Научная статья на тему 'On the problem of the Proto-Mande homeland'

On the problem of the Proto-Mande homeland Текст научной статьи по специальности «Языкознание и литературоведение»

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Аннотация научной статьи по языкознанию и литературоведению, автор научной работы — Vydrin Valentin

When dealing with the internal classification of the Mande language family (Niger-Congo phylum), short-range groups can be singled out easily; the main problem concerns mid-range stages of the internal classification. The present article suggests a new version of such a classification. For the first time, it is based on the standard Swadesh 100-word list. Lexicostatistical data are then confronted with the evidence of paleoclimatology and archaeology. I conclude that speakers of Proto-Mande most probably lived around the second half of the 4th millennium in Southern Sahara, somewhere between 3° and 12° Western longitude, to the North of the 16° or even 18° latitude. This hypothesis is supported through analysis of the cultural vocabulary that can presumably be reconstructed for the Proto-Mande language.

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Текст научной работы на тему «On the problem of the Proto-Mande homeland»

Valentin Vydrin

(St. Petersburg, Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography)

On the Problem of the Proto-Mande Homeland1

When dealing with the internal classification of the Mande language family (Niger-Congo phylum), short-range groups can be singled out easily; the main problem concerns mid-range stages of the internal classification. The present article suggests a new version of such a classification. For the first time, it is based on the standard Swadesh ioo-word list. Lexicostatistical data are then confronted with the evidence of paleoclimatology and archaeology. I conclude that speakers of Proto-Mande most probably lived around the second half of the 4th millennium K in Southern Sahara, somewhere between 3° and 12° Western longitude, to the North of the 16° or even 18° latitude. This hypothesis is supported through analysis of the cultural vocabulary that can presumably be reconstructed for the Proto-Mande language.

The Mande family2 belongs to the hypothetical Niger-Congo phylum whose genetic depth, according to tentative estimations, lies in the range of 12 to 14 millennia. The inner classification of Mande has a long history, expounded in [Kastenholz 1997]. As is often the case with language classifications, there is a relative consensus here concerning short-range grouping. At this level, the following groups can be established:

1. Southern Mande (Dan, Guro, Yaure, Tura, Mano, Mwan, Wan, Beng, Gban, Gbin).

2. Eastern Mande (San, Sane, Bisa, Boko, Bokobaru, Busa, Kyenga, Shanga).

3. Samogo (Jo, Seenku, Banka, Duun, Dzuun, Kpan, Kpeen).

4. Bobo.

5. Soninke-Bozo.

6. South-Western Mande (Mende, Loko, Bandi, Looma, Kpelle).

7. Soso-Jalonke.

8. Jogo (Jogo, Jeri, Numu, Ble).

9. Vai-Kono.

10. Mokole (Mogofin, Kakabe, Koranko, Lele).

11. Manding (Bamana, Maninka, numerous varieties of Jula, Mandinka, Xasonka,

Marka-Dafin, Mau, &c.).

However, when it comes to combining smaller groups into middle-range ones, the story is long and controversial. I am not going to delve into the comparison of all the preceding variants of the inner classification of Mande, as this job has already been done by Kastenholz; only two most recent classifications, one by Claire Grégoire and Bernard de Halleux [1994] and the other by Raimund Kastenholz [1997], will be considered here.

The former represents the most recent and, until now, the most successful application of Morris Swadesh's glottochronology. Claire Grégoire and Bernard de Halleux modified the wordlist, reducing it to 92 items by eliminating "bad" words ("bark", "swim", "feather", "round", "to fly") and replacing them with more suitable equivalents. At the same time, the majority of the 43 languages handled in their study were represented by even shorter lists, due to poverty of the available sources. The results of the calculation are represented in the form of a chart with the percentage of cognates for each pair of languages and a genealogical tree.

Such reticence might be a reaction to the too straightforward evaluations of the time distances during the "romantic period" of glottochronology and the subsequent scathing criticism of the method, which compelled many linguists to regard statistical data as relevant exclusively for relative, not for absolute dating of language divisions.

Unfortunately, the wordlist used in [Grégoire & de Halleux 1994] for their lexicostatistics has not been published, which makes it impossible for other scholars to verify or update their results.

Claire Grégoire & Bernard de Halleux's classification of Mande languages (for abbreviations see Appendix 1; the scale of this chart reflects the percent of cognates in the comparative list, and not time depth):

1 The current study is a part of the project "Integral description of the Southern Mande languages: Dictionaries, grammars, glossed corpora of texts " supported by a grant of the Russian Foundation for Human Studies (№ O8-04-00144A).

2 A detailed language map of the Mande family can be found at http ://www.sil.org/SILESR/2000/2000-003/ silesr2000-003.htm.

Journal of Language Relationship • Вопросы языкового родства • 1 (2009) • pp. 107 - 142

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The work by Raimund Kastenholz [1997] represents the next stage of the "anti-glottochronological reaction" in Mande comparative linguistics: he rejects glottochronology altogether, relying exclusively upon the method of shared lexical innovations. In his classification, Kastenholz leaves aside the "Eastern" group (his only innovation in this sphere is a label change: "Eastern" for what was previously "SouthEastern", "Mani-Bandama" for "Southern Mande" and "Volta-Niger" for the ex-"Eastern Mande") and restricts his scope to Western Mande. The classification of the latter generally follows those of the earlier authors, but differs in a few minor points. His major innovations consist in grouping together:

1) Samogo, Bobo and Soninke + Bozo languages into a "North-Western group", and

2) South-Western Mande and "Central Mande", the latter including Soso, Jogo and "Great Man-ding" (Manding + Vai-Kono + Mokole groups).

Chart 1. Mande classification according to R. Kastenholz

It is Raimund Kastenholz's classification that has been accepted by the compilers of one of the most popular sources on language classification, the Ethnologue, which makes it something of a current "standard"; its major outlines were also reproduced in my own Manding Dictionary and in some other publications.

However, Kastenholz recognizes that ".. .the described above method of segmentation, finally, is not based on an objective criterion. Therefore, a classification that follows cannot be considered as genetic in the narrow sense". Being highly skeptical about lexicostatistics, Kastenholz believes that verification should be performed by comparing the results of the method of shared lexical innovations with evidence provided by historical sound change [Kastenholz 1997: 41]. In fact, Kastenholz recognizes the shortcomings of his method: a lack of quantification combined with difficulties in distinguishing between true innovations and retention, which make it unverifiable. In my opinion, despite all the imperfections of lexicostatistics, it is still preferable to the method of shared lexical innovations.

Today, after Sergei Starostin's improvement of glottochronology3 has addressed numerous problems of the method, it is time to apply it again to the data of Mande languages. It should be mentioned that Mande languages are much better documented now than they were fifteen years ago, when Grégoire & de Halleux's paper was written; this is particularly relevant in relation to Southern Mande, Eastern Mande, Samogo and Mokole languages. Apart from this, certain progress has been made in the phonological and lexical reconstruction of some branches of Mande, especially South-Western and Southern, which is a very important prerequisite for the precision of glottochronological calculations. In my study, I use the data of 54 languages and dialects (for a complete list with sources, see Appendix 1).

Before discussing the results of my calculation, some preliminary remarks are in order:

1) My calculation, unlike Grégoire & de Halleux, is based on the standard ioo-wordlist of Swad-esh. It is true that a "correction" of the wordlist by eliminating "bad" words may produce an impression of improvement when dealing with the data of one single language family, but it restricts the potential use of the wordlist in higher level comparative studies. It is well known that every language family has certain "bad words" of its own, and if we clear out all of them, we risk having nothing at all left to compare.

3 [S. Starostin 1989/2000]; an electronic version of the paper is available at http://www.nostratic.ru/books/f140) Sta-rostin Glotto1.pdf. For further discussion of Starostin's "improved glottochronology", see [Vasilyev & Militarev 2008].

On the other hand, it turns out that even "very bad words", such as "green" and "yellow"4, are sometimes not as bad as one could imagine. Thus, the word for "yellow", although a compound (most often = "like the powder of the fruits of the locust tree"), is unexpectedly stable in Central Mande languages, in Bozo and Samogo. As for the argument that words for "bark" and "feather" are very often the same as for "skin" and "hair" respectively (for this reason, "bark" and "feather" were excluded from the list of Grégoire & de Halleux), it is somewhat irrelevant, since lexicostatistics (and glotto-chronology) does not deal merely with roots, but takes into account the meanings of the words as well. So, if in language A two notions (for example, "bark" and "skin") are expressed by one single word, while in language B these are two different words (one of which may be the same as the word in the language A), this fact is quite meaningful and does not hurt the principle of lexicostatistics.

2) I accepted an approach to compounds different from that of Grégoire & de Halleux: they considered each component of the compound word separately, so that a pair of words received half a point when only one component was the same. In my calculation, I award such cognates a full point.

3) When compiling a standard comparative wordlist, one becomes aware of the fact that the degree of proximity of two languages (according to the method of glottochronology) may depend, to some extent, on the degree of elaboration of the sources5. A very simple example will suffice: let us imagine that we are comparing two dialects belonging to the Manding branch. In both cases, we have only ioo-wordlists collected specially for lexicostatistical purposes, with no extra data available. In the list for the variety A, 'small' is rendered as dogo, and in the list for the variety B, in the same position we have fitinin. We have to treat those forms as unrelated, which adds about 200 years to the time depth. However, we know that in better documented Manding variants, both of these stems often coexist, and it is highly probable that when we get more data on the varieties A and B, we'll have to mark this position with a "+". This rule can be formulated as follows: the better the languages in question are documented, the closer they become6.

There is a countertendency which comes into the picture at a more advanced stage: a highly elaborated language description may "decrease" the degree of closeness of a certain language to others. Let us imagine that we have small (or even mid-size) dictionaries for Maninka and Bamana. For "egg", we will find Maninka kili, while in Bamana there are two synonyms, fan and kili. According to the rules of Sta-rostin's lexicostatistics, we should mark this position with a "+". However, if a large-size Bamana dictionary is available, with a well elaborated system of stylistic and other markings, we then find out that fan is the main word, while kili is only rarely used in this meaning, its principal meaning in standard Bamana being 'testicle'. Therefore, we will have to mark "egg" as a "-" for the pair "Maninka — Bamana".

4) Starostin's method implies serious preliminary etymological handling of the languages in question — unfortunately, there is no other way one can increase the reliability of the calculations. In the case of the Mande family, we are now in a situation where only certain branches (South-Western, Southern, Manding) are provided with phonological and lexical reconstructions based on reliable data7. But even there, reconstruction has primarily been carried out for the system of initial consonants, to a lesser extent — inlaut consonants, while vowels and tones remain almost unexplored.

As far as lexicostatistics is concerned, the above means that fairly often we have to work with resemblances rather than established cognates. In some cases, making the choice between including forms into a cognate series or splitting them into two (or more) series becomes a true puzzle. A good example can be made by quoting the forms for "bone": are South-Western forms of the *kàléij series (Mende kàlé, Looma kai(g), Liberian Kpelle kào, &c.) related to the series represented by Soso xôrî, Jogo yélî, Mokole *kôlo, Manding *xôlo, Soninke xôtti, Dzuun xo, Guro wôlé &c.? In the present

4 Unfortunately, the Swadesh ioo-word list had been created long before Berlin and Kay's book Basic Color Terms, their Universality and Evolution appeared (1969); otherwise, these two color names would hardly be there.

5 I am not speaking here of situations when certain words of the wordlist are missing altogether in the used sources; in such cases, we just shorten the comparative wordlist. Theoretically, shortening of the list should not influence the results of lexicostatistical calculation.

6 For a real example, see the discussion concerning the degree of divergence between Bozo languages/dialects: [Smelzer & Smelzer 1995] and [Blecke & Blecke 1997].

7 See, for South-Western Mande: [Dwyer 1974]; [Vydrine 1989]; [Kastenholz 1997]; [Vydrin 2006a]; for Southern Mande: [Vydrin 2007]; [Vydrin 2006b]; for Manding: [Creissels 1979]; [Galtier 1980]; [Pozdniakov & Vydrin 1986- 1988]; [Kastenholz 1997]; [Creissels 2004]. There is also a dissertation by Konstantin Pozdniakov [1978] attempting a reconstruction of the system of initial consonants for the entire Mande family, but this reconstruction is based mainly on outdated sources.

work I have given them as reflexes of two different roots, but I am by no means sure about it. Otherwise the genetic tree and the percentage chart given below are based on a "maximalist" list, where all doubtful cognates (resemblances) are put on the same footing as reliable cognates.

Another requirement of Starostin's glottochronology is that loanwords should not be counted, but tracked down and eliminated from the wordlist before we proceed to the calculations. In some cases, the borrowed nature of a word is quite evident. For example, Soso kobole, kobele and Jal-lonke kôbôlé 'bark' are undoubtedly borrowed from Mokole languages (or the ancestor language of Mokole and Vai-Kono), where similar forms exist and can be easily etymologized, cf. Lele kg-gbolo (with the referential article: kg-gbole) 'bark', lit. "tree-skin". There are also no doubts concerning the borrowed character of such forms as wire 'to fly' or yâage-nden 'big' in Kakabe (cf. Pular wii-ru-gol 'to fly' and yaaja 'be broad'). However, the situation is much less clear when we come to such Kakabe forms as fg 'all' and dûule 'cloud': on one hand, we have Pularfow 'all'8 and duule-re 'cloud' (since all Kakabe speakers are bilingual in Pular as the second language, such borrowings are obviously possible), but, on the other hand, we have Gban fôfô 'all', Jo fg 'all', &c., and for 'cloud' we find such forms as Lele dûye, Koranko duru 'dew, fog', &c., which imply a native Mande origin for the Kakabe forms. There are sometimes "hidden" influences which may distort the picture, such as retention of forms close to Maninka in Kakabe9.

One of Kastenholz's criticisms of glottochronology is that it is rather difficult to evaluate and compare the results achieved by different authors [Kastenholz 1997: 38]. I believe that this flaw can be fixed by sticking as close as possible to a standard and unified methodology (the more we deviate from it, the less comparable our results become), and by publishing the complete wordlists used for calculations, so that everyone can check both the data and the procedure. That is why I provide here not only the genetic tree of the Mande family (see Insert 1) and the chart of the percentage of cognates for each pair of languages (see Insert 2), both generated by the StarLing software, but also the full ioo-word list as well (see Appendice 1).

Looking at the resulting genealogical tree, we find some interesting differences from both Kastenholz's and Grégoire & de Halleux's classifications. Contrary to the former one, Bobo does not constitute one group with Soninke and Bozo; Soso and Jalonke constitute one large group with South-Western Mande, not with Manding-Jogo; and Mokole turns out to be closer to Vai-Kono than to Manding. Contrary to the latter classification, South-Western Mande languages do not constitute the very first split of the Western ("Northern/South-Western") branch, since their separation follows that of numerous other groups; the internal arrangement of the Southern group is different, &c.10

On the other hand, when we confront the tree and the chart, some discrepancies between them also catch the eye. Below I list only a few of them:

a) Bobo is placed together with the Samogo group. This means that the Bobo — Southern Mande split took place sometime around 3100 K (i. e., the period during which Proto-Mande split into Eastern and Western branches). However, in the chart, the separation dates of Bobo and individual languages of the Southern group are all in the range between 1900 and 2400 K (i. e., more or less the same as the divergence between Bobo and South-Western Mande);

b) the same is true for the relations of the Southern group with South-Western Mande and Central Mande (Manding + Mokole + Jogo): here again, the chart gives us about the same range of dates for Southern — South-Western, Southern — Manding, Southern — Mokole, Southern — Jogo divisions (roughly, between 2000 and 2400 K), while, according to the tree, the split should be dated back to 3100 K.

8 Cf. also the form fow 'all' attested in the Jalonke dialect of Futa-Jallon described by Friederike Lupke , most probably a Pular loan; in the Jalonke of Faleya we find birin, cf. Soso birin.

A "Maninka attraction" most probably explains an above "expectations degree" of Kakabe-Maninka cognate percentage in the ioo-word list, while the respective degrees for Kakabe-Mogofin and Kakabe-Lele are lower. According to historical evidence, the Kakabe-Mogofin split must have taken place 250 to 300 years ago, whereas glottochronology gives us 780 years.

10 A special issue is the considerable discrepancy in the figures resulting from the calculation by Grégoire & de Halleux and by myself. Here are some of them:

Pair of languages Grégoire & de Halleux Vydrin

Bamana — Kpelle 43 36

Bamana — Dan 43 35 to 38

Gban — Beng 43 57.

Unfortunately, the wordlist used by those authors has not been published, which makes impossible its verification.

I think that the explanation lies in the simplistic nature of the genealogical tree model, based on the "closest neighbor" method which reflects correctly only one type of language divergence, i. e. a division of a language community followed by an immediate cessation of contacts between its offsprings. It is true that such cases happen from time to time (the migration of the ancestors of Mogofin to the West in the 18th century probably constitutes one example), but much more usual is a situation of gradual divergence, where contacts between descendants continue during a long period. Such contacts further the retention of common vocabulary in one of the languages or in both of them. There are also horizontal contacts among related languages, and, quite often, loans resulting from such contacts cannot be easily identified because of similar phonological and syllabic structures of the languages.

If we take the above factors into account, the increased cognate percentages between Southern Mande and the majority of the Western groups can be explained through the fact that the "Proto-Southern" dialects of the Proto-South-Eastern language might have remained in close contact with the Proto-Western language long after the Western — South-Eastern split of about 3100 K (some facts show that those contacts could continue even after the Eastern—Southern split at about 1560 K, see below), while the "Proto-Eastern"dialects severed their direct contacts with the Proto-Western language immediately after the split.

Within this context, an explanation can be found for certain particularly anomalous cases. E. g., Gban, Wan and Beng are not only the most eccentric languages of the Southern group (56 to 67% of cognates with the other languages of the group11, while other pairs of languages oscillate mainly between 66 and 78%); they often reveal lower percentages of cognates with individual languages of other groups as well (Samogo, Bobo, Great Manding, Eastern and, to a lesser degree, Soso-Jalonke), if compared with the data of other Southern languages. However, their cognate percentages with the languages of the South-Western group and Soninke-Bozo are more or less the same as for the other Southern Mande languages. Within the framework of the "abrupt split" model, this situation remains unaccountable, but it can be rationally interpreted within the model of a "soft drift": presumably, after their separation from Proto-Mande, the Proto-Southern language remained in contact with the proto-languages of Samogo, Bobo, Great Manding and Eastern groups; there were probably less intense contacts with the Soso-Jalonke ancestor language as well. Somewhere beween 700 and 300 K Gban, Wan and Beng split apart, and this division was rather abrupt12, resulting in the end of all contacts with the abovementioned ancestor languages, while all the other Southern languages maintained those contacts even after their subsequent divergence from the Proto-Southern Mande language. As for the South-Western and Soninke-Bozo groups, their contacts with Southern Mande might have stopped before Gban, Wan and Beng split apart.

The increase in cognate percentage for the pair Seenku — Bobo (in comparison with other Samogo languages) can undoubtedly be explained through horizontal contacts: these are neighboring language communities. In fact, the relative closeness of Bobo with the entire Samogo group may result from horizontal links rather than genetic proximity (all Samogo languages are spoken in the vicinity of the Bobo-speaking area). The same explanation might be valid for the pair Bozo-Kelinga — Bamana.

A two-dimensional model advanced by Konstantin Pozdniakov for the Nostratic phylum [1993: 270 - 272] would represent the process of divergence in a more appropriate way. However, even if we retain the genetic tree model, horizontal links and "soft drift" should still be taken into account.

Another important objection to my automatically generated genetic tree can be formulated as follows. It turns out that the genetic tree reproduces the eternal problem of classification at the intermediate level: seemingly, the reliability of groups whose age exceeds the threshold of about 50% of cognates (i. e., the time depth of more than 3200 years, according to Starostin's glottochronology) is inferior compared to others.13 It is true that Starling produces a tree which seems to solve the problem, but a question remains: how seriously should we take decisions taken by the computer program (e. g., splitting apart or lumping together Soninke + Bozo and Bobo + Samogo) if we know that imparting a status of cognates to extra two or three doubtful pairs of words (more or less arbitrary, at

II An increased percentage of cognates in the pairs Wan-Guro and Wan-Mwan can be easily explained by horizontal influences: today the majority of Wan are bilingual in Guro and/or in Mwan.

12 It could be an early southward migration. In today's Cote-d'Ivoire, Gban has a reputation of "the very first ethnic group of the country"; all other people are believed to come there after Gban.

13 One could assume that the explanation of this fact lies in our lack of a true phonological and lexical reconstruction of the Mande language family: the margins of error at that level are comparable with the time distances between different branchings. However, it seems that in much better explored language families (such as Indo-European) we have the same problem of intermediate grouping, which makes me think that this problem may be of a more general order.

the current stage of our knowledge) or adding another dialect of Dan or Looma to the database may result in a cardinal change of the entire configuration of the intermediate level of the classification?

An alternative solution, at the current stage, would be to put all the major groups numbering less than 50% cognates among them at the same level; in this case, all the instances in which the percentage of cognates is rising will be explained by horizontal contacts. I am not sure we should

take such a radical path, but we should keep this option in mind.

* * *

After this survey of the questions related to the internal classification of the Mande family, let us now turn to the problem of the homeland. Several hypotheses were formulated so far by different authors:

1) William Welmers [1971]: the homeland of Mande is in Northern Benin (where the languages Kyenga, Shanga, Bokobaru, Boko and Busa are spoken today). First, the ancestors of Bobo moved to the West, followed by the ancestors of the Nothern + South-Western groups; finally, one by one, different groups of South-Eastern Mande left that area as well.

