Научная статья на тему 'Practices strategic role of media education in the conditions of development of information economy'

Practices strategic role of media education in the conditions of development of information economy Текст научной статьи по специальности «СМИ (медиа) и массовые коммуникации»

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Ключевые слова
MEDIA EDUCATION / INFORMATION ECONOMY

Аннотация научной статьи по СМИ (медиа) и массовым коммуникациям, автор научной работы — Popkova E.G., Vovchenko N.G., French Jeff, Boris O.A., Fokina O.V.

The purpose of this article is to determine the role of media education in the conditions of development of information economy and to determine the perspective methods of its development in the interests of leveling its systemic failures. The work uses the method of regression and correlation analysis. The authors study dependence of the index of development of information & communication technologies on indices that reflect the level and effectiveness of media education, which are independent variables: Index of knowledge economy, Index of higher education, Index of technological development, and Index of innovative activity.The information & analytical basis of the research consists of materials of reports of the International Telecommunication Union, the World Bank, and the World Economic Forum for 2009-2016. The object of the research is modern Russia. In the course of the research, the authors determine systemic failures (gaps) of the information economy in modern Russia, offer practical recommendations for leveling these systemic failures, and distinguish the functions of media education in this process. As a result, a conclusion is made that media education plays a decisive, strategic role in the process of informatization of society and creation of information economy. As any socio-economic system, information economy is characterized by periodic appearance of new failures. Media education allows overcoming the initial barriers on the path of informatization of society and stimulates the leveling of systemic failures that appear in the formed information economy.

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Текст научной работы на тему «Practices strategic role of media education in the conditions of development of information economy»

Prof. Dr. Elena G. Popkova,

Volgograd State Technical University, 400005, Volgograd, Lenin avenue, 28, 210471@mail.ru

Prof. Dr. Natalia G. Vovchenko,

Rostov State University of Economics, 344002, Rostov, B.Sadovaya, 69, nat. vovchenko@gmail com

Prof. Dr. Jeff French,

University Business School, Mithras House, Lewes Road, Brighton BN2 4A T, Jeff.French@strategic-social-marketing.org

Prof. Dr. Olga A. Boris,

North-Caucasus Federal University, Stavropol, Russia, 355009, Stavropol, Pushkinastr., 1, oboris@ncfu.ru

Dr. Olga V. Fokina,

Vyatka State University, Moskovskaya, 36, Kirov, 610000 fokina_o_v@mail. ru

Dr. Olga G. Lebedinskaya,

Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, Stremianny per., 36, Moscow, 115093, lebedibskaya19@gmail.com

Abstract. The purpose of this article is to determine the role of media education in the conditions of development of information economy and to determine the perspective methods of its development in the interests of leveling its systemic failures. The work uses the method of regression and correlation analysis. The authors study dependence of the index of development of information & communication technologies on indices that reflect the level and effectiveness of media education, which are independent variables: Index of knowledge economy, Index of higher education, Index of technological development, and Index of innovative activity.The information & analytical basis of the research consists of materials of reports of the International Telecommunication Union, the World Bank, and the World Economic Forum for 2009-2016. The object of the research is modern Russia. In the course of the research, the authors determine systemic failures (gaps) of the information economy in modern Russia, offer practical recommendations for leveling these systemic failures, and distinguish the functions of media education in this process. As a result, a conclusion is made that media education plays a decisive, strategic role in the process of informatization of society and creation of information economy. As any socio-economic system, information economy is characterized by periodic appearance of new failures. Media education allows overcoming the initial barriers on the path of informatization of society and stimulates the leveling of systemic failures that appear in the formed information economy.

Keywords: media education, information economy.

Introduction

Due to mass distribution of information & communication technologies, their quick development, implementation into all spheres of economy, growth of the value of knowledge and information, and their transformation into the key resources, the beginning of the 21st century was marked by the start of the process of creation of information economy.This process is cyclic and is subject to the market laws.

On the one hand, all new and increasing needs of humanity for information & communication technologies stimulate the development of entrepreneurship in the corresponding spheres of economy. Striving for development of unlimited communication between people and fuller authomatization of business processes, as well as readiness to invest into creation and development of the corresponding technologiesand purchase ready innovations in the information & communication sphere, creates demand for them, which leads to offer.

