery, contrast register, cultural-associative meaning, evaluation, diminution / magnification, etc.) [2].

In general, unlike written translation, in oral translation, the form of the original message does not carry communicative-relevant information and can be transmitted in a different form. Thus, the form of the translated message can be very different from the form of the original. However, in some cases, the very tone of the text (congratulations, expressions of condolences, etc.), which is determined by the role relations between the participants in the communication, is significant. It is assumed that the mass media model the speech behavior of a person who chooses certain language means depending on the role relations. Therefore, the translation must be created in the appropriate key so that the message can have the necessary impact on the recipient.


In addition, the interpreter should take into account the age, education of the audience, etc. As for the age of the Receptors, in the translation for children, it is necessary to use simpler words and speech turns, since children will not be able to understand grammatically complex constructions. For adults, there is no need to choose the simplest translation option, as they are able to perceive texts of any complexity. The time factor also plays an important role. Since children are restless Receptors, it is very important to choose a translation method that will not tire them (for example, translation with interruptions) [3].

People with higher education do not need to explain complex terms in translation. And people who do not have an education need to explain some of them.

All of the above methods can be used by the translator in accordance with a certain type of Receptor and its individual characteristics to convey the meaning of the original message and provide the necessary pragmatic impact.

Let us consider the ways of solving pragmatic problems on the example of V. P. Shantsev's speech during a history lesson in the Rukavishnikov house in Nizhny Novgorod. In the sentence "In 1439, the Kazan people destroyed the monastery just founded by the Nizhny Novgorod Makarii at the mouth of the Kerzhenets River", the recipient of the transfer may not know who the Nizhny Novgorod Makarii is due to his lack of background knowledge. When translating this phrase, you should use the addition technique, explaining who the Nizhny Novgorod monk Macarius was: Nizhny Novgorod monk Macarius.

In the sentence "During the Time of Troubles, Nizhny Novgorod became the main center for organizing the fight against the interventionists", due to the lack of background knowledge, the recipient most likely does not know what the "Time of Troubles" is . In this case, it is better to use a descriptive translation: a difficult period of Russian history from 1598 to 1613.

In the sentence " To the ashes of the great liberator of the Fatherland - Kuzma Minin bowed to Peter the Great on one of his visits to Nizhny Novgorod" the recipient of the transfer probably does not know who Peter the Great is. When translating this name, you must use the addition method: Russian Emperor and Tsar Peter the Great. The recipient of the transfer may face the same problem in the sentence "Catherine II continued the administrative transformations of Peter the Great". Here you should also use the addition method: Russian Empress Catherine the Great.


The addition technique should also be used in the sentence "The city of Gorky is becoming a major industrial, scientific and cultural center, with a population of more than a million people". The recipient of the transfer may not understand the former name of Nizhny Novgorod Gorky and therefore this name should be translated as "former name of Nizhny Novgorod" [5].

It is necessary to use the method of explanation when translating this sentence "One of the majestic monuments of the period of industrialization in Nizhny Novgorod becomes an Automobile Plant": Avtozavod Automobile Plant.

In the sentence "The plant has started mass production of GAZ — AA trucks, the famous "polutorok", and a year later — GAZ-A passenger cars "there is communicative- irrelevant information and it must be omitted when translating, since it is not important for the recipient of the transfer: GAZ — AA trucks, the famous "polutorok" - lorries.

The recipient of the transfer may not know what the Krasnoe Sormovo plant produces in the sentence "Simultaneously with the Automobile Plant in N.".In Novgorod, the construction of a large aviation enterprise and the Krasnoe Sormovo plant was underway, and therefore it is necessary to give an explanation here: shipbuilding plant "Krasnoye Sormovo".

Due to the lack of background knowledge, the recipient may not know what the "Mighty handful" in the sentence "This great poet A. S. Pushkin, the Decembrists: Bestuzhev-Ryumin, Trubetskoy, Annenkov, Shakhovskoy, Ants; a musician Ulybyshev, the poet Taras Shevchenko, composer, founder of the famous "Mighty handful" M. A. Balakirev, the author of the "Dictionary of the living great Russian language" by V. I. Dal". In this case, the descriptive translation should be used: founder of the association of musicians M. A. Balakirev... The same sentence contains communicatively irrelevant information: the compiler of the "Dictionary of the Living Great Russian Language" V. I. Dahl. For the recipient of the transfer, this information is not so important and essential, therefore it can be omitted: famous lexicographer V.I. Dahl.


In the sentence "And, finally, Maxim Gorky, whose name Nizhny Novgorod was named in 1932", it is necessary to explain the profession of Maxim Gorky, since the recipient of the transfer does not know this. This sentence must use the append technique: writer Maxim Gorky [6].


1. Komisarov V.N. The theory of translation (linguistic aspects). M .: Higher school, 1990.

2. Zubanov I.V. The hard work of a dragonfly. On the transmission of figurative and idiomatic expressions in oral translation // Mosty. Journal of translators. - 2014. - No. 1 (41). - M .: R.Valent, 2014.


4. Усарова, Д. А. (2018). Information technologies as a motivating factor in students''active learning. Молодой ученый, (24), 335-336.


6. Mustafakulovich, R. M., Shokirovich, T. O., & Ishnazarovna, M. N. (2020). SIMULTANEOUS INTERPRETING AS A SPECIAL INTERPRETER ACTIVITY. PROS AND CONS OF SIMULTANEOUS INTERPRETING. Oriental Art and Culture, (V).

7. Mustafakulovich, R. M. (2019, February). THE CORE OF THE SURFACE AND DEEP APPROACHES IN THE FLT SETTINGS. In International Scientific and Practical Conference" Innovative ideas of modern youth in science and education" (pp. 307-308).

8. Grigorevna, A. I., Mustafakulovich, R. M., & Utkurovna, S. A. (2020). Typological features and image systems of elsa triolett'snovels. ACADEMICIA: An International Multidisciplinary Research Journal, 10(6), 1201-1211.


10. Zoyirova, D. A. (2019). FEATURES OF TRANSLATION FROM ENGLISH TO RUSSIAN. Экономика и социум, (10), 71-73.

11. Тошматов, О. Ш. (2019). МОДУЛЬНОЕ ОБУЧЕНИЕ В ПРЕПОДАВАНИИ ИНОСТРАННЫХ ЯЗЫКОВ. Экономика и социум, (10), 342-345.

12. Ruzibaeva, N. (2019). PECULIARITIES OF THE ANTITHESIS IN THE LITERARY TEXT. European Journal of Research and Reflection in Educational Sciences Vol, 7(11).

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