2) According to Bimson [1976], the location of Proto-Mande was "between the Black-Volta and Upper Niger rivers, in the general vicinity of Bobo-Dioulasso more than 4.000 years ago".

3) David Dalby [1971] cautiously expresses the opinion that the Mande homeland was probably located in present day Sierra Leone and Liberia.

4) Claire Gregoire [1994: 63], even more cautiously, subscribes to Dalby's opinion, in a modified form: for this author, it should rather be the area of Northern Cote-d'Ivoire, Southern Guinea and adjacent regions of Sierra Leone and Liberia.

My opinion is that the answer to this problem lies in our being able to combine linguistic evidence with evidence from other branches of knowledge, such as archaeology and paleoclimatology.

Thus, according to glottochronology, the forking of Proto-Mande began some time during the second half of the 4t millennium K, and its further splitting into the main groups took place before 1500 K. What do other sources tell us about this period?

According to Robert Vernet [2004: 37 - 39], during the wet period between 5000 and 3000 K Sahara was densely populated by hunters and cattle-breeders; there were also some agricultural areas in the region as well. At the end of the 4th millennium K, an "arid crisis" took place in southern Sahara, resulting in a considerable shift of the population to the South. Roderick McIntosh [2004: 19] provides more precise dates of "dry incursions" in West Africa: 6400, 5500, 4800 and 4200 years ago.

Archaeological evidence tells us that during the second millennium K, numerous human groups of Southern Sahara were engaged in hunting, agriculture (millet, sorghum, rice) and cattle breeding; in some areas also in fishing. Ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy came to existence (most probably, independently of the Mediterranean world) in the area to the North-West of the lake Chad about 1500 K14 [Vernet 2004: 38]; [Paris & al. 1992] and gradually spread to the other areas. During the same period (second millennium K), Sahel was still too wet to have a dense population, but there were already some agriculturalists and cattle-breeders along the rivers.

As for the forested areas to the South of Sahel, they were scarcely populated, their inhabitants did not know cattle breeding, and their Neolithic culture was different from the one in Southern Sahara [Vernet 2004: 39].

After an "arid crisis" of ca. 1000 K, a drastic shift of population to the South took place. After that date, 18° of the Northern latitude became the northern limit of the settled population in West Sudan. Thus, the dense settlement of the Sahelian valleys dates back to the first millennium K. Before the 3rd century K, Southern Sahara was still relatively wet, so that cattle breeding by transhumance remained possible.

Following a harsh drop in precipitation between the 3rd century K and 5th century Southern Sahara was mainly abandoned by the Negroid population (except for some oases) to Berbers. The desert reaches the 18° latitude, and to the South of that line, we see flourishing ferrous metallurgy; in Southern Mauritania, copper is also produced.

14 That is, more or less simultaneously with the Hittites. Until recently, the beginning of ferrous metallurgy in Africa was reported to the middle of the first millennium K. Archaeological discoveries in Sahel and Southern Sahara pushed its dating by 1000 back.

Between the 6th and 11th centuries fo, an increase in rainfall allowed the Sahelian population to go back to 20° or even 21°, establishing contacts with Berbers and Arabs [Vernet 2004: 39]. It is the time of Ancient Ghana and Tekrur; further on in time, we are in the epoch of the written (or rather "semi-written") history of that region.

Let us try to put the climatological, archaeological, and linguistic evidence together in a chart.

Time Climate Archaeology Linguistics

5000 to 3000 K Wet period; an arid episode about 3500 K Sahara is densely populated: hunting, cattle-breeding, some agricuture. Sahel is scarcely populated 3500 - 3000 K: division of Proto-Mande into Western and South-Eastern, contacts continue.

3000 to 2000 K "Arid crisis" about 2800 and especially 2200 K; otherwise, the rainfall is high. Sahara is densely populated: hunting, cattle-breeding, agriculture. Sahel is scarcely populated (agriculture along river valleys). About 2100 and afterwards: Division of Western Mande into Proto-Soninke-Bozo, ProtoBobo, Proto-Samogo and Proto-Central.

2000 to 1000 K Rainfall is at the same level as before. Sahara is densely populated: hunting, cattle-breeding, agri-cuture. Beginning of metallurgy ca. 1500 K to the NW of the lake Chad. Sahel is scarcely populated (agriculture along river valleys). 1900 - 1800: Division of Proto-Western into Proto-Central (Gr. Manding + Jogo) and Proto-SW + Soso. 1600 - 1500 K: split of SE into Southern and Eastern; Proto-Southern remains in contact with Proto-Western. 1500 - 1400: splitting of Jo from Proto-Samogo. 1400 - 1300: separation of Proto-Soso + Jalonke and Proto-SW. 1150 - 1100 K: separation of Soninke and Bozo. 1100 - 1000 K: split of Eastern Mande into 2 branches.

1000 K to 0 An arid crisis ca. 1000 K. A wet period till 300 K. A sharp drop in the rainfall after 300 K. About 1000 K: a drastic shift of the population to the South. Cattle breeding to the North of 18°, dense agriculture population in the Sahel valleys, spread of metallurgy. After 300 K: Sahara is abandoned by the Negroid population. 900 - 800 K: separation of Gr. Manding and Proto-Jogo-Jeri. Separation of Seenku from Proto-Samogo. 700-600 K: Separation of Gban and Beng from Proto-SM, migration of Gban to the South. Division of Proto-Kyenga + Shanga from Proto-Boko-Busa. 600 - 200 K: Further division of Eastern and Southern.

100 K - 0: Splitting of the Great Manding.

0 to 1000 Arid period till ca. 500 fo. Humid period after 500 fo. After 500 settled population of Sahel occupies the territory up to 20° - 21°. Contacts with Berbers and Arabs. Splitting of the major groups of the Mande family into individual languages.

The two main questions concerning the homeland of the Mande (i. e., the localization of the speakers of the Proto-Mande language in the second half of the 4th millennium K and before) can be formulated as follows:

1) The North — South axis: was it Southern Sahara, with a subsequent southward movement, or the river valleys of Sahel (or even the humid area further to the South)?

2) The East — West axis: was it East (NW Nigeria — Northern Benin — Western Niger), Center (Central-Eastern Mali — Western Burkina Faso — NW Ghana) or West (SE Mauritania? Eastern Guinea? Liberia — Sierra-Leone?).

Let us try to answer the first question15.

The Southern Hypothesis: If we assume that the Proto-Mande speakers lived in the South, we should identify them with the scarce population of the Sahel river valleys whose main source of living

15 Cf. George Books' ([1998] and earlier papers) analysis of the influence of climate on the ancient and medieval history of the Mande-speaking groups. However, his study uses the linguistic data to a lesser extent, and it is focused mainly on the two last millennia.

was hunting, as they were (at that time) hardly acquainted with agriculture. We do not know what climatic changes could have triggered the division of Proto-Mande into Eastern and Western Mande. Their further divisions (towards the end of the 3rd millennium K) might have been provoked by the arrival of migrants from the North during the "arid incursions" (although there is no clear evidence about any considerable migrations from the North to areas South of 16°, where Mande people live today). When the culturally advanced agriculturalists and cattle breeders, probably acquainted with metal, fled the drought in the first millennium K, they might have met numerous ethnic groups speaking different Mande languages in the Sahel.

According to this hypothesis, we should suppose that migrants from the North, despite their incontestable cultural, technical and numerical superiority, were somehow assimilated by the scarce indigenous Mande-speaking population of Sahel, who took over their technological achievements.

The Northern Hypothesis: Proto-Mande speakers lived in Southern Sahara. The Western/SouthEastern split was probably triggered by the arid episode of ca. 3500 K, and the arid crisis of ca. 2200 K brought forth the further divisions of Proto-Western Mande. The subsequent divergence of the proto-languages may be explained by the population growth (which is a natural corollary of the neolithic revolution). After 1000 K, climatic changes pushed all the Mande-speaking groups to the South of i8°, where they easily assimilated and/or chased away the scarce, culturally and technologically backward population of the Sahel river valleys.

In any case, localization of the Proto-Mande speakers as far to the South as Sierra Leone and Liberia rainforest (suggested by David Dalby) or the adjacent area further to the East (Claire Gregoire) seems highly improbable: that would mean that during the entire period in question, Mande migrations would have to take a northward direction, completely opposite to those which are actually postulated by archaeologists and justified by the history of climatic changes.

Taking into account the fact that before the first millennium K Sahel was a swampy land, difficult to traverse, infected with tsetse fly, we can hardly postulate long-range eastward or westward migrations prior to ca. 1000 or even 500 K, unless they passed through the North. Therefore, the great expansion of Mande-speakers along the longitudinal axe is by itself a strong argument in favor of the Northern Hypothesis.

This means that the second question does not make much sense if we assume the Southern Hypothesis, and while discussing the Western, Central and Eastern Hypotheses of the Proto-Mande homeland, in all of these cases I assume that it was localized in Southern Sahara (16 - 18° or further to the North).

Considering the axis East — West, so far, I do not see any archaeological or climatological facts which, confronted with linguistic data, could serve as an argument for either of the two localizations16. One might suppose that the emergence of metallurgy in the vicinity of Lake Chad could provide such kind of facts. However, 15th century K is a relatively belated date; around that moment, all the major subgroups of Mande had already diverged and, most probably, moved along the longitudinal axis toward their current areas.

However, there is an elementary argument which can be taken into account in this respect. If we sort out historically documented migrations of Mande-speaking peoples (i. e., dating back to the 11th century ^ at the most), it turns out that languages belonging to all the 11 groups of the Mande family are located between 3° and 12° of Western longitude. This sector can be considered as the geographical "center of gravity" of the Mande family. It seems logical to suppose that the Proto-Mande homeland was somewhere within this sector, rather than somewhere else, unless we have very strong arguments for the contrary17.

My conclusion is: the Mande homeland at the second half of the 4th millennium K was located in Southern Sahara, somewhere to the North of 16° or even 18° of Northern latitude and between 3° and 12° of Western longitude.

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* * *

If the Proto-Mande homeland was located in southern Sahara, one can expect that terms related to agriculture and/or cattle breeding will be reconstructed for this protolanguage; on the other hand, it would hardly be possible to reconstruct terms for metallurgy. Let us try to explore the common Mande lexicon in this respect. My study is based on a comparative database which counts today a little less than 2200 roots that can presumably be reconstructed for Proto-Mande and/or its daughter protolan-guages. So far, this database is not a true comparative etymological dictionary, as there is no underlying

16 I am not an archaeologist, and my competence in this area is limited; thus, I will be thankful if scholars that are more advanced in this field of knowledge inform me of the existence of such evidence.

17 Such an argument could, for example, constitute information that the eastern part of Sahara underwent desertification, which could have pushed people to the West. However, to my knowledge, no factors of this kind are attested for the second half of the 4 millennium K.

phonological and lexical reconstruction of all the stages, and large quantities of available data have not yet been entered into it. Therefore, an absence of a word in my data may either mean its non-existence in the language(s), or merely reflect the fact that it has not been added yet. We should also keep in mind that available data for many Mande languages are still insufficient (although the situation has improved considerably compared to the state of 10 or 20 years ago). Therefore, this part of our study should be regarded as just a pilot survey, without any pretension to definitive conclusions.

One objective difficulty is that it is often hard to discern between true reflexes of the proto-forms and results of horizontal influences. The great majority of Mande languages lies in the area of Manding cultural influence18, and it is often not easy at all to decide whether the item in question is borrowed from Bamana or Jula or dates back to the protolanguage of the Mande family. Let us consider the following set of forms:

*well (water hole)

Soso kolon

Jogo kolo(n)

P.-Manding *xolo'n, Mandinka kOloy, Jaxanka koloij, Xasonka xOloy, Kagoro kdlo, Maninka kolo, Bamana kdlg, Marka-Dafin koro

Samogo: Dzuun koron

P.-Southern-Mande: Dan (Gweeta) kloj, Dan (Kla) kloj, Dan (Blo) kloj, Tura koloj, Guro kolo, Mwan kloj, Wan kloj.

As we can see, this root is represented in 5 (out of 9) languages of the Southern Mande group — a good argument for its reconstruction on the Proto-SM level. It is also well attested in the Central group (Jogo, Manding), in Soso and in the Samogo group, which makes it a good candidate for reconstruction at the Proto-Mande level.

The problem is that ethnography of the Tura and Dan people tells us that traditionally they drew water from brooks and rivers, and where there were none, from shallow "water holes". Well sinking began quite recently, under the influence of the Jula people (i. e., Manding), and this makes us think that the word koloj in Tura and kloj &c. in Dan might be a Manding loan. The same may be true for the other Southern Mande languages.

Here is another example:

*milk

South-Western *nono: Mende nono 'milk (of cow, goat)', Looma nono

Vai-Mokole: Kono nono, Koranko nono, nono 'milk (of animals)'

P.-Manding *nono: Mandinka nono 'breast milk; sour milk', Jaxanka nono, Xasonka nono, Kagoro nono, Maninka Bamana, Jula nono 'milk (of an animal)', Marka-Dafin nono

Samogo: Dzuun nonon

Southern Mande: Dan (Blo, Kla) nono, Dan (Gweetaa) nono, nvnv, Tura nono, nonoj, Guro nono, Mwan nono, nro, Wan nono, Beng nono.

Here again, the word is very well represented in both of the main branches of Mande, yet we know that speakers of Southern Mande languages apply it to the tinned milk bought in grocery stores. In fact, primarily they hardly ever consume milk "naturally"; the main proprietors of livestock in the area are the Fulbe.

How shall we interpret this situation? Option one is that the word was borrowed into SM from Manding. Option two is that, when the ancestors of the speakers of SM languages moved from the northern area to the forest, they abandoned cattle-breeding, but kept the word for milk. When Man-ding merchants brought milk as an item of their commerce, the old word was revived.

There are many similar cases for which we do not have sufficient cultural information, so our decisions will be inevitably flawed. Nevertheless, we can still try to survey the stock of roots for cultural items whose reflexes are represented in the main branches of the Mande family19. Below I will provide only a tentative reconstruction of the meaning of the item and a "pre-reconstruction" of the form (no phonological reconstruction of Proto-Mande has been performed so far!). Whenever possible, comments about the reliability of the reconstruction are given.

18 With the exception of some Eastern Mande languages, Bisa (Burkina Faso), Kyenga-Shanga and Busa-Boko-Bokobaru (northern Benin and NW Nigeria).

19 Unfortunately, I have not yet been able to analyze the data for Eastern Mande languages — another serious shortcoming of the current study.

Social life.

Central, Southern and South-Western: 'age-mate' *N-bo, 'ancestor' *bénbâ, '(paternal?) aunt' *téné, 'damn, curse' *dâijgâ, 'friend' *N-bôrà, 'grandmother' *màmâ, 'to greet' *fo, 'initiation' *kéné, 'law, interdiction' *tô, 'to marry' *fûdûu (borrowed into SM?), 'educate / obey' *kôlô.

Manding — Southern Mande: 'albino' *gbày-bélé, 'bachelor' *gbâlây, 'to bury' *biri, 'dance' *tan? *d5n?, 'deceive' *négé, 'evil' *jâxu, 'griot' *jèli (Manding — Dan, Mano), 'heritage' *xéjié, 'laugh' *jélé, 'means' *fééré, 'namesake' *tôxô-ma (SM: only Dan), 'play' *tôlô, 'steal' *kûmâ (?) (Jalonke, Bozo, SM), 'truth' *tùjiâ (Manding — Dan), 'war' *Kèlè.

South-Western Mande — Southern Mande: 'respect' *bélé, 'slave' *duwâ .

Spiritual life.

Central, Southern and South-Western: 'life / soul' *ni.

Manding — Southern Mande: 'fetish' *jà, 'totem' *tènâ (Manding — Dan).

Trade, money relations.

Central, Southern and South-Western: 'to borrow' *dôndô, 'hundred' *kémé, 'market' *doxô, 'price' *sôngô, 'to sell / trade' *fèeré, 'thousand' *wûlû, 'wealth' *nàafôlô.

Manding — Southern Mande: 'money' *?ôdi (Southern Mande < Manding?), 'profit' *tènô, 'thousand' *wâgâ / *wâlâ, 'trade' *jàagô, 'twenty' *mùgân.

South-Western Mande — Southern Mande: 'to count' *dodoij.

Weaving.

Central, Southern and South-Western: 'harness of loom' *niiri, 'loom' xèlé, 'loincloth' *N-péréy, 'spindle' *N-kèndây, 'cotton / thread' *gèesâ .

Manding — Southern Mande: 'indigo' *gàlâ, 'sew' *xâlâ (Manding — Gban), 'thread' *gâari, 'wax' *kàjiâ, 'weave, plait' *dân / *tân, 'ribbon' *jàlâ.

South-Western Mande — Southern Mande: 'sew' *sôhy (?) .

Metal work.

Manding — Southern Mande: 'chain' *jèloko (Southern Mande < Manding?), 'copper' *N-sirâ (cf. San: zan), 'gold' *sânV(both Southern Mande terms are from Manding?).

Fishing, hunting.

Central, Southern and South-Western: 'hook' *N-dôoléij, 'hunter' *dànsô, fishing hook *koij (Soso — Mogofin — Southern Mande).

Agriculture.

Central, Southern and South-Western: 'millet' *ji5 (in South-Western Mande and Vai it means 'maize, corn', which indicates its borrowed nature from Maninka; also represented in some Kru languages: Bete, Godie in the meaning of 'millet'); 'rice' *màlô (a very reliable root; cf. in Eastern Mande: San mélé, Busa mûrë, Bokobaru môrëé, mûrëé, Boko mâë); 'cooked rice' *bâxâa; 'fonio' *pôydiij (a reliable root; also well attested in Atlantic languages); 'granary' *bàndô, 'onion' *N-jàbâ.

Manding — Southern Mande: 'field work / field' (*xi; Southern Mande — Dan and Tura only); 'banana' *bàràndâ (?), 'cut, mow' *kA, 'platform (to chase birds; for a hunter)' N-gbàlâ, 'ripen' *m3, 'shed (drier)' *gbâ, 'sow (to)' *dâ? *tâ?, 'sow (broadcast)' *pûyi, 'winnow' *fyé, 'cola nut' *gÔrÔ, 'hibiscus' *dâ, 'pumpkin' *gé, 'sweet potato' *wisé, 'yam' *kûù (Soso, Manding, Dan).

South-Western Mande — Southern Mande: 'hoe' *kâli (cf. in Eastern Mande: Lebir kàâ), 'oil palm nut' *tôwû.

Cooking.

Central, Southern and South-Western: 'paste' *dèkE, 'spoon' *mintâ.

Manding — SM: 'burnt part of food in a pot' *sànâ, 'grind' *wûgù (Bamana — Dan), 'mortar' *wûli, 'mush' *tàô, 'pancake' *y5mi, 'powder' *bûn.

Artefacts.

Central, Southern and South-Western: 'bag' *bèotô, 'balaphone' *bâlây (probably borrowed from Manding into South-Western Mande and Southern Mande), 'drum': *bàdâ, 'hat' *N-kpàbélé, 'pot' *dVGV, 'spoon' *mintâ.

Manding — Southern Mande: 'basket' *butu-ru (? Manding + Dan only); 'boat' *gvlv, 'dug-out canoe' *kôij, 'bow (weapon)' *xâlâ (SM: only Wan), 'broom' *SELAN, 'basket' (?) *gbôygbôij, 'calabash' *fé (SM: only Gban), 'cowrie' *kàolôy, 'whistle' *flé (Bamana + Gban), 'lute' *N-kdni

(Southern Mande < Manding?), 'leatherbag' *fôroko (Manding — Tura), 'mirror' *dùijalê (SM < Manding?), 'net' *jd, 'jar' *fâgà (Manding — Guro).

South-Western Mande — Southern Mande: 'axe' *jàofâ, 'bottle' *sài)dè, 'mat' sâbâ. House, village.

Central, Southern and South-Western: door *kôy, 'shelter / hut' *bùgù, 'fence' *jâsâ (Southern Mande < Manding?), 'henhouse / sheep barn' *fcûlù.

Manding — Southern Mande: 'gatehouse' *bùlôij (Southern Mande — only Beng), 'house' *fc?é, 'village' *sô, 'well' *kolôij.

South-Western Mande — Southern Mande: 'house / village' *përé. Wild animals.

Central, Southern and South-Western: 'baboon' *n-gbèy, 'hippopotamus' *màlé, 'leopard' *kôli, 'lion' *jàlâ, 'squirrels': *N-kèrén, *N-gànsâ, 'vulture' *dùbâ.

Manding — Southern Mande: 'eagle' *bibi (< Manding?), 'guinea fowl' *Kàn (not in Manding), 'hare' *kâij (SM — only Dan), Agama 'lizard' *bâfca (Manding — Soninke — Eastern Mande), 'monitor lizard' *N-kooDo, 'porcupine' *bàlâ, 'sparrow / hawk / eagle' *ségé, 'flying termite' *N-biLi, 'turtle' *kùtâ, 'wasp' *N-dondàli.

South-Western Mande — Southern Mande: 'crocodile' *fàalé, *zulù. Domestic animals.

Central, Southern and South-Western: 'horse' *sàô (certainly a borrowing in Southern Mande and Eastern Mande), 'camel' *ßögöma (a borrowing, not later than the 1st millennium 'pig' *6ôyi.