On the other hand, with informatization of society and economy, humans become interested and have to adapt to new conditions of living and conducting the economy, acquiring new information & communication technologies. Firstly, it is predetermined by the wish to use technical innovations, increased by active marketing of their sellers. Secondly, full communication with other people requires certain skills of usage of information & communication technologies.

Thirdly, obtaining the stateservices and purchasing commodities are more convenient and profitable with the help of information & communication technologies. Fourthly, the employers, interested in optimization of business, set higher requirements to their employees and candidates as to active possession of information & communication technologies.Thus, the offer of information & communication technologies created demand for them.

Thus, creation of information economyis dictated by natural evolutionary changes in the modern society and is a regular stage of its development. At the same time, developing spontaneously, this process might lead to a new crisis of economic systems - e.g., in case of appearance of new information & communication technologies that pose a threat for humanity or paralyzing of information & communication systems that already entered the everyday social and business life of a modern human.

In addition to that, difficulties in acquisition of information & communication technologies may hinder successful adaptation of people to the new socio-economic environment, increasing the tension in society and slowing down the growth rate of economy. This leads to the problem of leveling of systemic failures of the information economy and determines the practical necessity for managing the process of creation of information economy and high actuality of determining the factors of its development and means of influencing them.

In this article, the authors offer a hypothesis that an important factor of information economy development, which plays a strategic role in this process, is media education. Our goal is to determine the role of media educationin the conditions of creation of information economy and to determine the perspective methods of its development in the interests of leveling its systemic failures.

Materials and methods

In order to verify the offered hypothesis, the work uses the method of regression and correlation analysis. The authors study the dependence of the index of development of information & communication technologies (the ICT Development Index), which is a dependent variable y, on the indices that reflect the level and effectiveness of media education, which are independent variables:

- The Knowledge Economy Index, according to the World Bank: x^

- 5thpillar: Higher education and training, which is a component of the global competitiveness index according to the World Economic Forum: x2;

- Index of technological development (9th pillar: Technological readiness), which is a component of the index of the global competitiveness index according to the World Economic Forum: x3;

- Innovative activity index (12th pillar: Innovation), which is a component of the global competitiveness index according to the World Economic Forum: x4.

The information and analytical basis of the research consists of the materials of reports of the International Telecommunication Union, the World Bank, and the World Economic Forum for 2009-2016. The object of the research is modern Russia. The statistical basis of the research (value of the corresponding indices for the years) is given in Table 1.

Table 1. Statistical basis of the research

Индекс 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

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The ICT Development Index 3.92 4.86 5.57 6.48 6.70 6.74 6.79 6.95

The Knowledge Economy Index 3.58 4.44 4.97 5.78 5.98 6.21 6.26 6.71

5th pillar: Higher education and training 3.06 3.80 4.35 4.95 5.12 4.95 4.98 5.10

9th pillar: Technological readiness 2.76 3.43 3.70 4.30 4.34 4.37 4.40 4.30

12th pillar: Innovation 2.22 2.62 3.01 3.27 3.38 3.40 3.42 3.40

Source: compiled by the authors on the basis of: (International Telecommunication Union, 2017), (The World Bank), (Schwab, 2017).

Based on the data of Table 1, the authors determine the values of coefficients m, which show the level (and their sign - the direction) of the change of dependent variable during the change of independent variable by 1, and constantbin the model of paired linear regression of the type: y=mx+b, as well as the value of coefficient of determination of regression models r2, which reflects the level of correlationyandx (statistical significant of the model, which is larger if the value r2 is closer to 1).

Discussion

Based on systematization of existing scientific works in the sphere of media education, we formulated the following definition: the process of teaching the aspects of using the information & communication technologies, as well as using new technologies and forming the value systems regarding these technologies.