Manding — Southern Mande: 'cat' *N-jàkùmâ, 'chicken' *siiséé (Southern Mande: only Wan), *tèxô (Soso, Jogo — Dan, Tura, Mano)

South-Western Mande — Southern Mande: 'dog' *gbirà, 'sheep' *6âla (well attested in Kru and Atlantic languages; also in Eastern Mande).

We should also mention that Southern and Eastern Mande groups have the same root for "cow": Eastern Mande — San dii, Boko zu, Busa and Bokobaru zù; Southern Mande: Dan du, du, Tura dili, Mano dii, Guro dill, Yaure tiri, Gban dodà, doà, Mwan dri, Wan di, Beng zo.

Even if we sort out items spread out through borrowing (which is evident, for example, for 'horse' *sàô, 'camel' *ßägäma, 'sweet potato' *wisé and some others), we still find a rather advanced society, one that is well acquainted with agriculture (rice, fonio, probably millet and yams), living in villages with dogs, cats, chickens, small and possibly large cattle.

However hasty and imperfect this survey of cultural vocabulary, hypothetically reconstructed for Proto-Mande, may appear, it still seems to provide more evidence for a Southern Saharan rather than Sa-helian homeland.

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(Preliminary Draft). Monrovia: The Institute for Liberian Languages, 1974, 118 p. Zwernemann 1996 — Jürgen Zwernemann. Documents kpeego II Cahiers Voltaiques / Gur Papers 1, 1996, pp. 147 - 164.

Appendix 1

List of the languages / dialects and sources20 Bamana, Bambara [BAM] (Manding), [Bailleul 2000].

Bandi [BAND] (South-Western Mande), [Grossmann & al. 1991]; [Heydorn 1940 - 1941], my personal data. Loopholes: bark, cloud, green, horn, liver, (not), swim. Banka (Samogo [SAMG]), [Hochstetler 1996]. Loopholes: all, ashes, big, die., fat, many. Beng [BEN] (Southern Mande), [Paperno ms.]. Loopholes: that. Bisa-Lebir [BISA] (Eastern Mande), [Vanhoudt 1999]. Loopholes: fly. Bobo (Madare) [BOBO] (Bobo), [Le Bris & Prost 1981]. Loopholes: round, ye.llow.. Boko [] (Eastern Mande), [Jones 2004a]. Loopholes: (not). Bokobaru (Eastern Mande), [Jones 2004b]. Loopholes: (not).

Bozo-Jenaama, -Soroga(a)ma, -Sorko [BOZO] (Soninke-Bozo): [Creissels 1992]; data received from

Christiane Lauschitzky. Loopholes: not, this. Bozo-Kelinga, Xainyaxo [BOZO] (Soninke-Bozo): [Creissels 1992]. Loopholes: bark, green, .not, seed, stand, that, this, yellow.

Bozo-Tigemaxo, -Tieyaho [BOZO] (Soninke-Bozo): [Creissels 1992]; [Guide bozo 1982]; all the

loopholes were filled by Thomas Blecke. Busa [] (Eastern Mande), [Jones 2004c]. Loopholes: (not).

Dafing, Marka (Dafing) [MARK] (Manding), [Traore 1978], occasionally [Diallo Mohamadou

1988]. Loopholes: horn, many, round, swim. Dan-Blo, Western Yacuba [DAN] (Southern Mande), [Erman ms. ]. Loopholes: (not), swim.. Dan-Gweetaa, Eastern Yacuba [DAN] (Southern Mande), personal data. Loopholes: (not), yellow.. Dan-Kla [DAN] (Southern Mande), [Makeeva ms.]. Loopholes: bite, (not), swim, who?. Duun (Samogo [SAMG]), [Hochstetler 1996]. Loopholes: fat, fly, stand. Dzuun (Samogo), [Traore & Traore 1998]. Loopholes: ashes, fat, stand.

Gban, Gagu [GBAN] (Southern Mande), [Le Saout 1973], AMS, some data collected by Alexandre

Zheltov and Ekatherina Kotchmar. Loopholes: bark, full., good, green, (not), swim, that, this. Guro, Kweni [GURO] (Southern Mande), [Kuznetsova & Kuznetsova ms.]. Loopholes: swim. Jalonke, Yalunka [DYAL] (Soso-Jalonke), [Creissels 1988]. Loopholes: big, many, round, yellow. Jeri (Jogo), [Kastenholz 2001]; [Trobs 1998]. Loopholes: cloud, fat, green, swim, yellow. Jo (Samogo [SAMG]), [Carlson 1993]; [Djilla, Eenkhoorn & Eenkhoorn-Pilon 2004]. Loopholes: stand. Jogo, Ligbi [LIGB] (Jogo), [Braconnier ms.]. Loopholes: all, bite, come, feather, full, swim, that, this

Jula-Kong [DYUK] (Manding), [Sangare 1984]. .......................................................

Kakabe (Mokole), [Vydrina ms. ]. Loopholes: swim, yellow..

Kono [] (Vai-Kono), [Lessau & Kastenholz 1989] and some personal data.

Koranko, Kuranko [KORA] (Mokole), [Kastenholz 1987].

Kpan (Samogo [SAMG]), [Hochstetler 1996]. Loopholes: ashes, stand.

Kpeen (Samogo [SAMG]), [Zwernemann 1996]. Loopholes: ashes, black, burn, .die, dry, fat, fly, .full, good, green, know, many, name, neck, new, not, round, .seed, .sleep., smoke, sand, swim, tail, that, this, what, who, yellow.

Kpelle-Guinea [KPEL] (South-Western Mande), [Leger 1975, Konoshenko ms.]. Loopholes: (not). Kpelle-Liberia [KPEL] (South-Western Mande), [Leidenfrost & McKay 2005]. Loopholes: (not). Kyenga (Eastern Mande), [Jones 1998]. Loopholes: green, lie, liver, (not). Lele (Mokole), personal data.

20 Information for each language includes: the group which it belongs to within the Mande family; the source of lexical data (with comments, if necessary); the list of loopholes, if any. For many languages, "not" is put in brackets, which means that this word is missing in the language (being incorporated into personal pronouns). The most current alternative names are also given (those abbreviated by [Gregoire & de Halleux 1994] in brackets: []).

Loko [] (South-Western Mande), [Morozova ms. ]. Loopholes: bark, cloud, green, long, louse, many, not, round, yellow.

Looma, Toma [LOMA] (South-Western Mande), [Dwyer, Bodegie & Baque 1981]; [Sadler 1949/

2006]; [Vydrin 1987]21. Loopholes: (not). Mandinka [MAND] (Manding), [Creissels, Jatta & Jobarteh 1983]. Manlnka [MAN - Maninka of Kankan] (Manding), [Kante 1962/1992].

Mano [] (Southern Mande), [deZeeuw & Kruah 1981]; [Neal & al. 1946]22. Loopholes: all, bite,

claw., feather, fly, green, ne.ck, swim. Mau, Mahou, Mauka [MAu] (Manding), [Creissels 1982]. Loopholes: die, round, swim. Mende [MEND] (South-Western Mande), [Innes 1969]. Loopholes: feather, liver, many, not, swim, yellow.. Mogofin, Mixifore (Mokole), personal data. Loopholes: cloud.

Mwan, Mona [MWAN] (Southern Mande), [Perekhvalskaya ms.]. Loopholes: yellow. Numu, Brawhani Ligbi [NUMU] (Jogo), [Persson & Persson 1976]. Loopholes: not, see. San [] (Eastern Mande), [Boo 2003]. Loopholes: fly, (not).

Seenku, Seeku, Sembla [SEMB] (Samogo [SAMG]), [Prost 1971]. Loopholes: cloud, fat, fly, green, I,

louse, not, road, root, round., smoke, that, warm, yellow. Shanga (Eastern Mande), [Jones 1998]. Loopholes: green, liver, (not). Soninke, Sarokole [SONI] (Soninke-Bozo), [Smeltzer & Smeltzer 2001]. Soso, Susu [SOSO] (Soso-Jalonke), [Lexique Susu-Français]; [Raimbault 1923]; [Touré 1994];

[Touré 2004]. Loopholes: yellow.. Tura, Wen [TURA] (Southern Mande), [Idiatov ms.]. Loopholes: (not), swim. Vai [] (Vai-Kono): [Welmers & Kandakai 1974]. Loopholes: round. Wan [] (Southern Mande), [Nikitina ms. ]. Loopholes: that, yellow.. Xasonka, Khas(s)onké [KHAS] (Manding), [Tveit & Dansoko 1993 ; Koité-Herschel 1981]. Yaure (Southern Mande), [Tsyurupa ms. ], AMS. Loopholes: ashes,, bark, green, .heart, moon, no.t, small, swim, that, this, w.hat, yellow.

Mande languages not in the list: Bisa-Barka (Eastern Mande), Blé, Jalkuna(n) [BLE] (Jogo), Bolon, Bon [BON] (Manding), Bozo-Tièma-Cièwe (Bozo-Soninke), Gbin (Southern),

interethnic Jula of Côte-d'Ivoire [DYUV] (Manding), Jula-Odienné [DYUO] (Manding), Koyaga, Kojaga (Jula) [KOJG] (Manding), Manya (Kan), Mandingo [MANY](Manding),

Sane languages [SANE] ("northern San", probably 4 different languages — Eastern Mande). For large language/dialect clusters, such as Manding or Dan, only sample variants were taken.

Appendix 2

100-wordlist for 54 Mande languages and dialects23

all: Dan-G pëpë [1], gba [15]; Dan-B kpékpê [11]; Dan-K gbà [15]; Tura pâï, pâïpâi [1]; Guro fââ [1]; Yaurepérô [11]; Gban fôfô [1]; Mwan kpè [11]; Wan têij [22], tu [23]; Beng kpà [11]; Kpeen sâ [18]; Kpan saa-pope [1], saa-pope [18]; Dzuun sâ-pé [1], sâ-pé [18]; Duun bié [17], sa [18]; Seenku kpôkpô [11]; Banka nogo [21]; Jo f> [19], bàtàà [20]; Bobo pëpë [1]; Bozo-J saa [18]; Bozo-K sunu [18]; Bozo-T syen [18]; Soninke su [18]; Mau bé [17]; Jula-K byé [17]; Dafing bié [17]; Bamana bée [17]; Maninka bée [17]; Xasonka bëe [17]; Mandinka bëe [17]; Koranko béé [17]; Lele béé [17]; Mogofin béé [17]; Kakabe fô (< Pular?) [-2]; Kono gbéé [11]; Vai gbi [14]; Soso birin [16]; Jalonke birin [16]; Jeri kpô, gbôy [15]; Numu kpô [15]; Mende pépé [1], kpélé [11], gbi [14]; Loko kpéré [11]; Bandi kpéléé [11]; Looma pé-g [1]; Kpelle-L kpéléé [11], këlee [12]; Kpelle-G

21 I am thankful to Daria Mischenko for her assistance in filling in the loopholes in the Looma list.

22 I am thankful to Maria Khachaturyan for her assistance in filling in the loopholes in the Mano list.

23 Numbers in brackets following each form are meant to indicate cognates: all cognates have one and the same number. As a rule, cognates appearing in different entries (e. g., Dan forms for "feather" and "hair") have the same number; however, the latter rule may be not respected in some instances (which does not influence the results of lexicostatisti-cal calculation). Borrowings are provided with negative numbers and are not taken into account in the calculation.

kélee [12]; Bokobaru pingi [1]; Boko pii [1]; Busa pinki [1]; Lebir fáay [2], kár (kári) [3], wóo [4]; San lenlen [5], tumaa, tumu [6], yii [7], kuturu [8]; Kyenga suka [9]; Shanga wanni [10].

ashes: Dan-G yoo [34]; Dan-B yóó [34]; Dan-K yoo [34]; Tura yüé [34]; Mano yúbé [34]; Guro yii, yibi

[34]; Gban ßie [34]; Mwan yié [34]; Wan üú [34]; Beng yépé [34]; Seenku bükán [29], págo (?) [34]; Bobo yíbe [34]; Bozo-J sibo [33]; Bozo-K húlúndú [32]; Bozo-T xoo [31]; Soninke xama/e, xema/e [30]; Mau büülü [29]; Jula-K büguri [29]; Dafing búká [29]; Bamana büguri [29]; Maninka büudi gbé, büuri gbé [29]; Xasonka büguti xoyi [29]; Mandinka büutu, büuti [29]; Koranko büura [29]; Lele büura; büuya [29]; Mogofin bogotá

[29]; Kakabe bügutá [29]; Kono büa, buwa [29]; Vai büá [29]; Soso te-xube ("dust of fire") [30]; Jalonke qúbé

[30]; Jogo bogó [29]; Jeri bügu [29]; Numu bogo [29]; Mende ndüvú [24]; Loko ndühú [24]; Bandi nduhu [24]; Looma zuvu [24]; Kpelle-L lüü [24]; Kpelle-G luyu [24]; Bokobaru túbu [24]; Boko túfu [24]; Busa túbu [24]; Lebir súu [25]; San ton [26]; Kyenga céci [27], kpaso (SP) [28]; Shanga kwasu [28].

bark: Dan-G k&& [40]; Dan-B kiá [40]; Dan-K kf [40]; Tura kele [40]; Mano kele [40]; Guro pälä [37], köle [40]; Mwan klöö [40]; Wan klóy [40]; Beng kóy [40]; Kpeen gód-káá [41]; Kpan goo-kaa [41]; Dzuun goo-káá [41]; Duun ka'a [41]; Seenku ká [41]; Banka ka'a [41]; Jo kúliy [40]; Bobo kiebe, sing. köbä (?) [43]; Bozo-J gopo [43]; Bozo-T gola [40]; Soninke fatama [37], koromi/e, kurumi/e [40]; Mau womá [43]; Jula-K fárá [37]; Dafing páa, párá [37]; Bamana fárá [37], yomo [43]; Maninka fádá [37], wonbo [43]; Xasonka fáta [37], yomo [43]; Mandinka fáta [37], wonbo, honbo [43]; Koranko gbólo [40], ko-wonbe [43]; Lele kon-kpóle [40]; Mogofin ko-bole [40], wonbo [43]; Kakabe wonbe [43]; Kono wónbo [43]; Vai kóygó [44]; Soso kobele, kobole (< Mokole kon-bole) [-3]; Jalonke kóbólé (< Mokole kon-bole) [-3]; Jogo sógó [42]; Jeri foroy [37]; Numu sogo [42]; Mende kolo [40]; Looma kolo-g [40]; Kpelle-L kolo [40]; Kpelle-G kolo [40], kala [41]; Bokobaru tee

[35]; Boko toe [35]; Busa teke [35]; Lebir kyi [36]; San ki [36], foro [37]; Kyenga gbálá [38]; Shanga bái [39]. belly: Dan-G gwi [45], gú [47]; Dan-B gú [47]; Dan-K gú [47]; Tura gwi [45]; Mano gi [45]; Guro

bo (?) [48]; Yaure ci, ci [45]; Gban go [47]; Mwan ví [45]; Wan blü [48]; Beng non [46]; Kpeen dó [46]; Kpan doo [46]; Dzuun dón, dúün [46]; Duun do [46]; Seenku sogo [51]; Banka dono [46]; Jo cii [45]; Bobo würü [48]; Bozo-J nun [46]; Bozo-K nüyú [46]; Bozo-T nun [46], kusu [47]; Soninke noxo/0, nuxu-

[46]; Mau koo [50]; Jula-K kono [50]; Dafing koo [50]; Bamana kono [50]; Maninka kono [50]; Xasonka xóno [50]; Mandinka kóno [50]; Koranko búu [49]; Lele bú [49]; Mogofin bo [49]; Kakabe bú [49]; Kono bú [49]; Vai bú [49]; Soso füri [48]; Jalonke kwii [45], füri [48]; Jogo ké(n) [47], fürú [48]; Jeri koy [47]; Numu kon [47], fúrú [48]; Mende ko [47]; Loko ko [47]; Bandi ko [47]; Looma ko-g [47]; Kpelle-L köo

[47]; Kpelle-G ko [47]; Bokobaru gbeee [45], nose [46]; Boko gbee [45], nose [46]; Busa gbere [45], nose [46]; Lebir no [46]; San no [46]; Kyenga gbole [45]; Shanga gwee [45].

big: Dan-G gbe [69], kpii [71]; Dan-B va (?) [60]; Dan-K gbay [64], kpii [71]; Tura gbée [69]; Mano gbüo

[64]; Guro bene [69]; Yaure da [70]; Gban ble [60]; Mwan gbene, gbete [69]; Wan bálé [60], gbete [69]; Beng bée (?) [69]; Kpeen brá [60]; Kpan bla [60]; Dzuun blá [60]; Duun bio-ma [60]; Seenku bore [60]; Jo gba-na [68], gbe [69]; Bobo gbágá [64]; Bozo-J banu, buro ? [67]; Bozo-K hülo [66]; Bozo-T xolo [66]; Soninke xoor-é [66]; Mau bélébélé [65], bwóy [67]; Jula-K bélebéle [65], bon [67]; Dafing bó [67]; Bamana bélebéle

[65], bo [67]; Maninka bélebéle [65], bo [67]; Xasonka bélebele-ba [65], büy [67]; Mandinka búy [67]; Ko -ranko bélebele [65], kólo [66], bo [67]; Lele bélebele [65], kólo [66]; Mogofin kólo [66]; Kakabe bélebele [65]; Kono kóo [66]; Vai koo [66]; Soso gbo [64], bélebélé [65]; Jogo gbüu [64]; Jeri bála(n) [60]; Numu gboon [64]; Mende mbáwá [60]; Loko mba [60]; Bandi wála-wala [60]; Looma bala [60]; Kpelle-L yá-wää [60], kete [61], kpáyakpaya [62], wüley [63]; Kpelle-G kene [61], kpeakpea [62]; Bokobaru bitá [53], isi [54]; Boko zoo [52]; Busa zoko [52]; Lebir búrgú [55]; San dadara [56], gole [57], kaara [58]; Kyenga yási [54]; Shanga gwá [59].

bird: Dan-G maa [72]; Dan-B ma [72]; Dan-K maa [72]; Tura máá [72]; Mano moo [72]; Guro miä-ne [72]; Yaure lo-bá [72]; Gban sá [74]; Mwan mää [72]; Wan bolé [72]; Beng siéy [74]; Kpeen kan [73]; Kpan kaazi [73]; Dzuun koyn [73]; Duun ka [73]; Seenku kálle [73]; Banka kana [73]; Jo páánái [73]; Bobo yálo [73]; Bozo-J konu [73]; Bozo-K honoy-o [73]; Bozo-T xoni [73]; Soninke yeliN / yéliyyé [73]; Mau koo [73]; Jula-K kono [73]; Dafing kwóni [73]; Bamana kono [73]; Maninka kono [73]; Xasonka xono [73]; Mandinka künu [73]; Koranko konde [73]; Lele konde [73]; Mogofin konden [73]; Kakabe konde [73]; Kono konde [73]; Vai kondé [73]; Soso xoni [73]; Jalonke qon, qon-dii [73]; Jogo kondere [73]; Jeri kóndi [73]; Numu kóndéré [73]; Mende yoni [73]; Loko yoi, wei [73]; Bandi wyonii [73]; Looma woni, yoni [73]; Kpelle-L yoní [73]; Kpelle-G weni, woni [73]; Bokobaru baá [72]; Boko ba [72]; Busa ba [72]; Lebir beem \beeni\ [72]; San báan [72]; Kyenga ba [72]; Shanga byáni [72].

bite: Dan-G kú soo 'catch with teeth' [77]; Dan-B ku f so ká "catch with teeth" [77]; Tura so do 'put teeth' [77]; Guro súé doo [77]; Yaure sé-ka [77]; Gban kióú [79]; Mwan so kpá [77]; Wan wejii [78]; Beng so-bi [77]; Kpeen ki [75]; Kpan xi-ma [75]; Dzuun cin [75]; Duun cyi [75]; Seenku kön ~ kwön [75]; Banka kyi [75]; Jo pii [75]; Bobo ywí [75]; Bozo-J si (?) [75]; Bozo-K xwi [75]; Bozo-T xoy [75]; Soninke

xíjií [75]; Mau kiy [75]; Jula-K kin [75]; Dafing cii [75]; Bamana c/, ki [75]; Maninka ki [75]; Xasonka kiy [75]; Mandinka kiy [75]; Koranko ki [75]; Lele kin, cin [75]; Mogofin ki [75]; Kakabe kin [75]; Kono c/ [75]; Vai kiij [75]; Soso xin [75]; Jalonl« qin [75]; Jeri jiiy, jiéij [75]; Mende jii [75]; Loko pi(y) [75]; Bandi jii [75]; Looma gii [75]; Kpelle-L piy [75]; Kpelle-G piy [75]; Bokobaru te [75]; Boko ki [75]; Busa só [76]; Lebir so dá "put teeth" [77]; San son do "stand teeth" [77]; Kyenga so ká [77]; Shanga yii [75].

black: Dan-G tíí [80]; Dan-B tu [80]; Dan-K tí [80]; Tura tii [80]; Mano tu [80]; Guro tí [80]; Yaure tiíi-di [80]; Gban tie [80]; Mwan tí [80]; Wan tí [80]; Beng tíí [80]; Kpan $weey [80]; Dzuun isiü [80]; Duun siu-ma [80]; Seenku tíe [80]; Banka sii [80]; Jo min (?) [84]; Bobo düngü [85]; Bozo-J pi [83]; Bozo-K fina [83]; Bozo-T pin [83]; Soninke finna, fina ('become black') [83], binné [84]; Mau fy [83]; Jula-K fin [83]; Dafing pi [83]; Bamana f [83]; Maninka ff [83]; Xasonka fy [83]; Mandinka fiy [83]; Ko -ranko f [83]; Lele fin-dé [83]; Mogofin f [83]; Kakabe fin [83]; Kono fi [83]; Vai fiy [83]; Soso foorO [82]; Jalonke fooré [82]; Jogo gbüú [81]; Jeri gbogo [81]; Numu gbüu [81]; Mende téli [80]; Loko tei [80]; Bandi tei(y) [80]; Looma tei(g) [80]; Kpelle-L teí [80]; Kpelle-G teyi [80]; Bokobaru si-a [80]; Boko si-a [80]; Busa si-ra [80]; Lebir tindá [80]; San tí [80]; Kyenga ci [80]; Shanga sii [80].

blood: Dan-G yoo [88]; Dan-B yoo [88]; Dan-K yoo [88]; Tura yute [88]; Mano bai [90]; Guro yeé

[88]; Yaure ye [88]; Gban wo [88]; Mwan yee [88]; Wan yémí [88]; Beng way [88]; Kpeen tümó / túmü [94]; Kpan thii [94]; Dzuun isiin [94]; Duun timi [94]; Banka mila [95]; Jo city [94]; Bobo to [94]; Bozo-J jolo [91]; Bozo-K jéri [91]; Bozo-T jolo [91], deu [93]; Soninke faré [92]; Mau yéé [91]; Jula-K jóri [91]; Dafing yúrú [91]; Bamana jóli [91]; Maninka jéli [91]; Xasonka jélu [91]; Mandinka yéle [91]; Ko -ranko yéle [91]; Lele jili [91]; Mogofin báse [90]; Kakabe jéli [91]; Kono wii [91]; Vai wó'i [91]; Soso wüli

[89]; Jalonke wüli [89]; Jogo jiini [88]; Jeri jiini [88]; Numu jiini [88]; Mende yámá [88]; Loko yáwyá [88]; Bandi yáawo [88]; Looma yáma [88]; Kpelle-L yaa, yama [88]; Kpelle-G jiama [88]; Bokobaru yárú [87]; Boko yáú [87]; Busa yárú [87]; Lebir má [86]; San má [86]; Kyenga yama [88]; Shanga yáma [88].

bone: Dan-G ga [96]; Dan-B ga [96]; Dan-K gá [96]; Tura wéé [98]; Mano wélé [98]; Guro wolé [98]; Yaure wélé [98]; Gban gbu (?) [96], wli, wli [98]; Mwan bélé [99]; Wan oy [98]; Beng wlé [98]; Kpeen küwo [98]; Kpan xo [98]; Dzuun xo [98]; Duun kwo [98]; Seenku ko [98]; Banka kwoa [98]; Jo wo [98]; Bobo wonón [98]; Bozo-J kwo [98]; Bozo-K hwo [98]; Bozo-T xon [98]; Soninke xótti/e [98]; Mau kóo [98]; Jula-K kóró [98]; Dafing kürü [98]; Bamana kólo [98]; Maninka kólo [98]; Xasonka xúlu [98]; Mandinka kúlu [98]; Ko -ranko kólo [98]; Lele kólo [98]; Mogofin kólo [98]; \Kakabe kólo [98]; Kono kúu [98]; Vai kúú [98]; Soso xori [98]; Jalonke qori [98]; Jogo yélé [98]; Jeri yéli [98]; Numu ligé, ligén [98]; Mende kálé [97]; Loko káé [97]; Bandi káalé [97]; Looma kai(g) [97]; Kpelle-L káo [97]; Kpelle-G kow [97]; Bokobaru wá [96]; Boko wá [96]; Busa wá [96]; Lebir yáá [96]; San we [96]; Kyenga yéle [96]; Shanga yáwé [96].

breast: Dan-G yoo [100]; Dan-B yoo [100]; Dan-K yoo [100]; Tura yór [100]; Mano yoo [100]; Guro yoo [100]; Yaure yo [100]; Gban yi [100]; Mwan yoo [100]; Wan yoy [100]; Beng jión [100]; Kpeen cá [100]; Kpan ce [100]; Dzuun cén [100]; Duun ce [100]; Seenku kye [100]; Banka kena [100]; Jo péi [100]; Bobo fíngí [100]; Bozo-J kanu (?) [100]; Bozo-K húyo [100]; Bozo-T xen [100]; Soninke kómbé [103]; Mau siy [100]; Jula-K sin [100]; Dafing si [100]; Bamana si [100]; Maninka si [100]; Xasonka súnjii [100]; Mandinka súnju [100]; Koranko ki, si [100]; Lele süuse [102]; Mogofin singé [100]; Kakabe singi [100]; Kono súsu [102]; Vai süüsüü [102]; Soso xijte [100]; Jalonke qinjé [100]; Jogo cén [100]; Jeri cie, ke [100]; Numu kye [100]; Mende jiini [100]; Loko ji/ [100]; Bandi jiini [100]; Looma yini, jiini [100]; Kpelle-L yini [100]; Kpelle-G jiini [100]; Bokobaru jió [100]; Boko jio [100]; Busa jio [100]; Lebir jio [100]; San jio [100]; Kyenga yo [100]; Shanga diyófáá [101].

burn: Dan-G gf [107]; Dan-B giüf [107]; Dan-K gf [107]; Tura pái-da [104]; Mano gélé [107]; Guro waá [105]; Yaure té-bili [104]; Gban ke [107]; Mwan kpá-cíé [104]; Wan ligi, té-loo [104]; Beng yüan [105]; Kpan zuu-ma [108]; Dzuun dú [108]; Duun zu [108]; Seenku dyón [108]; Banka ju [108]; Jo bilitúrü [117]; Bobo ywené, ywüná [107]; Bozo-J boi [116]; Bozo-K bu [116]; Bozo-T kele [107], buo [116]; Soninke buyi / -ni, bi / biini, buya [116]; Mau mááy [113], swééy [114], kiy [115]; Jula-K jéni, jeni [114]; Dafing zei [114]; Bamana méne, mána [113], jéni [114]; Maninka méne, méne [113], jéni, jáni [114]; Xasonka jáni [114]; Mandinka mála [113], jáni [114]; Koranko minda [113]; Lele minda [113]; Mogofin bintá [113]; Kakabe bintan [113]; Kono minda [113]; Vai bindá [113]; Soso gan [112]; Jalonke gán [112]; Jogo dó(n) [108]; Jeri siray [111]; Numu kónoy [110]; Mende mo [109]; Loko mo(y) [109]; Bandi mo [109]; Looma gála [107]; Kpelle-L kérey [107]; Kpelle-G kéley [107]; Bokobaru té ku [104]; Boko té ku [104], kpásá [106]; Busa té ku [104], kpátá [106]; Lebir sé sa [104]; San te koa [104]; Kyenga cé kú [104]; Shanga le ku [104].

claw, nail: Dan-G süKK [123]; Dan-B sóó [123]; Dan-K suf [123]; Tura sue [123]; Guro soné: [123]; Yaure sore (AMS) [123]; Gban kési (AMS) [126]; Mwan sro [123]; Wan sroy [123]; Beng kloy [119]; Kpeen páy-káá [124]; Kpan weej-kaa [124]; Dzuuniéyn-káá [124]; Duun sii-maa [124]; Seenku kpenlen-ká [124]; Banka kyeedikaa [130]; Jo gbená-küliy [124]; Bobo kiébé, pl. kóbá [129]; Bozo-J kobe [129]; Bozo-K kófó

[129]; Bozo-T kewen [129]; Soninke ségépé [128]; Mau swééy [123]; Jula-K soní [123]; Dafing swéi [123]; Ba-mana son/, sééní [123]; Maninka söri [123]; Xasonka söniy [123]; Mandinka yönsiy, yöriy, yöoriy, yöoliy [126]; Koranko suri [123]; Lele pánsí [126]; Mogofin yánsín [126]; Kakabe soorin [123]; Kono yáansen [126]; Vai kénji [126]; Soso xálé [124]; Jalonke qáli [124]; Jogo bólódé-yái ("finger's thorn") [124]; Jeri kaá-piy [125]; Numu yáín [124]; Mende ngé-ngáú [124]; Loko nge-ngau [124]; Bandi sai(y), sá-woé(y) [123]; Looma sai(g) [123]; Kpelle-L yáléy [124]; Kpelle-G paniy [124]; Bokobaru yoykoko [121]; Boko yo-koo [121]; Busa yárúkoko [121]; Lebirpikvntim [118]; San göon ton [120]; Kyenga yokoko [121]; Shanga híí [122].

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cloud: Dan-G düü [141], da-kpóy [143]; Dan-B da-kpi [143]; Dan-K do [141]; Tura döö [141]; Mano lúélúé [132]; Guro lólú [141]; Yaure lolü-kweí [141]; Gban lo [141]; Mwan lü-flé-pú [143]; Wan náy-gbání-pú [143]; Beng écí [142]; Kpeen piáygá [149]; Kpan xuo [145]; Dzuun yáá-múnún [148]; Duun kabakaba [145]; Banka kava [145]; Jo löy [141]; Bobo dábá (?) [145]; Bozo-J kaba [145]; Bozo-K habaa-foluu [145]; Bozo-T tile (?) [141]; Soninke xaba, kaba [145], tabulle, tebulle [146]; Mau káwá [145]; Jula-K káwá [145]; Dafing kábá [145], sá [147]; Bamana bírinka, máranka [140], kábá [145], múnta, múnta [148]; Maninka bídika, bírika, mídika, mídigba [140], kábá [145]; Xasonka xába [145]; Mandinka minaayí (?) [140], (sán-)kába [145]; Koranko bánda-fi ("black sky") [144]; Lele dúye [141], bánda-noo ("sky dirt") [144]; Kakabe dúulé [141]; Kono bánda gbé ("sky-white") [144]; Vai bánda biá'é [144]; Soso luxu (?) [141]; Jalonke tunégwíi ("sky excrement") [565]; Jogo bírígá(n) [140]; Numu kyí ('rain, cloud') [139]; Mende ngélé-gata "compound of the sky" [137]; Looma tona-bi(g) ("rain-heavy"?) [565]; Kpelle-L yele-koloy köle "the white of the sky" [137]; Kpelle-G tulo [565]; Bokobaru luguú (?) [141], löu [132]; Boko léu [132], luabé-puana [133]; Busa luku (?) [141], légu [132]; Lebir wárkv [134]; San la-bara [135]; Kyenga búlú [136]; Shanga lé-kísíná [135].

cold: Dan-G nené [151], ssese [154]; Dan-B néné [151], saa [154]; Dan-K nene [151], síáá [154]; Tura níní [151]; Mano nené [151], dóóló [153]; Guro dunu [153]; Yaure toro-doro [153]; Gban ßou [152]; Mwan niiní [151]; Wan lélé, lré [151], dolo [153]; Beng néné [151]; Kpeen míi [151], kiimá [156]; Kpan makai [151]; Dzuun munkééy [151]; Duun miyké [151]; Seenku mini [151]; Banka mixya [151]; Jo síí [156]; Bobo lü [159]; Bozo-J muun [158]; Bozo-K munún [158]; Bozo-T munan [158]; Soninke mullé [158]; Mau néné [151], swáa [156]; Jula-K néné [151]; Dafing néé [151], swöo [156]; Bamana néné [151], súma [156]; Maninka néné [151], súma [156]; Xasonka néne [151], súma [156]; Mandinka néne [151], súmaa [156]; Koranko kíma [156]; Lele kyímaa [156]; Mogofin kíma-ré [156]; Kakabe cíima, kíma [156]; Kono címa [156]; Vai kímá [156]; Soso xinbeli [157]; Jalonke qíñbélí [157]; Jogo kómá [156]; Jeri kíma, kúma [156]; Numu kp(¡á [156]; Mende kolé [150]; Loko koolé [150]; Bandi kolé [150]; Looma kolé [150]; Kpelle-L kolé [150]; Kpelle-G kwéélé [150]; Bokobaru yíi [151]; Boko nié [151]; Busayí-da [151]; Lebirpééní [151]; San néy,péy,pay [151]; Kyenga nini [151]; Shanga yáyá [155].

come: Dan-G nü [164]; Dan-B nü [164]; Dan-K nu [164]; Tura nú [164]; Mano nü [164]; Guro lv [164]; Yaure lv [164]; Gban nu [164]; Mwan nü / nú [164]; Wan zö [165]; Beng nu-lé [164]; Kpeen dáná (?) [168]; Kpan naa-ma [168]; Dzuun ná [168]; Duun na-mi [168]; Seenku ná [168]; Banka na [168]; Jo nü [168]; Bobo nä [168]; Bozo-J be [169]; Bozo-K bye [169]; Bozo-T be [169]; Soninke ríi [170]; Mau ná [168]; Jula-K ná [168]; Dafing ná [168]; Bamana nä [168]; Maninka nä [168]; Xasonka ná [168]; Mandinka náa [168]; Koranko ná [168]; Lele ná [168]; Mogofin ná [168]; Kakabe náa [168]; Kono ná [168]; Vai ná [168]; Soso fáá [166]; Jalonke fáá [166]; Jeri sá [163]; Numu yá [167]; Mende pá [166]; Loko pá [166]; Bandi pa [166]; Looma pa [166]; Kpelle-L pá [166]; Kpelle-G pa [166]; Bokobaru mo [160]; Boko mo [160]; Busa mo [160], su [161]; Lebir bvr [162], zá [163]; San daa / die [163]; Kyenga nú [164]; Shanga nu [164].

die: Dan-G ga [171]; Dan-B ga [171]; Dan-K gá [171]; Tura gá [171]; Mano gá [171]; Guro gü [171]; Yaure ka [171]; Gban gá [171]; Mwan gü [171]; Wan ká [171]; Beng gü [171]; Kpan sa-ma [171]; Dzuun sán [171]; Duun voo [176]; Seenku kyi / kyié / kyiiné [174]; Jo béení, béenú (?) [176]; Bobo siri [175]; Bozo-J kale [174]; Bozo-K sa [171]; Bozo-T kale [174]; Soninke kárá [174]; Jula-K sá [171], fágá [173]; Dafing sá [171], páá [173]; Bamana sä [171]; Maninka sä [171]; Xasonka sá [171]; Mandinka sáa [171], fáa [173]; Ko-ranko fága, fáa [173]; Lele fáa [173]; Mogofin fágá [173]; Kakabe fágá [173]; Kono fáa, fá [173]; Vai fáá [173]; Soso faxa [173]; Jalonke báá [172]; Jogo kpá [171]; Jeri kpá [171]; Numu kpá [171]; Mende hä [171]; Loko hä [171]; Bandi sá [171]; Looma saa [171]; Kpelle-L süü [171]; Kpelle-G ha [171]; Bokobaru ga [171]; Boko gá [171]; Busa ga [171]; Lebir gá [171]; San ga / gié [171]; Kyenga ga [171]; Shanga ga [171].

dog: Dan-G gbé; [177]; Dan-B gbé [177]; Dan-K gbé; [177]; Tura gbéé [177]; Mano gbá [177]; Guro béné [177]; Yaure plé [177]; Gban kpükpo [178]; Mwan gbáá [177]; Wan gbané [177]; Beng jeiy [177]; Kpeen byéw [177]; Kpan bii [177]; Dzuun vi [177]; Duun vie [177]; Seenku dyigé, dyígé [177]; Banka via [177]; Jo kfüü (?) [181]; Bobo gbége [177]; Bozo-J koygo-ro [182]; Bozo-K munú [181]; Bozo-T guun [181]; Soninke wullé [181]; Mau wuu [181]; Jula-K wurú [181]; Dafing wúrú [181]; Bamana wulú [181]; Maninka wulú [181]; Xasonka wulu [181]; Mandinka wulu [181]; Koranko wulu [181]; Lele wulu [181]; Mogofin wulú [181]; Kakabe wulu [181]; Kono wuu [181]; Vai wuú [181]; Soso báré [180]; Jalonke báré [180]; Jogo

dásmá [179], wülú [181]; Jeri wülu [181]; Numu ddsián [179]; Mende ngtiä [177]; Loko njiä [177]; Bandi ngila [177]; Looma gile [177]; Kpelle-L yilä [177]; Kpelle-G yile [177]; Bokobaru gbeé [177]; Boko gbe [177]; Busa gbe [177]; Lebir gf, gf, gye [177]; San gí [177]; Kyenga gbe [177]; Shanga ge_ [177].

drink: Dan-G miu [183]; Dan-B miu [183]; Dan-K méíy [183]; Tura mí [183]; Mano mi [183]; Guro minii [183]; Yaure mini [183]; Gban dá [184]; Mwan mi [183]; Wan yró [185]; Beng min [183]; Kpeen mi [183]; Kpan mii-ma [183]; Dzuun min [183]; Duun mi [183]; Seenku mi [183]; Banka mi [183]; Jo münü [183]; Bobo mene [183]; Bozo-J me [183]; Bozo-K me [183]; Bozo-T men [183]; Soninke miní [183]; Mau miy [183]; Jula-K min [183]; Dafing mí [183]; Bamana mi [183]; Maninka mi [183]; Xasonka miy [183]; Mandinka miy [183]; Koranko mi [183]; Lele min [183]; Mogofin mi [183]; Kakabe min [183]; Kono mi [183]; Vai mí [183]; Soso mín [183]; Jalonke min [183]; Jogo mein [183]; Jeri me(n) [183]; Numu méy [183]; Mende kpolé [186]; Loko kpóe [186]; Bandi kpelé [186]; Looma kpóale [186]; Kpelle-L kpele [186]; Kpelle-G kpele [186]; Bokobaru mi [183]; Boko mi [183]; Busa mi [183]; Lebir mi [183]; San mi / mii [183]; Kyenga mi [183]; Shanga mi [183].

dry: Dan-G kpee, kpáé [192]; Dan-B kpéé [192]; Dan-K kpaa [192]; Tura kpee [192]; Mano kpálá-kwá [192]; Guro gü [193], wü-wü [194]; Yaure ka [193]; Gban ge [193]; Mwan kpáá [192]; Wan kpálá [192]; Beng gále [193]; Kpan goo-ma [192]; Dzuun gdrd [192]; Duun goro-ma [192]; Seenku g33 [192]; Banka gwe [192]; Jo fúrúmáá [199]; Bobo kwie [192]; Bozo-J guo [197]; Bozo-K gogi [197]; Bozo-T goin [197]; Soninke kooro [192], kaawa [198]; Mauyá, já [196]; Jula-Kjá [196]; Dafingyáa [196]; Bamana já [196]; Maninka já [196]; Xasonka já [196]; Mandinka jáa [196]; Koranko gbála [192]; Lele kpála [192]; Mogofin bála [192]; Kakabe gbála [192]; Kono gbáa [192]; Vai kpáá [192]; Soso xara [192]; Jalonke qárá [192]; Jogo gwá [192]; Jeri gbáá [192]; Numu güá [192]; Mende mbé [190]; Loko mbé(y) [190]; Bandi mbé [190]; Looma fé [191]; Kpelle-L kpála [192], kpóy [195]; Kpelle-G kpala [192]; Bokobaru korí [187]; Boko gii [192], gá [193]; Busa kori [187]; Lebir gér [192]; San gere [192]; Kyenga yutufa "dry up' [189]; Shanga dégeí 'dry up' [188].

ear: Dan-G to [202]; Dan-B tó [202]; Dan-K to [202]; Tura tolo [202]; Mano tóó [202]; Guro tone [202]; Yaure tore [202]; Gban to [202]; Mwan tro [202]; Wan péy [203]; Beng tróy [202]; Kpeen tóó [202]; Kpan too [202]; Dzuun tóró [202]; Duun too [202]; Seenku too [202]; Banka tola [202]; Jo too [202]; Bobo túrú [202]; Bozo-J twoo [202]; Bozo-K tálá [202]; Bozo-T tele [202]; Soninke tóru/o [202]; Mau tóó [202]; Jula-K tóro [202]; Dafing too [202]; Bamana tólo [202]; Maninka tólo [202]; Xasonka túlu [202]; Mandinka túlu [202]; Koranko tólo [202]; Lele tolo [202]; Mogofin tólo [202]; Kakabe tólo [202]; Kono tóó [202]; Vai tóo [202]; Soso túlí [202]; Jalonke túlí [202]; Jogo tólo [202]; Jeri túlu, tíli [202]; Numu tólo [202]; Mende ngólí [201]; Loko ngóú [201]; Bandi ngolíi [201]; Looma gúí(g), gúí [201]; Kpelle-L wóli [201]; Kpelle-G woli [201]; Bokobaru swá [200]; Boko swá [200], góló [201]; Busa sá [200]; Lebir tvr [202]; San tóó [202]; Kyenga tono [202]; Shanga toola [202].