Theoretical basis of this definition consists of the works of such authors as (Vogtand Maschwitz, 2014, p. 15; Vertugo and Fierro, 2014, p. 25; Sánchez Carrero, 2013, p. 266; Carpino, 2016, p. 41; Cuervo and Medrano Samaniego, 2013, p. 124; Dudukalov et al., 2016, p. 512; Gretter and Yadav, 2016, p. 511; Khubetsova, Korkonosenko and Blokhin, 2015, p. 108; Kline, 2016, p. 642; Marta-Lazo, 2016, p. 39; Mudhai, Wright and Musa, 2016, p. 269; Nupairoj, 2016, p. 35; Ranieri and Fabbro, 2016, p. 478).

As a result of studying the materials of research of information economy, we determined its main features:

- mass distribution of information & communication technologies;

- quick development of information & communication technologies and implementation in all spheres of society and economy;

- large value of knowledge and information and their treatment as a key economic resource.

The theoretical and applied issues of development of information economy are viewed in detail in the publications of such researchers as (Volosatova et al., 2014, p. 1021; Ragulina and

Zavalko, 2013, p. 162; Przhedetskaya, 2016, p. 232; Kravets et al., 2014; Fuchs, 2013, p. 64; Roberts and Joseph, 2015, p. 18; Leonova, 2009, p. 14].

As a result of literature review, it is possible to conclude that such notion as media education entered the modern scientific turn over. At the same time, this phenomenon is viewed in isolation from the process of development of information economy, which does not allow for determination of its role and value in conducting the informatization of society and economy. That's why in the context of our research we decided to determine the connection between development of media education and establishment of information economy in Russia.

Results

Based on the series of automatized calculations, we received the following results of regression and correlation analysis (Table 2).

Table 2. Results of the regression and correlation analysis

Regression model Estimated coefficient m Constant b Coefficient of determination r2

y(xi) 1.03 0.35 0.98

y(x2) 1.47 -0.66 0.98

y(x3) 1.83 -1.21 0.98

y(x4) 2.46 -1.61 0.99

Based on the data of Table 2, it is possible to make the following conclusions. As all estimated coefficients have a positive sign, the connection between the dependent variable to all independent variables is direct. Maximum approximation of the value of determination coefficients of all the received models of paired linear regression to 1 shows that the strength of connection between the viewed indices is very high. This allows stating that the level and effectiveness of media education determines the rate and character of the process of creation of information economy.

Based on the study of materials of the existing research on the applied issues of creation of information economy and own logical analysis, we determined the following systemic failures (problems) of information economyin modern Russia. One of them is the informatization's not covering such social category as digital migrants. These are representatives of the generations that were born and grew up before the appearance of new information & communication technologies and that's why view them with mistrust, being reluctant to use them.

As a result, it is impossible to leave the physical (personal contact) provision of state services and go to the system of E-government and to fully develop E-commerce, this bringing down the state and business's expenditures down to the minimum and allowing for redirection of irrational expenses of the state budget and state companies for physical provision of state services for solving the socially important tasks, also increasing the profitability of business and stimulating the development of entrepreneurship.

Another failure is reluctance to purchase and use innovations in the sphere of information & communication technologies due to the necessity for learning the basic concepts of their use. As a rule, technical novelties require getting used to, even if they belong to the same brand. Transfer to the usage of another brand is more complicated, as it requires cardinal transformation of thinking and change of the muscle memory to a new mode.

Difficulty of getting the advantages from the innovations restrains the process of purchasing them. Reluctance and often incapability to learn to use new functions of information & communication technologiesand methods of their use, in addition to high price for the novelty effect, make them unattractive for Russian consumers. As a result, the Russian society is dominated by old information & communication technologies, which does not allow for maximum

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optimization of the processes of work with information (both private and business), reducing effectivenessand competitiveness of the Russian economic system.

Another failure is only basic knowledge of skills of using the information & communication technologies. As a rule, basic knowledge is enough for transition from the mechanical to automatic processing of information. However, it is impossible to receive maximum profits and advantages without knowing the details. New information & communication technologiesare equipped with a large number of convenient functions and models for simplification of the task for a user.