earth: Dan-G se, see [206]; Dan-B se [206]; Dan-K se [206]; Tura sée [206]; Mano táá [205], séle [206]; Guro téle [205]; Yaure tree [205]; Gban toa [205]; Mwan tréé [205]; Wan troo [205]; Beng bü [207]; Kpeen dümoy [209]; Kpan zwaaxo [209]; Dzuun á,ü [209]; Duun zokuma [209]; Seenku bü [211]; Banka jua, jogooma [209]; Jo fwúniy [214]; Bobo lo [209]; Bozo-J twoo [205], duba (?) [209]; Bozo-K noyo [213]; Bozo-T no [213]; Soninke piipé, yiipé [212]; Mau lüü [209]; Jula-K dügú [209]; Dafing dú [209]; Bamana dügú [209], bángú, bánkú [211]; Maninka düu [209], bánkú, bánkó [211]; Xasonka dügu [209], bánxu [211]; Mandinka düu [209], bánku [211]; Koranko dügu, düu [209]; Lele düu-kólo [209]; Mogofin dügu-kólo [209]; Kakabe dügu [209]; Kono düu [209]; Vai dü-má [209]; Soso béxi [211]; Jalonke boqi [211]; Jogo dogó [209]; Jeri dügú [209]; Numu dogo [209]; Mende ndo-lo [209], polo [210]; Loko polo [210]; Bandi ndowo-lo [209], pelo [210]; Looma zoi, zuu [209], polo [210]; Kpelle-L löii [209], poro [210]; Kpelle-G loi [209], polo [210]; Bokobaru teote [205]; Boko zile [204], toole [205]; Busa zitéé [204]; Lebir táá, tárá" [205]; San tán [205]; Kyenga yiake [208]; Shanga tee [205].

eat: Dan-G br [215]; Dan-B bi [215]; Dan-K bi [215]; Tura bele [215]; Mano bélé [215]; Guro bili

[215]; Yaure bli [215]; Gban be [215]; Mwan ble [215]; Wan loo [216]; Beng ble [215]; Kpeen pü-ma [220]; Kpan pmaa-ma [220]; Dzuun pon [220]; Duun po [220]; Seenku no [220]; Banka puo [220]; Jo nú [220]; Bobo zön [216]; Bozo-J je [218]; Bozo-K ja [218]; Bozo-T jye [218]; Soninke yígá [218]; Mau looy [216]; Jula-K dómú [216]; Dafing do [216]; Bamana dúmu [216]; Maninka dómu, dámu, dáwu [216]; Xasonka dómo [216]; Mandinka dómo [216]; Koranko don [216]; Lele doon [216]; Mogofin domo [216]; Kakabe dámu

[216]; Kono dáun, don [216]; Vai loy [216]; Soso dón [216]; Jalonke dón [216]; Jogo do(n) [216]; Jeri dóy [216], kúy [219]; Numu dóy [216], kóy [219]; Mende me [183]; Loko me [183]; Bandi mee [183]; Looma mi, me [183]; Kpelle-L mii [183]; Kpelle-G mi, me [183]; Bokobaru ble [215]; Boko blé [215]; Busa ble [215]; Lebir bi [215]; San bii('eat a soft thing') [215], so / soe [216]; Kyenga bi [215]; Shanga byee [215].

egg: Dan-G ya a [221]; Dan-B yä, yä ä [221]; Dan-K yá [221]; Tura yáá [221]; Mano yáá [221]; Guro yene [221]; Yaure yere (AMS) [221]; Gban ya [221]; Mwan yre [221]; Wan oy [221]; Beng föij [222]; Kpeen

dùmu [226]; Kpan dui [226]; Dzuun éiùùn [226]; Duun duu [226]; Seenku kyé [221]; Banka juna [226]; Jo pèé [221]; Bobo wéré [221]; Bozo-J byé [225]; Bozo-K fàlâ [223]; Bozo-T pala [223]; Soninke yelli/e [221], xabaN / xâbâané [224]; Mau kiï [221]; Jula-K kiri [221]; Dafing cii [221]; Bamana fân [222]; Maninka ktii [221]; Xasonka kili [221]; Mandinka kili [221]; Koranko kili [221]; Lele kâli [221]; Mogofin kéle [221]; Ka-kabe kili [221]; Kono ci'i [221]; Vai ké'i [221]; Soso xele [221]; Jalonke gelé [221]; Jogo yélé [221]; Jeri yèli [221]; Numu lzgé, ligén [221]; Mende ngâlu [221]; Loko ngâu [221]; Bandi ngàlù [221]; Looma kâi, kâi, yai, yé [221]; Kpelle-L yâloy [221]; Kpelle-G paniy [221]; Bokobaru né-gbèrè, né-gbèè [221]; Boko gbë [221]; Busa né-gbini [221]; Lebir gyir |giri| [221]; San gii [221]; Kyenga gbi [221]; Shanga gye [221].

eye: Dan-G ya [229]; Dan-B ya [229]; Dan-K yâ [229]; Tura ya [229]; Mano yié [229]; Guro yié, yvé [229]; Yaure yùé [229]; Gban wa [229]; Mwan yré [229]; Wan lé [230]; Beng y5-wlé [229]; Kpeen jâàn [229]; Kpan jaa-zi [229]; Dzuun jââ [229]; Duun ja'a-di [229]; Seenku dywni [229]; Banka ja-dina [229]; Jo pà-néi [229]; Bobo pôno [229]; Bozo-J po [229]; Bozo-K ^âyâ [229]; Bozo-T ^a [229]; Soninke yâa-xa/e [229]; Mau pé [229]; Jula-K pâ, pé [229]; Dafing pà [229]; Bamana ^é [229]; Maninka pâ [229]; Xasonka pâa [229]; Mandinka pâa [229]; Koranko yâ [229]; Lele yâa / jâa [229]; Mogofin pâa [229]; Kakabe pâa [229]; Kono yâ / jâ [229]; Vai jâ [229]; Soso yââ [229]; Jalonke jââ [229]; Jogo pâa [229]; Jeri pâ [229]; Numu yââ-dé [229]; Mende ngâ [229]; Loko ngà-u [229]; Bandi ngàa-hù [229]; Looma gaa-zu [229]; Kpelle-L yé-i [229]; Kpelle-G[229]; Bokobaru wéé [227]; Boko wé [227]; Busa wé [227]; Lebir mim |mini|, miyäa [228]; San yii [229]; Kyenga wélé [227]; Shanga wzryé [227].

fat: Dan-G yé [232]; Dan-B yé [232]; Dan-K yo [232]; Tura yrx? [232]; Mano yâné> [232]; Guro yânâ [232]; Yaure yré [232]; Gban wu [232]; Mwan yré [232]; Wan yéy [232]; Beng yré [232]; Kpan pii [232]; Jo kéy [234]; Bobo pi [232]; Bozo-J céé [234]; Bozo-K cé [234]; Bozo-T tyé (?) [234]; Soninke tée (?) [234]; Mau cey [234]; Jula-K cén [234]; Dafing tùrù, tùu [235]; Bamana ké, ké [234]; Maninka ké, cé [234], tulu [235]; Xasonka kéy [234]; Mandinka kéy, céy [234]; Koranko ké [234], tulu [235]; Lele ké

[234]; Mogofin ké [234]; Kakabe kèp-é [234]; Kono tuu [235]; Vai tuu [235]; Soso ture [235]; Jalonke turé

[235]; Jogo nââ [233], cén [234]; Numu nâ [233], kilé [235]; Mende ngulé [232]; Loko ngué [232]; Bandi ngulé [232]; Looma kpolé [232]; Kpelle-L wulé [232]; Kpelle-G ulo [232]; Bokobaru nési [231]; Boko nisi [231]; Busa nisi [231]; Lebirpéé [232]; San^éé [232]; Kyenga yéné [232]; Shanga néé [232].

feather: Dan-G kaa [328]; Dan-B kaa [328]; Dan-K kàa [328]; Tura kuà [328]; Guro céé [328]; Yaure jér, ce [328]; Gban ma [237]; Mwan cié [328]; Wan käiy [328]; Beng céy [328]; Kpeen sulù [243]; Kpan sui [243]; Dzuun sUU [243]; Duun suu [243]; Seenku tän [242]; Banka sulci [243]; Jo kaâ [328]; Bobo dégë, dégé [238]; Bozo-J tiin [239]; Bozo-K tuyé [239]; Bozo-T tiin [239]; Soninke yin-fl/e [239]; Mau yôô [241]; Jula-K sé, syé [239]; Dafing ti [239]; Bamana si [239], jôlo [241]; Maninka si [239], jôlo [241]; Xasonka ti [239]; Mandinka tii

[239]; Koranko kôndé-tigi [239]; Lele yônbé [240]; Mogofin kéndé-téi [239]; Kakabe kénde ti [239]; Kono yônbo

[240]; Vai kùn-dii [239]; Soso xabé [328]; Jalonke qàbé (?) [328]; Jeri ti, ci [239]; Numu tin [239]; Loko deya [238]; Bandi ndeya (Koelle) [238]; Looma déyâ, dégé [238]; Kpelle-L léya [238]; Kpelle-G léya [238]; Bokobaru kâ [328]; Boko kâ [328]; Busa kâ [328]; Lebir ka [328]; San ka [328]; Kyenga kâkâ [328]; Shanga kaka [328].

fire: Dan-G sir [245], pêy [246]; Dan-B sir [245]; Dan-K see [245]; Tura sie [245], pài [246]; Mano tié [244]; Guro céé [244]; Yaure té [244]; Gban see [245]; Mwan té [244]; Wan té [244]; Beng sié [245]; Kpeen sâà, sàâ [245]; Kpan sa [245]; Dzuun sà [245]; Duun sa [245]; Seenku tä [244]; Banka sa [245]; Jo tuu (?) [248]; Bobo tôgô [248]; Bozo-J tau [248]; Bozo-K tùbâ [248]; Bozo-T tuu [248]; Soninke yinbi/e [247]; Mau tä [244]; Jula-K tâ [244]; Dafing tà [244]; Bamana tâ, tâ-suma [244]; Maninka tâ [244]; Xasonka tâ [244]; Mandinka dinbaa, kimaa [247]; Koranko tâ [244]; Lele tâa [244]; Mogofin tâ [244]; Kakabe tâ [244]; Kono tâ [244]; Vai tâ [244]; Soso téé [244]; Jalonke téé [244]; Jogo tâ [244]; Jeri tâ [244]; Numu tâ [244]; Mende ngénbu [247]; Loko ngèmbù [247]; Bandi ngénbù [247]; Looma yâbu [247]; Kpelle-L yôy [247]; Kpelle-G woy [247]; Bokobaru té [244]; Boko té [244]; Busa té [244]; Lebir sé [245]; San té [244]; Kyenga cé [244]; Shanga cé [244].

fish: Dan-G yurr [250]; Dan-B yur, yur [250]; Dan-K pé [249]; Tura vé [251]; Mano kpàâ [249]; Guro p5 [249]; Yaure pé [249]; Gban zéé [250]; Mwan kää [249]; Wan kpé> [249]; Beng ziny [250]; Kpeen gi [250]; Kpan zee [250]; Dzuun ji [250]; Duun zi [250]; Seenku kwéé (?) [249]; Banka jidina [250]; Jo yérii [250]; Bobo zé [250]; Bozo-J yué [250]; Bozo-K pé>yé> [250]; Bozo-T puén [250]; Soninke péxi/e [250]; Mau yéé, yôô [250]; Jula-K yigén [250]; Dafing yié [250]; Bamana jégé [250]; Maninka jéé [250]; Xasonka pége [250]; Mandinkapée, yée [250]; Koranko yégé [250]; Lele péé [250]; Mogofin yégé [250]; Kakabe yégé [250]; Kono péé [250]; Vai pié [250]; Soso yéxé [250]; Jalonke jéqé [250]; Jogo yégé(n) [250]; Jeri yégé, yéga(n) [250]; Numu yigén [250]; Mende pé [250]; Loko nié [250]; Bandi pé [250]; Looma fézé(g), feza(g) [253]; Kpelle-L péé [250]; Kpelle-G hèyélèè [252]; Bokobaru kpé [249]; Boko kpé [249]; Busa kpé [249]; Lebir zé [250]; San zé) [250]; Kyenga zé [250]; Shanga zôô [250].

fly: Dan-G wli [267]; Dan-B li [267]; Dan-K wir [267]; Tura walä "fly up" [267]; Guro sí (AMS) [269]; Yaure sv [269]; Gban tlo [268]; Mwan sí [269]; Wan glüy [267]; Beng pelöy [260]; Kpan Isen [266], fuu-ma [272]; Dzuun teruye, se [266]; Banka fu [272]; Jo mín [271]; Bozo-J piri-ti [260]; Bozo-K piri-ndi [260]; Bozo-T piri-ndi [260]; Soninke kanpi [270]; Mau tíy [266]; Jula-K wíri, wúri [267]; Da-fing tú [266]; Bamana pä [264]; Maninka gbä [264]; Xasonka bä (?) [264]; Mandinka tíi [266]; Koranko gbä [264]; Lele la-sd [265]; Mogofin tú [266]; Kono tíy (? "jump") [266]; Vai píi [260]; Soso tuban, tugan [262]; Jalonke tügän [262]; Jogo fínín [260]; Jeri täy [262]; Numu yelo kánká ("stand in the sky") [261]; Mende wüwü [257], kowö [259]; Loko pire [260]; Bandi kovó [259]; Looma puwu(g), powo(g) [257], gove (?) [259]; Kpelle-L kööy [259]; Kpelle-G koy [259]; Bokobaru viä [254]; Boko vüä [254]; Busa vinä, vürä [254]; Kyenga kpete [256]; Shanga kwätee [256].

foot: Dan-G ge [273]; Dan-B ge [273]; Dan-K je [273]; Tura gee [273]; Mano gä [273]; Guro gäne [273]; Yaure cei, kei [273]; Gban ge [273]; Mwan gää [273]; Wan ce [273]; Beng gä [273]; Kpeen sändää [273]; Kpan saa [273]; Dzuun sän [273]; Duun sa-na'a [273]; Seenku kyén [273]; Banka sa-na'a [273]; Jo käy-da [273]; Bobo käü [273]; Bozo-J taba [275]; Bozo-K tä [275]; Bozo-T to [275]; Soninke tää [275]; Mau séy [273]; Jula-K sén [273]; Dafing sei [273]; Bamana sé [273]; Maninka sé [273]; Xasonka siy [273]; Mandinka siy [273]; Koranko kii [273]; Lele ce [273]; Mogofin ké [273]; Kakabe kén [273]; Kono ce [273]; Vai kéy [273]; Soso san [273]; Jalonke sän [273]; Jogo kpo [274]; Jeri kpo [274]; Numu kpo [274]; Mende kowo [274]; Loko kogo [274]; Bandi kowo [274]; Looma kowo [274]; Kpelle-L kóo [274]; Kpelle-G koyo [274]; Bokobaru gbä [273]; Boko gbä [273]; Busa gbä [273]; Lebir gäm \gäni\ [273]; San goa [273]; Kyenga gbe [273]; Shanga gií [273].

full (fill): Dan-G pa [276]; Dan-B pa [276]; Dan-K pä [276]; Tura pä [276]; Mano pä [276]; Guro fei

[276]; Yaure fä [276]; Mwan pä [276]; Wan pä [276]; Beng pä [276]; Kpan tee-ma [277]; Dzuun Syen

[277]; Duun teo-ma [277]; Seenku Joga [276]; Banka te-ma [277]; Jo fää-mää [276]; Bobo pägä [276]; Bozo-J pa [276]; Bozo-K' fagi [276]; Bozo-T pay [276]; Soninke fägä [276]; Mau fä [276]; Jula-K fä [276]; Dafing pä [276]; Bamana fä [276]; Maninka fä [276]; Xasonka fä [276]; Mandinka fäa [276]; Koranko fä [276]; Lele fä [276]; Mogofin fäa [276]; Kakabe fäa [276]; Kono fä [276]; Vai fä [276]; Soso ra-fe [276]; Jalonke féé [276]; Jeri fie [276]; Numu feey / feené [276]; Mende ndä-vé [276]; Loko fé(y) [276]; Bandi nda-he [276]; Looma fe(g), da-fe(g) [276]; Kpelle-L fee [276]; Kpelle-G hve [276]; Bokobaru pä [276]; Boko pä [276]; Busa pä [276]; Lebir pä [276]; San pa / pie [276]; Kyenga fä [276]; Shanga däki [278].

give: Dan-G gba [279], nü [280]; Dan-B gbää [279], nü [280]; Dan-K gbä [279], nü [280]; Tura gbä [279], nú [280]; Mano gbä [279], no [280]; Guro no [280]; Yaure no [280]; Gban no [280]; Mwan nü / nä [280], pe [282]; Wan ké [281]; Beng gbä [279]; Kpeen ténä [283]; Kpan sii-ma [283]; Dzuun ko [281], sin [283]; Duun timi [283]; Seenku kye [281]; Banka si [283]; Jo wori [286]; Bobo péré [282]; Bozo-J do, dwana [283]; Bozo-K ku [281], lo [283]; Bozo-T ko [281], loya [283]; Soninke küú [281], kíni

[284]; Mau so [281], dí [283]; Jula-K son [281], dí [283]; Dafing so [281], di [283]; Bamana so [281], dí [283]; Maninka so [281], dí [283]; Xasonka só, sóy [281], dí [283]; Mandinka só [281], díi [283]; Koranko ko [281], dí [283]; Lele ko [281], dí [283]; Mogofin dí [283]; Kakabe ko [281], dí [283]; Kono ko [281], bé

[285]; Vai ko [281], bee [285]; Soso fíí [282]; Jalonke fíí [282]; Jogo ko [281]; Jeri kuo [281]; Numu ko [281]; Mende ko [281], fé [282]; Loko fé [282]; Bandi ko(y) [281], fe [282]; Looma ko [281], fe [282]; Kpelle-L ko [281], fé [282]; Kpelle-G koy, ko [281], hvo [282]; Bokobaru kpä [279]; Boko kpä [279]; Busa kpä [279]; Lebir kä [279]; San ko / koe, go / goe [281]; Kyenga gba [279]; Shanga ku [281].

good: Dan-G dí [296], tiaadé [301], sR [306]; Dan-B dí [296], sR [306]; Dan-K tiaa [301]; Tura segi [306]; Mano yíé [295], se [306]; Guro zimä [300]; Yaure yi [295]; Mwan lré [292]; Wan zrä [298], kplä-kplä [299]; Beng té [296], gey [297]; Kpan zii [296], wo [305]; Dzuun dí [296], wüü [305]; Duun wo-ma [305]; Seenku (ko [296], sugo [306]; Banka wo [305]; Jo di [296], seoríy (?) [303]; Bobo diä [296], pro [304]; Bozo-J mee [287], de [296]; Bozo-K mai / moyo [287], le [296]; Bozo-T main [287]; Soninke líyyé [296], siri/e [303]; Maußiy [295], dí [296], bee, béébée [302]; Jula-Kßi [295], dí [296], berebere [302]; Dafing pí [295]; Bamana pí, .^/[295], dí [296], bere, beere [302]; Maninka pi [295], dí [296], bede, bere [302]; Xasonkapiy [295], dí [296], béte [302]; Mandinka piy [295], dí-yaa [296], béte [302]; Koranko pi [295], dí [296]; Lele pín, püma [295], dí [296]; Mogofin pi, käpi [295]; Kakabe púma [295]; Kono pi [295], dí [296]; Vai pí [295], be'e [302]; Soso fan [294]; Jalonke fän [294]; Jogo péä(n) [295]; Jeri päy, péay [295]; Numupéäné [295]; Mende kpékpé [293],pändä [294],pändé [295]; Loko kpékpé(y) [293], pände(y) [295]; Bandi panda [294]; Looma pa(g) [294]; Kpelle-L lelee [292]; Kpelle-G lele [292]; Bokobaru maa [287], na [288]; Boko maa [287], na [288]; Busa mana [287], na [288]; Lebir miiyyv [289], wvsi [290]; San koon [291], siin [306]; Kyenga noo [288]; Shanga naä [288].

green: Dan-G gblééyidé [315]; Dan-B gbleiblzR, bliüde{yí}zA, béedeyízA [315]; Dan-K flee [314]; Tura kpolo [318]; Mano béiléeyíze [315]; Guro tüülü [313], denono (?) [324]; Mwan yréyré [312]; Wan gínoy

[311], yri-yri [312], kpönüy [318]; Beng gbe [310]; Kpan vucirama [323]; Dzuun vutsirama [323]; Duun bufwema [323]; Banka vuplanama [323]; Jo därämäy [324]; Bobo särä-zü ("like juce of the leaves of beans") [326]; Bozo-J sogu kaa ("grass-fresh") [327]; Bozo-T säuxäämu [327]; Soninke xalli/e [320]; Mau gbeey ('green fruit') [318]; Jula-K bin-gededämän [323]; Dafing gwle ("unripe") [318], biiceemä [323]; Bamana geren ("unripe") [318], binkenelama [323]; Maninka gbeden ("unripe") [318], binkendelama [323]; Xasonka kerey [318], binkerey [323]; Mandinka jänbakere [319]; Koranko yänbaku-ye ("like leaves")

[319]; Lele yänbalama [319]; Mogofin yänbakutannama, bululama [319]; Kakabe kutap-e [321]; Kono yanbakua [319]; Vai jämbä-ku'ä [319], ji'oy [322]; Soso xinde ("unripe") [320]; Jalonke qinde ("unripe")

[320]; Jogo jänkömä ("fresh leaf') [319]; Numu gyänkpoä ("fresh leaf") [319]; Mende kpöle [318]; Looma kpoe [318]; Kpelle-L kpöle ("unripe") [318]; Kpelle-G kpele ("unripe") [318]; Bokobaru lämi [307], yisi [308]; Boko yisi [308]; Busa lämi [307], yisi [308]; Lebir vanni mi [309], zär mi [316]; San burun [317].

hair: Dan-G kaa [328], wu [329]; Dan-B kää [328], wu [329]; Dan-K kää [328], yaa [330]; Tura kuä (AMS) [328], wo-wo [329]; Mano wf, {wu-jwu [329]; Guro cee [328], wf, wui [329]; Yaure je, ce [328]; Gban mle; mä [329]; Mwan cie [328], wf / wi [329]; Wan kay [328]; Beng cey [328]; Kpeen kuywänzulu [333]; Kpan kuoi [333]; Dzuun kungweyn [333]; Duun kuykwei [333]; Seenku konsugi [332]; Banka kwa 'a-sulu