Without their application, the transition to new information & communication technologies is often senseless, as it does not lead to increase of effectiveness of work with information. Thus, there is mistrust to innovations in the sphere of information & communication technologies is Russia, their diffusion is slow and is limited to a narrow circle of their devotees. As for the distinguished systemic failures of information economy, media educationperforms the following functions:

- involving all social categories into the process ofinformatizationof society;

- stimulating quick acquisition of new information & communication technologiesand modernization of society and economy;

- teaching the details and aspects of effective use of information & communication technologies.

Figure 1. The concept of development of media educationin Russiain the conditions of development of information

economy in the interests of leveling its systemic failures

Economy of modern Russia, which combined industrial and post-industrial features

Ba rri ers

Incomplete coverage of society by the

process of informatization

Complexity of transition to the use of technical innovations

Surface knowledge of information technologies

Ba rri ers

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.1

accessible media teaching to work with education innovations

Informatization of '

\ society /

/

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control of quality of media education

Information economy

Involvement of all social Stimulation of the quick Teaching the details and

categories into the process development of new effective use of

of informatization of technologies and technologies

society modernization of society and

1 economy

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T

Overcoming the systemic failures of information economy and receiving the

maximum advantages

For leveling thesystemic failures of information economy in modern Russia, we offer the following recommendations fordevelopment of media education. Firstly, media education should be generally accessible. At present, it is conducted within provision of main education (secondary or post-secondary, and additional training), which excludes the non-employed citizens (including the retired) from its targeted audience, which is unacceptable in the conditions of development of information economy.

We offer to make media education mass and provide it on the basis of employment bureau as a stimulation for population's employment, as on the basis of state establishments that provide electronic services. These could be multi-functional centers that work everywhere. Thus, all those who wish to receive media education can do this within walking distant of their home and on a free basis within the state program of society's informatization.

Secondly, it is necessary to start specialized programs within media education, aimed at teaching the work with innovations in the sphere of information & communication technologies. This task will be taken by the sellers who are interested in increase of their sales. This requires providing them with a possibility to conduct training courses on their technical innovations in state establishments of higher education. This will allow attracting scholars to innovations in the sphere of information & communication technologies and will allow receiving additional income for higher educational establishments.

Thirdly, it is expedient to increase control over the quality of media education and to perform the regular evaluation of media competence of students and working specialists. At that, it is necessary to pay attention to determining the speed of their work with information and communication technologies, confidence in working with them, and the used functions. The determined gaps in the knowledge should be the basis of development of training programs.

As is seen from Figure 1, media educationplays a strategic role in the conditions of development ofinformation economy. It should be noted that its functions are present not only at the stage of establishment of information economy but also in the period of its functioning. Media educationis to determine the emerging systemic failures which are an integral part of the process of development of information economy and to level them.

Conclusion

Thus, it is possible to conclude that media education plays a strategic and decisive role in the process of informatization of society and creation of information economy. As any socio-economic system, information economy is characterized by periodic appearance of new failures in the course of its development. Media educationallows overcoming the initial barriers on the path of informatization of society and stimulates the leveling of systemic failures that appear in the formed information economy.

All participants of the process of creation of information economy are interested in development of media education. The population strives to eliminate the queues during receipt of state services and to increase their accessibility, which is stimulated by development of the system of E-government. The state is interested in economy of budget's assets and promoted this system. Media education allows all social categories to acquire the basics of usage of information & communication technologies in order to use this system.

Entrepreneurial structures are interested in acceleration of business processes, which is stimulated by their authomatization. Media education allows teaching employees and specialists in labor market, simplifying the process of implementing the information & communication technologies into entrepreneurship. Sellers of innovations in the sphere of information & communication technologies strive for increasing their sales. Media education allows them teaching the existing and potential consumers, maximizing the volume of the market of new technologies.

At the initial stage, in the process of informatization of society, media educationis connected to additional expenditures. However, afterwards they will be returned and media education will

bring profits related to increase of economy's effectiveness and increase of the level and quality of living standards. That's why media education should be put into the list of top-priority directions of socio-economic development of modern Russia.

It should be concluded that the concept of development of media education in Russiain the conditions of creation of information economy in the interests of leveling its systemic failures forms a fundamental basis for development of practical mechanisms for application of media education to the process of informatization of society and economy, which is a perspective direction for further research in this scientific sphere.

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