[333]; Jo yuziy [332]; Bobo ywon-sögö [332]; Bozo-J tiin [332]; Bozo-K tuyo ('body hair') [332]; Bozo-T tiin [332]; Soninke yin-ti [332]; Mau kunzye [332]; Jula-K sye, se [332]; Dafing ti [332]; Bamana si [332]; Maninka si [332]; Xasonka ti [332]; Mandinka tii [332]; Koranko sii [332]; Lele kun-tii [332]; Mogofin kun-sigi [332]; Kakabe kun-sigi [332]; Kono kündii [332]; Vai kün-dii [332]; Soso xun-sexe [332]; Jalonke qun-seqe [332]; Jogo tin [332]; Jeri ti, ci [332]; Numu tigi [332]; Mende ndewä ('body hair') [331]; Loko deya [331]; Bandi ndeya [331]; Looma deyä [331]; Kpelle-L leya [331]; Kpelle-G leya [331]; Bokobaru kä [328]; Boko kä [328]; Busa kä [328]; Lebir kä' [328]; San ka [328]; Kyenga käkä [328]; Shanga siekaka [328].

hand: Dan-G ko [334], gbe [339]; Dan-B ko [334], gbir [339]; Dan-K ko [334], gbe [339]; Tura koo

[334]; Mano ko [334]; Guro be^ [339]; Yaure pe [339]; Gban ko [334]; Mwan koo [334], gbe [339]; Wan o

[334]; Beng wo [334]; Kpeen si-tää [340]; Kpan si-taarai [340]; Dzuun si-tää [340]; Duun si-ra'a [340]; Seenku kye, kyie [340]; Banka si-ra'a [340]; Jo gbe [339], je [340]; Bobo sörö [337]; Bozo-J sugu [337]; Bozo-K kiri [338]; Bozo-T suu [337]; Soninke kitti/e [338]; Mau böö [336]; Jula-K böro [336]; Dafing boo [336]; Bamana bölo [336]; Maninka bölo [336]; Xasonka bulu [336]; Mandinka bulu [336]; Koranko bölö [336]; Lele bölö [336]; Mogofin bölö [336]; Kakabe bölö [336]; Kono böö [336]; Vai böö [336]; Sosoyii

[335]; Jalonke yii [335]; Jogo bölö [336]; Jeri bulu [336]; Numu bölö [336]; Mende nge-yä [335]; Loko nge-ya [335]; Bandi ngea [335]; Looma ze [335]; Kpelle-L yee [335]; Kpelle-G ye [335]; Bokobaru o [334]; Boko 'o [334]; Busa yo [334]; Lebir wor [334]; San gon [334]; Kyenga yo [334]; Shanga yoo [334].

head: Dan-G go [342]; Dan-B go [342]; Dan-K go [342]; Tura wu [342]; Mano wu-kele [342]; Guro wüö [342]; Yaure wulo [342]; Gban bo [343]; Mwan ygblo, ygblö [343]; Wan bö-yglo [343]; Beng wlu [342]; Kpeen küygo [342]; Kpan kuo [342]; Dzuun kün-go [342]; Duun kuyko [342]; Seenku kon [342]; Banka kwa 'a [342]; Jo ponei [342]; Bobo ywon [342]; Bozo-J pe (?) [342]; Bozo-K syähwo [345]; Bozo-T tomo [344]; Soninke yin / yimme [342]; Mau kuy [342]; Jula-K kün [342]; Dafing ku [342]; Bamana kf [342]; Maninka kf [342]; Xasonka kuy [342]; Mandinka kuy [342]; Koranko ku [342]; Lele ku [342]; Mogofin ku [342]; Kakabe kun [342]; Kono ku [342]; Vai küy [342]; Soso xün [342]; Jalonke qun [342]; Jogo wü [342]; Jeri wu [342]; Numu wu [342]; Mende ngü [342]; Loko ngu-kökö [342]; Bandi ngf(y) [342]; Looma yu(g), wu(g) [342]; Kpelle-L yüy [342]; Kpelle-G wuy [342]; Bokobaru mi [341]; Boko mi [341]; Busa mi [341]; Lebir mini [341]; San mii [341]; Kyenga mi [341]; Shanga mii [341].

hear: Dan-G mä [346]; Dan-B mä [346]; Dan-K mä [346]; Tura mä [346]; Mano mä [346]; Guro mä [346]; Yaure met (ASM) [346]; Gban mä (ASM) [346]; Mwan mä / mä [346]; Wan mo [346]; Beng ma [346]; Kpan ymee-ma [346]; Dzuun myen [346]; Duun mieno [346]; Seenku mee / mie [346]; Banka mie [346]; Jo dä-me [346]; Bobo mo [346]; Bozo-J myee [346]; Bozo-K bogi (?) [346]; Bozo-T buge (?) [346]; Soninke mugu [346]; Mau myey [346]; Jula-K men, myen [346]; Dafing mwii [346]; Bamana me, me [346]; Maninka me [346]; Xasonka me [346]; Mandinka moyi [346]; Koranko lä me, lä me [346]; Lele lä-min [346]; Mogofin moe [346]; Kakabe men [346]; Kono mi [346]; Vai läy [347]; Soso mee [346]; Jalonke mee [346]; Jogo men [346]; Jeri mey, me [346]; Numu mey [346]; Mende meni [346]; Loko me(y) [346]; Bandi meni [346]; Looma meni(g) [346]; Kpelle-L meni [346]; Kpelle-G may [346]; Bokobaru ma [346]; Boko ma [346]; Busa ma [346]; Lebir mä [346]; San mä, [346]; Kyenga ma [346]; Shanga mää [346].

heart: Dan-G züK, zo [349]; Dan-B zur [349]; Dan-K züK [349]; Tura zvv [349]; Mano zo [349]; Guro zulu [349]; Gban gbi [351], klo [352]; Mwan soy [348], zrü [349]; Wan zoy [349], töli [350]; Beng blöniny (?) [359]; Kpeen soy [348]; Kpan so [348]; Dzuun seen [348]; Duun sono [348]; Seenku so [348]; Banka sona [348]; Jo soy [348]; Bobo wörö [357], dögö [358]; Bozo-J bugulio [359]; Bozo-K bori [359]; Bozo-T boojo [359]; So-

ninke sondoN / sondomme [348]; Mau soy [348]; Jula-K son [348]; Dafing so [348]; Bamana so [348]; Maninka so, sondome [348]; Xasonka sö, sondomme [348]; Mandinka sondome [348]; Koranko so, so [348], yísi [354]; Lele níi [356]; Mogofin düse [354]; Kakabe jüsu [354]; Kono sonson [348],faa [355]; Vai faá [355]; Soso sondon [348]; Jalonke sondón [348]; Jogo so(n) [348]; Jeri gbogon (?) [359]; Numu son [348]; Mende ndíí [353]; Loko ndíí [353]; Bandi ndíí [353]; Looma zii [353]; Kpelle-L líi [353]; Kpelle-G li [353]; Bokobaru swe [348]; Boko so [348]; Busa swe [348]; Lebir seto, séto [348]; San koron [352]; Kyenga zu [349]; Shanga zuyú [349].

horn: Dan-G sf [361]; Dan-B sf [361]; Dan-K sf [361]; Tura sélé [361]; Mano 6é [360]; Guro 6éí ~ délí [360]; Yaure déí (AMS) [360]; Gban bi [360]; Mwan mle [360]; Wan mley [360]; Beng béy [360]; Kpeen kúú

[368]; Kpan bii [360]; Dzuun bín [360]; Duun bi [360]; Seenku bí(n) [360]; Banka via [360]; Jo péy [360]; Bobo be [360]; Bozo-J buuon [360]; Bozo-K homo [368]; Bozo-T bolon (?) [360]; Soninke beN / bénné [360]; Mau gée [367]; Jula-K gban [365]; Bamana bípe, byé [360]; gwére [367]; Maninka bípe [360]; kére [367]; Xasonka bípa [360]; Mandinka bína [360]; Koranko kíri, kére [367]; Lele bíipa [360]; Mogofin bína [360]; Kakabe bípa [360]; Kono béna [360]; Vai 6íná [360]; Soso feri [366]; Jalonke féérí [366]; Jogo go(n) [365]; Jeri gboy, gboy [365]; Numu gon [365]; Mende ndówó [363]; Loko ndógó [363]; Looma mena [360]; Kpelle-L mölä [360]; Kpelle-G mine [360]; Bokobaru beé [360], kobá [362]; Boko bená [360], kébá [362]; Busa béné [360]; Lebir miní [360]; San ben [360]; Kyenga kaho (< Hausa kaho, < kafo) [-4]; Shanga bee [360].

I: Dan-G ma [369], a [370], n [372]; Dan-B ma [369], a [370], n [372]; Dan-K ma [369], n [372]; Tura ma [369], a [370], n [372]; Mano ma [369], n [372]; Guro ma [369], a [370]; Yaure ma [369], a [370]; Gban mi [369], i [372]; Mwan mi [369], y [372]; Wan mí-na [369], na [371], n [372]; Beng ma [369], y [372]; Kpeen ma [369], n [372]; Kpan mu [369]; Dzuun mun [369]; Duun ma [369]; Banka mu [369]; Jo mä [369], ñ [372]; Bobo ma, me [369], ne [372]; Bozo-J n [372]; Bozo-K ñ [372]; Bozo-T n [372]; Soninke ñ [372]; Mau né [372]; Jula-K ñ [372]; Dafing n [372]; Bamana ñ [372]; Maninka ñ [372]; Xasonka ñ [372]; Mandinka ñ [372]; Koranko ñ [372]; Lele ñ [372]; Mogofin ñ [372]; Kakabe ñ [372]; Kono ñ [372]; Vai ñ [372]; Soso ñ [372]; Jalonke ñ [372]; Jogo ñ [372]; Jeri na [372]; Numu n [372]; Mende ngá, pá [371]; Loko ngi [371]; Bandi ngí [371], y

[372]; Looma gé [371], ('g) [372]; Kpelle-Lpáy [371], n [372]; Kpelle-Gpáy [371], n [372]; Bokobaru ma

[369]; Boko ma [369]; Busa ma [369]; Lebir ma [369]; San ma [369]; Kyenga ma [369]; Shanga ma [369]. kill: Dan-G zK [373]; Dan-B zK [373]; Dan-K ze [373]; Tura zéé [373]; Mano ze [373]; Guro je [373]; Yaure

te [373]; Gban ze [373]; Mwan de [373]; Wan té [373]; Beng de [373]; Kpeen büó [377]; Kpan boo-ma [377]; Dzuun vú [377]; Duun vo [377]; Seenku bwo / bwö / bwóne [377]; Banka bo [377]; Jo kílé, kla [376]; Bobo ye

[373]; Bozo-J waa [375]; Bozo-K waya [375]; Bozo-T gwan [375]; Soninke karí [376]; Mau faa [374]; Jula-K fagá [374]; Dafing páá [374]; Bamana fagá, faá [374]; Maninka faá [374]; Xasonka faxa [374]; Mandinka faa

[374]; Koranko faga, faa [374]; Lele faa [374]; Mogofin fagá [374]; Kakabe fágá [374]; Kono faa, fa [374]; Vai faá [374]; Soso faxá [374]; Jalonke ßqo [374]; Jogo kpá [375]; Jeri kpá [375]; Numu kpá [375]; Mende paá [374]; Loko paá [374]; Bandi paa [374]; Looma paa [374]; Kpelle-L pää [374]; Kpelle-G pa [374]; Bokobaru de [373]; Boko dé [373]; Busa de [373]; Lebir zéJ373]; San de / dii [373]; Kyenga de [373]; Shanga de [373].

knee: Dan-G kpffr [378]; Dan-B kpogo [378]; Dan-K kpffgo [378]; Tura kpoy [378]; Mano kpuo [378]; Guro pó [378]; Yaure po [378]; Gban kpo [378]; Mwan kpo [378]; Wan kpóy-gb0lí [378]; Beng kpó [378]; Kpeen kümúú [378]; Kpan kui [381]; Dzuun kúnún [381]; Duun kumu [378]; Seenku tyímí [378]; Banka kuna [381]; Jo kankwvv [378]; Bobo fUngUnü [382]; Bozo-J kobo [378]; Bozo-K húyí [378]; Bozo-T xumun [378]; Soninke xúrúngí/o [381]; Mau kümeey [378]; Jula-K kúnbiri [378]; Dafing kuywíi [378]; Bamana kúnbere, -ku, -kuru [378], kúnbere, -ku, -kuru [381]; Maninka kúnberen, -kudu [378], kúnberen, -kudu [381]; Xasonka xúnbaliy-kuy [378]; Mandinka kúmbaliy [378]; Koranko kúnbek [378]; Lele kúnbili [378]; Mogofin kúnbek [378]; Kakabe küngbelén [378]; Kono kúnbai [378]; Vai kúmbé'é [378]; Soso xinbi [378]; Jalonke qíñbí [378]; Jogo gbóó [378]; Jeri gbó-wü [378]; Numu gbó [378]; Mende ngónbí [378]; Loko ngónbí [378]; Bandi ngünbü [378]; Loomapidi [378]; Kpelle-L yúme [378]; Kpelle-G wungbe [378]; Bokobaru kosoó [379]; Boko koso [379]; Busa koso [379]; Lebir küykóo, kúykoo, kúykoom [378]; San musi [380]; Kyenga kusu [379]; Shanga kusu [379].

know: Dan-G do [383]; Dan-B do [383]; Dan-K do [383]; Tura do [383]; Mano do [383]; Guro doo [383]; Yaure to [383]; Gban do [383]; Mwan do [383]; Wan to [383]; Beng do [383]; Kpan too-ma [383]; Dzuun to [383]; Duun to [383]; Seenku to / tyo [383]; Banka to [383]; Jo to [383]; Bobo to [383]; Bozo-J two [383]; Bozo-K to [383]; Bozo-T toy [383]; Soninke tüú [383]; Mau loy [383]; Jula-K lo [383]; Dafing lo

[383]; Bamana do [383]; Maninka lo [383]; Xasonka lóy [383]; Mandinka lóy [383]; Koranko lo [383]; Lele son, lon [383]; Mogofin lo [383]; Kakabe lon [383]; Kono so [383]; Vai so [383]; Soso kolon [384]; Jalonke kólóñ [384]; Jogo so [383]; Jeri so [383]; Numu so [383]; Mende koo [384]; Loko koo(y) [384]; Bandi kolo

[384]; Looma kofig), kwe(g) [384]; Kpelle-L koloy [384]; Kpelle-G koloy [384]; Bokobaru do [383]; Boko do [383]; Busa do [383]; Lebir do [383]; San do / doe [383]; Kyenga do [383]; Shanga do [383].

leaf: Dan-G de [3S5]; Dan-B de [3S5]; Dan-K le [3S5]; Tura ää-kwe [3S5]; Mano léé [3S5]; Guro láá [3S5]; Yaure lá [3S5]; Gban /a [3S5]; Mwan làà [3S5]; Wan läjj [3S5]; Beng láná [3S5]; Kpeen goo-tirà, pl. goo-tirà-rï [390]; Kpan goo-ciraa [390]; Dzuun tsírá [390]; Duun cira [390]; Seenku tïrï [390]; Banka f/a [390]; Jo dá [3S5]; Bobo da [3S5]; Bozo-J duo [3S6]; Bozo-K lá/á [3S5]; Bozo-T lele [3S5]; Soninke dari I dáré [3S5]; Mau búú [3S9], fyáa [390]; Jula-K fí/á-búrú, fú/á-búrú [390]; Dafing p/à [390]; Bamana bú/u [3S9], fúra [390]; Maninka bú/u [3S9], fída, fíra [390]; Xasonka fita [390]; Mandinka jànba [3SS], fíta [390]; Koranko yànba [3SS]; Lele yànba, yènba [3SS]; Mogofin yànba [3SS]; Kakabe fíta

[390]; Kono yànba [3SS]; Vai jànbá [3SS]; Soso búra-xe, búre-xe [3S9]; Jalonke búrú-qe [3S9]; Jogo jâ(n) [3SS]; Jeri jàj [3SS]; Numu gyán [3SS]; Mende ndáwá [3S5]; Loko ndága(j) [3S5]; Bandi ndàyá [3S5]; Looma daa(g) [3S5]; Kpelle-L láa [3S5]; Kpelle-G la [3S5]; Bokobaru lá [3S5]; Boko lá [3S5]; Busa lá [3S5]; Lebir lèé [3S5]; San luu [3S6]; Kyenga lá/á [3S5]; Shanga daàkô [3S7]

lie: Dan-G wo [393]; Dan-B wo [393]; Dan-K wo [393]; Tura kpáá [396]; Mano wo [393]; Guro yïá [397]; Yaure yïrà [397]; Gban wâ-to (AMS) [392]; Mwan yï/à [397]; Wan gôdï [395]; Beng bèdâ [394]; Kpeen jié [397]; Kpan jee-ma [397]; Dzuun pén [397]; Duun pa [397]; Seenku sijâ [399]; Banka pa [397]; Jo bï/i [39S]; Bobo de (?) [391]; Bozo-J saa [391]; Bozo-K saya [391]; Bozo-T saa [391]; Soninke sáxú [391]; Mau lá [391]; Jula-K lá [391]; Dafing là [391]; Bamana dá [391]; Maninka lá [391]; Xasonka lá [391]; Mandinka láa [391]; Koranko sá [391]; Lele sá [391]; Mogofin sá [391]; Kakabe láa [391]; Kono sá [391]; Vai sá

[391]; Soso sá [391]; Jalonke sáa [391]; Jogo sá [391]; Jeri sá [391]; Numu sà [391]; Mende ndá [391]; Loko ndá [391]; Bandi ndà [391]; Looma da [391]; Kpelle-L láá [391]; Kpelle-G laa [391]; Bokobaru da-e [391]; Boko da-e [391], wú/e [392]; Busa wúte [392]; Lebir wvtá [392]; San waa (?) [392]; Shanga intee [393].

liver: Dan-G ß/üü [410]; Dan-B ßM [410]; Dan-K ßüü [410]; Tura ßü/ü [410]; Mano ßü/ü [410]; Guro ßi/i [410]; Yaure fov (?) [410]; Gban gbí [411]; Mwan zrü [412]; Wan tô/ï [413]; Beng b/ojj [410]; Kpeen bé [405]; Kpan bui [410]; Dzuun vúnún [410]; Duun bu [410]; Seenku boron [410]; Banka vuna [410]; Jo toj [413]; Bobo fègèrè [416]; Bozo-J tuo [413], tasa (< Songai) [-1]; Bozo-K ndo/o [413]; Bozo-T tolo [413], sere [414]; Soninke buttu I bútté [410]; Mau bye [405]; Jula-K bíyán, bíyen [405]; Dafing bîée

[405]; Bamana bípe, byé [405]; Maninka bípe [405]; Xasonka búpa [405]; Mandinka jùsu [409]; Koranko bíya, béya [405]; Lele fúyiwa [407]; Mogofin sondo [40S]; Kakabe búpa [405]; Kono fàa [406]; Vai fàa

[406]; Soso bope [405]; Jalonke bope [405]; Jogo bégo(n) [404]; Jeri bogoj, bogo [404], bíye [405]; Numu bôgon [404]; Loko ne [402]; Looma zi [403]; Kpelle-L líi [403]; Kpelle-G ye/e [401]; Bokobaru po, poo [400]; Boko po, poá [400]; Busa po [400]; Lebir foo [400]; San foo [400].

long: Dan-G gb/èè [417]; Dan-B gbèè, gbeej, gbu, gbèïjj [417], loj [41S]; Dan-K dro [419]; Tura doo [419]; Mano gbei [417]; Guro toro-í [421]; Yaure po/u [417]; Gban gâgââ (?) [426]; Mwan gbôô [417]; Wan b/o [420]; Beng gb/ëjj [417], ja [426]; Kpeen gbà [417]; Kpan gba [417]; Dzuun gbààn [417]; Duun gbaj-ma [417]; Seenku dyù [426]; Banka gba [417]; Jo jmà [417]; Bobo kú [424]; Bozo-J kosa [424]; Bozo-K mwono (?) [417]; Bozo-T xuyon [424]; Soninke gi/le (?) [417]; Mau jáj, yáj [426]; Jula-K jàn [426]; Dafing záazci [426]; Bamana jâ [426]; Maninka jâ [426]; Xasonka jàj [426]; Mandinka jàj [426]; Koranko yà [426]; Lele yàn [426]; Mogofin ká-yá [426]; Kakabe ján [426]; Kono yàn-sâ [426]; Vai jâj [426]; Soso kuya [424]; JJa-lonke kújá [424]; Jogo soo-mán [425]; Jeri sùo, sïo [425]; Numu sôô- [425]; Mende kûhày [424]; Bandi kôhô ("tall") [424]; Looma kooza(g) [424]; Kpelle-L kôyà [424]; Kpelle-G kwea [424]; Bokobaru gbáá [417]; Boko gbciá [417]; Busa gbáná [417]; Lebir kyà [422]; San sasa [423]; Kyenga sà [423]; Shanga sàà [423].

louse: Dan-G wèè [427], kêfà [430]; Dan-B lof [427]; Dan-K wèè [427], kääjgbä [430]; Tura kaäßa [430]; Mano wèè [427]; Guro wëï ~ woï [427]; Yaure wè [427]; Gban g/âgb), g/ââ, gbâ [430]; Mwan k/àgbà [430]; Wan wèjj [427]; Beng yidä [431]; Kpeen kpàjgbà [430]; Kpan fifi [434]; Dzuun kpeyngbe [430], fínfín

[434]; Duun fifi [434]; Banka fina [434]; Jo kpâriygâ [430]; Bobo kpàngbà [430]; Bozo-J somo [432]; Bozo-K hàmú [432]; Bozo-T xomo [432]; Soninke duupi / dúúpé [433]; Mau kààngbà [430] ,^úú [432]; Jula-K kámngbá [430], púmúgú [432]; Dafing pàmï [432]; Bamana nkámngá [430], pími [432]; Maninka kámngbá [430], pími [432]; Xasonka xàranxa [430], pámi [432]; Mandinka kàranka [430], dùpa [433]; Koranko kàrangba [430], penke [432]; Lele kúingbá [430], pànka [432]; Mogofin kàränbá [430], pàngá [432]; Kakabe kàran [430], pànga [432]; Kono pànga [432]; Vai pàà [432]; Soso karangbe [430]; Jalonke gàràhgá [430]; Jogo wú/ú [427]; Jeri Mrnngba [430]; Numu wù/ù [427]; Mende kárángbá [430]; Bandi kn^á [430], nènï [432]; Looma ka/aßa [430]; Kpelle-L yäü [427]; Kpelle-G yow [427], ke/aa, ka/aa [430]; Bokobaru gáí [427]; Boko gáí [427]; Busa sàa [42S]; Lebir síjjír \singírí\ [429]; San koronkien [430]; Kyenga si/i [42S]; Shanga sé [42S].

man: Dan-G goo [435]; Dan-B goo [435]; Dan-K go [435]; Tura goo_ [435]; Mano go [435]; Guro gone

[435]; Yaure kw/o-mo [435]; Gban kô [435]; Mwan gw/í [435]; Wan ko-lé [435]; Beng gojj [435]; Kpeen pîïy [440]; Kpan kpii [440]; Dzuun kpírí [440]; Duun kwii [440]; Seenku sùrù [435]; Banka kpi/a, kpiri [440]; Jo sùrù [435]; Bobo sïn [435]; Bozo-J kaygu [43S]; Bozo-K há/ú (?) [43S]; Bozo-T xa/u (?) [43S];

Soninke yúgó [439]; Mau ce [438]; Jula-K ce [438]; Dafing cié [438]; Bamana ce [438]; Maninka ke, ce [438]; Xasonka xé [438]; Mandinka kée [438]; Koranko ké [438]; Lele cé-moo [438]; Mogofin káyi [438]; Kakabe káyi [438]; Kono kái [438]; Vai kái [438]; Soso xámée, xeme [438]; Jalonke qémé [438]; Jogo ciní [435]; Jeri kini [435]; Numu kyini [435]; Mende híná [435]; Loko hie [435]; Bandi sina [435]; Looma zina [435]; Kpelle-L süroj, pl. sínáa [435]; Kpelle-G hílé-nü [435]; Bokobaru ggé> [435]; Boko go [435]; Busa gg [435]; Lebir sá [436]; San gii [435]; Kyenga niggni [435]; Shanga ezaa [437].

many: Dan-G suma [453], gbe [464]; Dan-B plÁAzR [452]; Dan-K plÁÁ [452]; Tura béé [451]; Mano kogbüoze [1007]; Guro dí (?) [450]; Yaure kägä [448]; Gban n5ü [446], gbOü [447]; Mwan sréé [444], büü [445], gbOgbO [447], bébé [449]; Wan bébé [449], ti [450]; Beng bléjj [443], té [450]; Kpan gi [473]; Dzuun giri [473]; Duun jeje [472], giru-ma [473]; Seenku mümá, mümmá [471], gürü [473], bügü [474]; Jo mwddnná [471]; Bobo fíngíní [463], mü [471], pán [472], bügü [474]; Bozo-J kusa [469]; Bozo-K kópá [470]; Bozo-T kuse [469], ko [470]; Soninke gábé [468]; Mau syáá [465]; Jula-K syá [465]; Bamana cá, cá [465]; Maninka siya [465]; Xasonka sá, síya [465], kíika (?) [466]; Mandinka siyaa [465]; Koranko siya [465]; Lele siya [465]; Mogofin siyaa [465]; Kakabe siya-man [465]; Kono kékó, kókó [466]; Vai kúúj [467]; Soso gbegbe [464]; Jogo féépámá [463]; Jeri fié-né [463]; Numu fééné [463]; Bandi kpihi [462]; Looma támaa(g) [461]; Kpelle-L támaa [461]; Kpelle-G táma [461]; Bokobaru pári [441]; Boko dási [442], bilá [454]; Busa dási [442], bitá [454]; Lebir gota [455], nwíí ~ wii [456]; San damatan [457], didi [458], gigia [459]; Kyenga gbá [460]; Shanga dáákí [442].

meat: Dan-G ww [477]; Dan-B ww [477]; Dan-K wü [477]; Tura wíí [477]; Mano wíí [477]; Guro wí [477]; Yaure wi [477]; Gban wé [477]; Mwan wí [477]; Wan wí [477]; Beng söJJ [478]; Kpeen so [478]; Kpan so [478]; Dzuun sú [478]; Duun swo [478]; Seenku keká [480]; Banka soa [478]; Jo see [478]; Bobo kíká, kiUgä, kiegé [480]; Bozo-J teu [479]; Bozo-K túgú [479]; Bozo-T teu [479]; Soninke tiyé, ciye [479]; Mau soo [478]; Jula-K sogó [478]; Dafing swó [478]; Bamana sogó [478]; Maninka sobó [478]; Xasonka sübu [478]; Mandinka sübu [478]; Koranko sogo, soo [478]; Lele soo [478]; Mogofin sowo [478]; Kakabe sobo [478]; Kono süi [478]; Vai süe [478]; Soso sube [478]; Jalonke sübé [478]; Jogo síé [478]; Jeri síbe [478]; Numu síe [478]; Mende hüáj, hüá [478]; Loko hoá [478]; Bandi süwá [478]; Looma suwa [478]; Kpelle-L süä [478]; Kpelle-G hyuo [478]; Bokobaru nébg [475]; Boko nébg -ndg [475]; Busa nébg [475]; Lebir sim \sini\ [476]; San sii [476]; Kyenga wemg [477]; Shanga sgg [478].

moon: Dan-G sü [482]; Dan-B sú [482]; Dan-K sü [482]; Tura mée [481]; Mano mene, mle [481]; Guro mgne [481]; Gban me [481]; Mwan mlee [481]; Wan bgléj [481]; Beng mg [481]; Kpeen kébe [488]; Kpan xug [487]; Dzuun kúú [487]; Duun ko'o [487]; Seenku ke ? [483]; Banka kogwa (?), koko (?) [487]; Jo pe (?) [483]; Bobo yü [486]; Bozo-J keu [483]; Bozo-K háyó [483]; Bozo-T xay [483]; Soninke xasu / xásó [483]; Mau káa [483]; Jula-K kári [483]; Dafing káru [483]; Bamana kálo [483]; Maninka káro [483]; Xasonka xáru [483]; Mandinka kári [483]; Koranko kári [483]; Lele kári, káyi [483]; Mogofin káré [483]; Kakabe káru [483]; Kono káo [483]; Vai ka ó [483]; Soso kike, kige [485]; Jalonke kííké [485]; Jogo kái [483]; Jeri káyi [483]; Numu kánkánsi ("sky charcoal") [484]; Mende ngálú [483]; Loko ngáú [483]; Bandi ngálü(j) [483]; Looma yáló(g) [483]; Kpelle-L yáloj [483]; Kpelle-G panij [483]; Bokobaru mgg> [481]; Boko mg [481]; Busa mg [481]; Lebir moni [481]; San mui [481]; Kyenga mg [481]; Shanga mgg [481].

mountain: Dan-G tg [497]; Dan-B tg [497]; Dan-K tg [497]; Tura tgg [497]; Mano tgg [497]; Guro gg [498]; Yaure pg [499]; Gban kpi [489]; Mwan ggg [498]; Wan géujj [498]; Beng déjj (?) [496]; Kpeen fálá

[502]; Kpan je [492]; Dzuun jén [492]; Duun zeni [492]; Seenku dyüun [492], túnngé [497]; Banka gena [492]; Jo tgy [497]; Bobo toló [497]; Bozo-J sire-kutu [501]; Bozo-K koro-sie (?) [493], koro-sie (?) [501]; Bozo-T sere [501]; Soninke gidi/e [492], segenda [500]; Mau küü [493], tinij [496]; Jula-K kürú [493]; Dafing kúrú [493], kujwíi [495]; Bamana külú [493]; Maninka kürú [493], Jönke [494]; Xasonka küru [493]; Mandinka konko-baa [494]; Koranko kdnka [494]; Lele kónga [494]; Mogofin kunkö [494]; Kakabe kunke [494]; Kono kdnga [494]; Vai kdjc> [494]; Soso géyáá [492]; Jalonke géjáá [492], kóli [493]; Jogo kélé [493]; Jeri tíri, türu [496]; Numu kólé [493]; Mende ngiyé [492]; Loko ngihe [492]; Bandi ngéhé, ngéhé(j) [492]; Looma gizi(g), gizi [492]; Kpelle-L yée [492]; Kpelle-G yé [492]; Bokobaru kpiii [489], gbe-sisi [490]; Boko gbé-sisi [490]; Busa kpi [489]; Lebir kyí [489]; San kele [489]; Kyenga kása [491]; Shanga kásá [491].

mouth: Dan-G di [503]; Dan-B di [503]; Dan-K lí [503]; Tura de [503]; Mano lé [503]; Guro léé

[503]; Yaure le-bo [503]; Gban lü [503]; Mwan líí [503]; Wan lä-gä [503]; Beng yé [503]; Kpeen digi [503]; Kpan dii [503]; Dzuun áii, áú [503]; Duun ja'a [504]; Seenku áo [503]; Banka jiga [503]; Jo tgj [503]; Bobo dö [503]; Bozo-J la [503]; Bozo-K lógó [503]; Bozo-T la [503]; Soninke raxa / mqqé [503]; Mau la [503]; Jula-K dá [503]; Dafing dá [503]; Bamana dá [503]; Maninka dá [503]; Xasonka dá [503]; Mandinka dáa [503]; Koranko dá [503]; Lele dá [503]; Mogofin dá [503]; Kakabe dáa [503]; Kono dá [503]; Vai dá [503]; Soso dée [503]; Jalonke dée [503]; Jogo dáa [503]; Jeri dá [503]; Numu dá [503]; Mende ndá [503];

Loko ndä [503]; Bandi ndä [503]; Looma da, da(g) [503]; Kpelle-L lä [503]; Kpelle-G la [503]; Bokobaru le [503]; Boko le [503]; Busa le [503]; Lebir le (le) [503]; San le [503]; Kyenga le [503]; Shanga le [503].

name: Dan-G to [505]; Dan-B to [505]; Dan-K to [505]; Tura to [505]; Mano to [505]; Guro to [505]; Yaure to [505]; Gban to [505]; Mwan to [505]; Wan to [505]; Beng to [505]; Kpan thuo [505]; Dzuun töo [505]; Duun swooro [505]; Seenku togo [505]; Banka swa'a [505]; Jo to [505]; Bobo togo [505]; Bozo-J tube (?) [505]; Bozo-K toyo [505]; Bozo-T too [505]; Soninke toxi / töxö [505]; Mau too [505]; Jula-K togo [505]; Dafing two [505]; Bamana togo [505]; Maninka too [505]; Xasonka töxo [505]; Mandinka töo [505]; Koranko togo, töo, too

[505]; Lele too [505]; Mogofin toge [505]; Kakabe togo [505]; Kono to [505]; Vai too [505]; Soso xili [507]; Ja-lonke qili [507]; Jogo togo [505]; Jeri togo [505]; Numu togo [505]; Mende ndä [506]; Loko ndää, ndä (?)

[506]; Bandi ndäa-hei(j) [506]; Looma daa-zei(g), da-se(g) [506]; Kpelle-L läa [506]; Kpelle-G la [506]; Bokobaru to [505]; Boko to [505]; Busa to [505]; Lebir to [505]; San to [505]; Kyenga to [505]; Shanga toö [505].

neck: Dan-G bo [511]; Dan-B bo [511]; Dan-K bo [511]; Tura vele [513]; Guro bolo [511]; Yaure blo [511]; Gban we [510], ße [513]; Mwan blo [511]; Wan oli [512]; Beng lö [514]; Kpan vo [511]; Dzuun vu [511]; Duun vo [511]; Seenku gu [516]; Banka vwa [511]; Jo ye [517]; Bobo mögö [519]; Bozo-J bondo [511]; Bozo-K häjo [517]; Bozo-T xan [517]; Soninke xaN / xänne [517]; Mau käj [517]; Jula-K kän [517]; Dafing kä [517]; Bamana kä [517]; Maninka kä [517]; Xasonka xäj [517]; Mandinka käij [517]; Koranko kä [517]; Lele kä [517]; Mogofin kä [517]; Kakabe kän [517]; Kono kä [517]; Vai käj [517]; Soso kon [516]; Jalonke kon [516]; Jogo wurä-ko(n) [516], fölin [518]; Jeri ku [516]; Numu föli [518]; Mende kongä [516]; Loko konga (Koelle) [516]; Bandi kongä(j) [516]; Looma ko(g) [516]; Kpelle-L koj [516]; Kpelle-G koj [516]; Bokobaru wää [508]; Boko wää [508], noe [509]; Busa wäkä [508]; Lebir wer [510]; San bolo [511]; Kyenga loko [514]; Shanga kotoö' [515].

new: Dan-G dee [521]; Dan-B dfw, düiu [521]; Dan-K dee [521]; Tura dee [521]; Mano dee [521]; Guro dele [521]; Yaure tere [521]; Gban döä [521]; Mwan dre [521]; Wan tole [521]; Beng dä-dre [521]; Kpan jei [521]; Dzuun ye, yeu [521], kyeeröj [523]; Duun zeo, zere [521]; Seenku sige [1011]; Banka yie [521]; Jo junäj (?) [522]; Bobo jwun (?) [522]; Bozo-J toi [521]; Bozo-K töri [521]; Bozo-T tori [521]; Soninke kurumbä [524]; Mau kwää [523]; Jula-K kurä [523]; Dafing kurä [523]; Bamana kura [523]; Maninka kuda, kura [523]; Xasonka kuta [523]; Mandinka kuta [523]; Koranko kura [523]; Lele kuya, kura [523]; Mogofin näma [522]; Kakabe näma [522]; Kono näma [522]; Vai nämä [522]; Soso neene [522]; Jalonke neene [522]; Jogo nän [522]; Jeri näj [522]; Numu nän [522]; Mende ninä [522]; Loko nyie [522]; Bandi niina [522]; Looma niine [522]; Kpelle-L ninä [522]; Kpelle-G nine [522]; Bokobaru dufu [520]; Boko dafu, defu [520]; Busa dufu [520]; Lebir dää [521]; San dii [521]; Kyenga dele [521]; Shanga dee [521].

night: Dan-G bi [527], gbej [532]; Dan-B bi [527], gbej [532]; Dan-K gbej [532]; Tura gbei [532]; Mano bie [527]; Guro beli, beyi [532]; Yaure pei-män [532]; Gban tue [530]; Mwan bi [527]; Wan cij [531]; Beng yru [529]; Kpeen feejgö [536]; Kpan fe-ne [536]; Dzuun fen [536]; Duun fe [536]; Seenku gwo [526]; Banka fena

[536]; Jo cii [531]; Bobo wurü [526]; Bozo-J guu [526]; Bozo-K gulu [526]; Bozo-T gulu [526]; Soninke wuru / wurö [526]; Mau su [533]; Jula-K su [533]; Dafing su [533]; Bamana su [533]; Maninka su [533]; Xasonka su [533]; Mandinka suu [533]; Koranko suu [533]; Lele swi [533], pinpi [534]; Mogofin su [533]; Kakabe suu [533]; Kono suu [533], pimbi [534]; Vai lif [535]; Soso koo / kwee [528]; Jalonke kwee [528]; Jogo kurö [528]; Jeri kuroj, kuruj [528]; Numu kurö [528]; Mende kpindi [532]; Loko kpindi [532]; Bandi kpindi [532]; Looma kpidi, kpidij [532]; Kpelle-L kpini [532]; Kpelle-G kwi [528], kpini [532]; Bokobaru gwä [526]; Boko gwä [526]; Busa gwä [526]; Lebir gunu, gyinu [526]; San telo [525]; Kyenga gäoni [526]; Shanga gu si [526].

nose: Dan-G yü [537]; Dan-B yü [537]; Dan-K yu [537]; Tura yüu [537]; Mano yü [537]; Guro ye [537]; Yaure ye-bo [537]; Gban y/ [537]; Mwan yi [537]; Wan ye [537]; Beng yie [537]; Kpeen kuwö [538]; Kpan xo [538]; Dzuun xon [538]; Duun xwo-di'i [538]; Seenku bunu (?) [537]; Banka xwaj [538]; Jopen-tä [538]; Bobo bin

[537]; Bozo-J muu [537]; Bozo-K munu [537]; Bozo-T muun [537]; Soninke nuxuN / nuxunne [537]; Mau nuy [537]; Jula-K nun [537]; Dafing nuu [537]; Bamana nu [537]; Maninka nu [537]; Xasonka nuj [537]; Mandinka nuj [537]; Koranko su [537]; Lele su [537]; Mogofin su [537]; Kakabe sun [537]; Kono su [537]; Vai süj [537]; Sosopoo, pwee [537]; Jalonkepwee [537]; Jogo su [537]; Jeri suj-gbälä [537]; Numu sün [537]; Mende hökpä [537]; Loko hökpä [537]; Bandi sökpä [537]; Looma sokpa [537]; Kpelle-L sua [537]; Kpelle-G hugo [537]; Bokobaru yi [537]; Boko ni [537]; Busa yi [537]; Lebir mii [537]; San pin [537]; Kyenga yi [537]; Shanga ii [537].

not: Guro lo [539]; Mwan la [539]; Wan o' [539]; Kpan na [547]; Dzuun ma, maa [543], fä [546]; Duun na [547]; Banka ma [543]; Jo ki [1000]; Bobo mä [543]; Bozo-T te [542]; Soninke ntä (imperfectif)

[542], mä (perfective) [543], fe (negative copula) [546]; Mau te [542], ma, ma [543]; Jula-K ti [542], mä

[543]; Dafing ti [542], mä [543]; Bamana te, te [542], mä [543]; Maninka te [542], mä [543]; Xasonka nte [542], mee [543]; Mandinka te [542], mäj [543]; Koranko sä [541], te [542], mä [543]; Lele sä [541], te [542], mä [543]; Mogofin mä [543], bele [544]; Kakabe mä [543], bele [544]; Kono mä [543], ni [545]; Vai mä [543], bee [544]; Soso mu [541]; Jalonke mun [541]; Jogo ro [539]; Jeri te, nde [542]; Lebir bi [540].

one: Dan-G do [548]; Dan-B do [548]; Dan-K do [548]; Tura dó [548]; Mano doó [548]; Guro dv [548]; Yaure tv ~ tu ~ tv [548]; Gban dó [548]; Mwan do [548]; Wan do [548]; Beng do [548]; Kpeen séélé [554]; Kpan sooi [554]; Dzuun sóó, son [554]; Duun soe' [554]; Seenku sóén [554]; Banka fie [555]; Jo tay [553]; Bobo télé, tala [553]; Bozo-J sanna [554]; Bozo-K kene [550]; Bozo-T kuon [550], sanna [554]; Soninke báané [552]; Mau kééy [550]; Jula-K kélen [550]; Dafing ce [550]; Bamana kéle [550]; Maninka kéle [550]; Xasonka kíliy [550]; Mandinka kíliy [550]; Koranko kéle [550]; Lele kélen, célen [550]; Mogofin dondo [548]; Kakabe kélen [550]; Kono dondó [548], ncélén [550]; Vai londo [548]; Soso kérén [550]; Jalonke kédéú [550]; Jogo díé(n) [551]; Jeri díe(n) [551]; Numu díén [551]; Mende ngilá [550]; Loko ngérá(y) [550]; Bandi ngilaa(y) [550]; Looma gila(g) [550]; Kpelle-L táay [553]; Kpelle-G tay [553]; Bokobaru do [548]; Boko do [548]; Busa do [548]; Lebir díim [548]; San goon [549]; Kyenga du [548]; Shanga dóó [548].

man, person: Dan-G me' [557]; Dan-B me [557]; Dan-K me [557]; Tura mée [557]; Mano mí [557]; Guro mí [557]; Yaure mi [557]; Gban mu [557]; Mwan mee [557]; Wan mí [557]; Beng sony [559]; Kpeen mwon [557]; Kpan moi [557]; Dzuun mó-díin [557]; Duun mo'edi [557]; Seenku mó [557]; Banka mo'o-wiri [557]; Jo kónáy [561]; Bobo sön [559]; Bozo-J pimi [560]; Bozo-Kpíní [560]; Bozo-T muo [557]; Soninke sere [559]; Mau mod [557]; Jula-K mogo [557]; Dafing mo [557]; Bamana mogo, [557]; Maninka moo [557]; Xasonka móxo [557]; Mandinka móo [557]; Koranko mogo [557]; Lele moo [557]; Mogofin moge [557]; Kakabe mogo [557]; Kono mo [557]; Vai mo [557]; Soso mixí [557]; Jalonke meeqe [557]; Jogo mógó [557]; Jeri mügú [557]; Numu mogó [557]; Mende nú [558]; Loko nú [558]; Bandi nu [558]; Looma nu [558]; Kpelle-L núú [558]; Kpelle-G nuu [558]; Bokobaru gbe [556]; Boko gbe [556]; Busa gbe [556]; Lebir gwáá [556]; San min [557]; Kyenga guce [556]; Shanga gwee [556].

rain: Dan-G da [562]; Dan-B da [562]; Dan-K la [562]; Tura <dá [562]; Mano le-yí [564]; Guro lee

[564]; Yaure laá [562]; Gban gwle [563]; Mwan lä [562]; Wan cí, cíy [567]; Beng lä [562]; Kpeen yára jí ("God's water") [571]; Kpan yaa [571]; Dzuun yáá [571]; Duun maykara-di [571]; Seenku son [568]; Banka yga [571]; Jo kiriy [567]; Bobo würó ('sky, rain') [570]; Bozo-J kwa [568]; Bozo-K habá [569]; Bozo-T xoin-ji [568]; Soninke kaN / kammé, kanji [568]; Mau say [568]; Jula-K sán, sájyé [568]; Dafing sa [568]; Bamana sán [568]; Maninka sán [568]; Xasonka sán-jii [568]; Mandinka sán-ji [568]; Koranko séékí [568]; Lele sányi [568]; Mogofin sángei [568]; Kakabe sángi [568]; Kono sóna [565]; Vai sóná

[565]; Soso tünéé [565]; Jalonke tünéé [565]; Jogo cíí [567]; Jeri kí, kíi, cí, cíi [567]; Numu kyí [567]; Mende njä ('water; rain') [831]; Loko nja ('water; rain') [831]; Bandi njeí ('water; rain') [831]; Looma tíne, tune [565]; Kpelle-L tinä, tünä [565]; Kpelle-G tulo [565]; Bokobaru lóu [564]; Boko leu [564]; Busa légu [564]; Lebir lá [562]; San lá [562]; Kyenga lá [562]; Shanga la [562].

red: Dan-G zmde [573]; Dan-B nü¿e¿ezÁ [574]; Dan-K tá [572]; Tura tee [572]; Mano zóló [573]; Guro soo [573]; Yaure te-de [572]; Gban gbá-táá [572]; Mwan te [572]; Wan te [572]; Beng tee [572]; Kpeen kéé [584]; Kpan xeey [584]; Dzuun xéó [584]; Duun xio-ma [584]; Seenku sén [572]; Banka xie [584]; Jo kile

[584]; Bobo penen, pene [583]; Bozo-J tomo [582]; Bozo-K toyo [582]; Bozo-T toomo [582]; Soninke dümbé [581]; Mau ywéy [579]; Jula-K wülén [579]; Dafing wle, lwe [579]; Bamana bile [579]; Maninka wüle [579]; Xasonka wüle [579]; Mandinka wüle(y) [579]; Koranko wüle [579]; Lele wülen [579]; Mogofin wüle [579]; Kakabe wúlen [579]; Kono yawa, yaa [580]; Vai jaá [580]; Soso gbeli [577]; Jalonke gwéélí [577]; Jogo taná [572]; Jeri tana [572]; Numu teraman [572]; Mende kpolú [577]; Loko kpoü [577]; Bandi kpéá(y) [577]; Looma kpóei, kpoye(g) [577]; Kpelle-L kpolü [577]; Kpelle-G kpolu [577]; Bokobaru te-aá [572]; Boko teee [572]; Busa tee [572]; Lebir bvmbweenda [575], ywáada [576]; San ta [572]; Kyenga te [572]; Shanga cé [572].

road: Dan-G zia [585]; Dan-B zía [585]; Dan-K ziay [585]; Tura záa [585]; Mano zí [585]; Guro zí

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[585]; Yaure si [585]; Gban di [585]; Mwan zí [585]; Wan zí [585]; Beng zre [585]; Kpeen sé [585]; Kpan se [585]; Dzuun shí [585]; Duun sira-na [585]; Banka sia [585]; Jo sáá [585]; Bobo sógo [587]; Bozo-J se [587]; Bozo-K kiyo [585]; Bozo-T syen [587]; Soninke killi / killé [585]; Mau syáá [585]; Jula-K síra [585]; Dafing sira [585]; Bamana síra [585]; Maninka síla [585]; Xasonka síla [585]; Mandinka síla [585]; Koranko kéla, kíla [585]; Lele kíla [585]; Mogofin kíla [585]; Kakabe kila [585]; Kono cía [585]; Vai kía [585]; Soso kiráa [585]; Jalonke kiráá [585]; Jogo cíli [585]; Jeri kíli/o, kúlu/o [585]; Numu kílí [585]; Mende pélé [586]; Loko pélé [586]; Bandi pélé [586]; Looma pele [586]; Kpelle-L péré [586]; Kpelle-G pélé [586]; Bokobaru ze [585]; Boko ze [585]; Busa ze [585]; Lebir zaá, záa [585]; San zii [585]; Kyenga zele [585]; Shanga zee [585].

root: Dan-G yü [592]; Dan-B yü [592]; Dan-K mü [592], wu (?) [593]; Tura sil [596]; Mano gáná [589]; Guro sü-ní [596]; Yaure sei [596]; Gban sá [592]; Mwan se-ne ~ se-ne [596]; Wan sení [596]; Beng níy (?) [596]; Kpeen goo-gíi [596]; Kpan yii [596]; Dzuun jíí [596]; Duun gii [596]; Banka ji-ra [596]; Jo kay, kana (?) [594]; Bobo sülü [596]; Bozo-J sando (?) [592]; Bozo-K díri [596]; Bozo-T sii [596]; Soninke piime [597]; Mau dííy [596]; Jula-K lílín [596]; Dafing lwiilwii [596]; Bamana díli [596]; Maninka líli [596]; Xasonka lílli [596]; Mandinka súlu [596]; Koranko súlu [596]; Lele súlu [596]; Mogofin líli

[596]; Kakabe liili [596]; Kono suu [596]; Vai suu [596]; Soso sanke (?) [592]; Jalonke fànsâ [595]; Jogo кип [594]; Jeri noy [594]; Numu kun [594]; Mende hàpé [592]; Loko hâpè [592]; Bandi sàpè [592]; Looma sape [592], pata [593]; Kpelle-L sâmë [592]; Kpelle-G hamu [592]; Bokobaru kasaa [588]; Boko zinâ [596]; Busa zini [596]; Lebir gomasi [590]; San goon [590]; Kyenga misa [591]; Shanga kaàsî [588].

round: Dan-G dffdff [599]; Dan-B dfîdhû, dffdf [599], klooklo [602]; Dan-K gliliMgltà [602]; Tura gînîye [602]; Mano kélékèlè [602]; Guro lîlï [599], këlèè [602]; Yaure kUlU-gùlU [602]; Gban îilè [599], gûù, gbûù [602]; Mwan trüü [599]; Wan glùù [602]; Beng klîlî [602]; Kpan xoori-ma [608]; Dzuun kôôrô ('round oil') [608]; Duun kusiroma [610]; Banka xworo-ma [608]; Jo kùùlîmàà [608]; Bozo-J gume [609]; Bozo-K kori [608]; Bozo-T koorina [608]; Soninke buudi [601]; Bamana kùlukùtù [602]; Maninka tindan [605]; Xasonka godongoda [604], durunderendiy [607]; Mandinka muruu, muruy [606]; Koranko tintan-ni [605]; Lele latindeen [605]; Mogofin râdîgirindén [599]; Kono tindan-den [605]; Soso digilin [599], gundu [604]; Jogo kùlùkùlù [602]; Jeri kôrôndô, kôrôrô [603]; Numu kùrùkùrùâ [602]; Mende kélékélé [602]; Bandi kèléyélé [602]; Looma kéléYélé(g) [602]; Kpelle-L kérékéré [602]; Kpelle-G tüliyiliij [602]; Bokobaru botogo [598]; Boko boolo [598]; Busa bunduru [598], bukutu [601]; San luurii [599]; Kyenga lokoto [600]; Shanga lôkôci [600].

sand: Dan-G yé'é [613]; Dan-B улу, yÂy [613]; Dan-K yéé [613]; Tura kéé [613]; Mano yéé-sélé [613]; Guro yéné [613]; Yaure yéré [613]; Gban yé [613]; Mwan yré [613]; Wan wéy [613]; Beng pùn-montré (?) [614]; Kpeen sisipé [613]; Kpan sésé [613]; Dzuun céncén [613]; Duun sis-di [613]; Seenku kyipë [613]; Banka cécé [613]; Jo pénîy [613]; Bobo yégé, bàn-yégë, bàmà-yégë [613]; Bozo-J syé [616]; Bozo-K to

[618]; Bozo-T xamu [617]; Soninke sèyiyè, saye [616]; Mau cé [613]; Jula-K kéngén [613]; Dafing cié [613]; Bamana cé, cécé [613]; Maninka kîpé, tîpé, cîpé [613]; Xasonka kèpe [613]; Mandinka kèpe, kèpekepe [613]; Koranko cèncén, kènkén [613]; Lele cèeka, kèeka (?) [613]; Mogofin mépépé [613]; Kakabe kèpéképé [613]; Kono tèku [615]; Vai képé [613]; Soso méyépi, méépi [613]; Jalonke qépé [613]; Jogo pàgân [613]; Jeri kpé, kpéé, kpèy [613]; Numupîngân [613]; Mendepàpâ [613]; Lokopéà [613]; Bandi yîyé [613]; Looma yâaza(g), pâaYèè(g) [613]; Kpelle-L îjëyà [613]; Kpelle-G yeia [613]; Bokobaru bùsù-Yaaté [611]; Boko Yufaa [612]; Busa bùsù-Yâté [611]; Lebirpintâa [613]; Sanpoo-so [614]; Kyenga Yaaté-fu [611]; Shanga iyaa [613].

say: Dan-G pf [619]; Dan-B pf [619]; Dan-K pi [619]; Tura pé [619]; Mano gèë [620]; Guro fë [619]; Yaure vi (?) [619], tî [630]; Gban ké [620]; Mwan pë / pé [619]; Wan pé [619]; Beng pë [619]; Kpeen dè [623]; Kpan zee-ma [623]; Dzuun dè [623]; Duun ze [623]; Seenku dyù [623]; Banka je [623]; Jo bî (?)

[619], tu (?) [628]; Bobo dé [623], yirà [632]; Bozo-J se [631]; Bozo-K si [631]; Bozo-T se [631]; Soninke tî'/ tiini [630]; Mau fo [619]; Jula-Kfo,fWo [619]; Dafingfo [619]; Bamanafo [619]; Maninka fo [619]; Xasonka fô [619]; Mandinka fô [619]; Koranko fo [619]; Lele fo [619]; Mogofin fo [619]; Kakabe fo [619]; Kono fo [619]; Vai fo [619]; Soso fala [629], tîi [630]; Jalonke fàlâ [629]; Jogo ré [623]; Jeri togo [628], té [630]; Numu toko [628]; Mende ndé [623], yé [624]; Loko ké [625]; Bandi ndè [623], ké [625]; Looma ké [625], bo(g) [626]; Kpelle-L yéé [624], ké [625], dô [626], yépé [627]; Kpelle-G ké [625], do [626], hvaa [629]; Bokobaru be [621]; Boko mé [622]; Busa pi [619]; Lebir pi... m [619]; San pé [619]; Shanga hi [619].

see: Dan-G yf [633]; Dan-B yf [633]; Dan-K yé [633]; Tura yé [633]; Mano gé [634]; Guro yë [633]; Yaure yi [633]; Gban yè [633]; Mwan ye / yé [633]; Wan é [633]; Beng yè [633]; Kpeen jé [633]; Kpan jaa-ma [633]; Dzuun jââ [633]; Duun si [639]; Seenku dyô [633]; Banka ja [633]; Jo jà [633]; Bobo zà [633]; Bozo-J kai [637]; Bozo-K hé [637]; Bozo-T xay [637]; Soninke yingi / -ni (?) [633], wàri [635]; Mau yé [633]; Jula-K yé [633]; Dafing yè [633]; Bamana yé [633]; Maninka ye', yé [633]; Xasonka jé [633]; Mandinka jé [633]; Koranko ye [633]; Lele yén [633]; Mogofin ye [633]; Kakabe yén [633]; Kono ye [633]; Vai fé'é [638]; Soso tô [636]; Jalonke tôô [636]; Jogo ji [633]; Jeri ji [633]; Mende to [636]; Loko to [636]; Bandi to [636]; Looma ka [637]; Kpelle-L kâa [637]; Kpelle-G ka [637]; Bokobaru Ye [633]; Boko Ye [633]; Busa Ye [633]; Lebir yi [633]; San yé [633]; Kyenga wa [635]; Shanga wa [635].

seed: Dan-G ga [649]; Dan-B ga [649]; Dan-K gà [649]; Tura wéé [645]; Mano wélé [645], sii [648]; Guro wélé [645]; Yaure wélé: [645]; Gban wlï, wli [645]; Mwan dé [643]; Wan oy [645]; Beng wlé [645]; Kpan gee-zii [647]; Dzuun gè-diin [647]; Duun di ("child") [647]; Seenku de [647]; Banka di-na [647]; Jo dây [642]; Bobo tègo [651]; Bozo-J suuro [644], si [648]; Bozo-T soori [644]; Soninke sôxôodé [644]; Mau si [648]; Jula-K si [648], kîsé [650]; Dafing sî [648], césé [650]; Bamana si [648], kîsé [650]; Maninka si [648], kîsé [650]; Xasonka si [648], kèse [650]; Mandinka kèse [650]; Koranko kôlo [645]; Lele su [644], kôlo [645]; Mogofin kolo [645]; Kakabe sugu [644]; Kono kuu [645]; Vai suu [644]; Soso san-si [648]; Jalonke sàn-siî [648]; Jogo sugu [644], dé ("child") [647]; Jeri di ("child") [647], si [648]; Mende huwu [644]; Loko kâé, kââi [646]; Bandi sùuwù [644]; Looma suwu [644]; Kpelle-L kayà (?) [646]; Kpelle-G huYu [644]; Bokobaru po [640]; Boko po [640]; Busa po [640]; Lebir yàâ [641]; San nàn [642]; Kyenga bèe [643]; Shanga bùi [643].

sit: Dan-G ya [655]; Dan-B y a [655]; Dan-K yâ [655]; Tura yàà [655]; Mano yà [655]; Guro ya-nâ [655]; Yaure yâ-nâ [655]; Gban yé [655]; Mwan yà-là [655]; Wan yâ [655]; Beng yrä [655]; Kpeen tôgô [656]; Kpan

tuu-ma [656]; Dzuun tüü [656]; Duun too [656]; Seenku tügü, tugo / tügü [656]; Banka tugu [656]; Jo sóó [656]; Bobo tanga [656]; Bozo-J pó [657]; Bozo-K fóyó [657]; Bozo-T pay [657]; Soninke taaxu [656]; Mau sii [654]; Jula-K sigí [654]; Dafing sí [654]; Bamana sigí [654]; Maninka sii [654]; Xasonka sigi [654]; Mandinka sii [654]; Koranko sigi, sii [654]; Lele sii [654]; Mogofin sigí [654]; Kakabe sigi [654]; Kono sii [654]; Vai sií [654]; Soso dóxó [656]; Jalonke déqó [656]; Jogo yägä [655]; Jeri saga (?) [654]; Numu yákó [655]; Mende héí [654]; Loko héí(y) [654]; Bandi séi [654]; Looma sei [654]; Kpelle-L see [654]; Kpelle-G he [654]; Bokobaru veé [653]; Boko zólé [652]; Busa vuté [653]; Lebirpintá [652]; San gia-tán [652]; Kyenga yaté [652]; Shanga zutee [652].

skin: Dan-G kwí [658]; Dan-B kwí [658]; Dan-K kpí [658]; Tura kwíi [658]; Mano kíí [658]; Guro kólé [658]; Yaure kéle [658]; Gban loe [659]; Mwan flé [660]; Wan klé [658]; Beng cí [658]; Kpeen ferúy [660]; Kpan su [664]; Dzuun tün [664]; Duun tunó [664]; Seenku tun [664]; Banka tuna [664]; Jo pólí [660]; Bobo kon [658]; Bozo-J koro [658]; Bozo-K koroyó [658]; Bozo-T koron [658]; Soninke fätS [663]; Mau gboo [658]; Jula-K gboló [658]; Dafing góo [658]; Bamana goló, woló [658]; Maninka gboló [658]; Xasonka gülu [658]; Mandinka külu [658]; Koranko gbólo [658]; Lele kpolé [658]; Mogofin bole [658]; Kakabe gbólo [658]; Kono gboo [658]; Vai kpoó [658]; Soso kíri [658]; Jalonke kíri [658]; Jogo kporó [658]; Jeri kpüru [658]; Numu kporo [658]; Mende kdló [658]; Loko kó [658]; Bandi kdló(y) [658]; Looma kóló [658]; Kpelle-L kóló [658]; Kpelle-G kóló [658]; Bokobaru báá [662]; Boko báá [662]; Busa bárá [662]; Lebir kyí [658]; San ki [658]; Kyenga se [661]; Shanga seé [661].

sleep: Dan-G yí [665]; Dan-B yí [665]; Dan-K yí [665]; Tura yí [665]; Mano yí, yí [665]; Guro yí [665]; Yaure yi [665]; Gban yi [665]; Mwan yí [665]; Wan yí [665]; Beng yí [665]; Kpan sii-ma [665]; Dzuun cii [665]; Duun caara [665]; Seenku kyiré [665]; Banka xie [665]; Jopini [665]; Bobopi [665]; Bozo-J kumu [666]; Bozo-K komú [666]; Bozo-T kyemu [666]; Soninke xen-qo [665]; Mau sunóó [665]; Jula-K sindógó [665]; Dafing so [665]; Bamana sü-nógó [665]; Maninka sü-nóó, si-nóó [665]; Xasonka sinnoxo [665]; Mandinka siinoo [665]; Koranko kinoo, kindóge [665]; Lele kinóó [665]; Mogofin kündógó, kindógó [665]; Kakabe kinógó [665]; Kono cinó, ci [665]; Vai ki [665]; Soso xi [665]; Jalonke qií [665]; Jogopi-sá [665]; Jeri yin-bä [665]; Numu pí-sá [665]; Mende njii [665]; Loko njíí [665]; Bandi pii [665]; Looma píi [665]; Kpelle-L píí [665]; Kpelle-G yi [665]; Bokobaru ií [665]; Boko yi [665]; Busa yi [665]; Lebirpín-tiim [665]; Sanpuu [665]; Kyenga yi [665]; Shanga i [665].

small: Dan-G see-nÁ [673]; Dan-B séé, séí [673]; Dan-K see-né [673]; Tura píí-ne [667]; Mano péétí [667]; Guro fñnéé [667], cené: (?) [688]; Gban zlóó [669], kpä [670]; Mwan féétró [667]; Wan wléy [671], kpléy [672]; Beng kló [681]; Kpeen fúwé [668]; Kpan thyaani [688]; Dzuun myéyn [675], dyen [687], kmäänin [688]; Duun mii (?) [675], deuma [687], kuumei [689]; Seenku müeen [675]; Banka niiri [685], kpekpe'eni [686]; Jo pyää [667]; Bobo lóró [683], séláló [684]; Bozo-J duo [682]; Bozo-K lóyó [682]; Bozo-T mupón [675], lón [682]; Soninke roxé [682]; Mau mése [675], lóó [682]; Jula-Kfítínín [667], mesen [675], dógó [682], ncíní [688]; Dafing méséi [675]; Bamanafíti-ni [667], misé; [675], déó [682]; Maninka misé; [675], dóó [682]; Xasonka mése [675], dóxo [682]; Mandinka mésey [675], dóoyariy [682]; Koranko mense [675], dóo, dógó [682]; Lele mese [675], dóó [682]; Mogofin mése [675]; Kakabe dógó [682]; Kono dóó [682]; Vai mésémésé [675], dóó [682]; Soso xurun [681]; Jalonke qúúrún [681]; Jogo fyáán [667], dógó) [682]; Jeri dögä [682], diri [683]; Numu fiää [667], déré [683]; Mende kúlo [681]; Loko kolo(y) [681]; Bandi külo [681]; Looma pene, pelevele(g), pene(g) [667], kolo [681]; Kpelle-L péle [667], kólo [681]; Kpelle-G pele [667], kolo [681]; Bokobaru fété [667], néngó [674]; Boko fénéná [667], néná [674]; Busa fítí [667]; Lebir poóré, pwééré [667], mi [675]; San bisin [676], boeene [677], boro [678]; Kyenga ziu [679]; Shanga mégóní [680].

smoke: Dan-G péy-tee [692]; Dan-B sír-tÁÁ [692], síó (?) [693]; Dan-K se-gbe [691]; Tura gbee [691]; Mano gbeí [691]; Guro cé-gweí, góí [691]; Yaure té-kweí [691]; Gban gimí [691]; Mwan te-gblee [691]; Wan gbciní [691]; Beng gbíá [691]; Kpan sa-tui [694]; Dzuun sä-Mm [694]; Duun sa-tu'u [694]; Banka sa-sula [694]; Jo cíkili [696]; Bobo tiörö [694]; Bozo-J titi [694]; Bozo-K sisí (< Bamana?) [-2]; Bozo-T piran [695]; Soninke tiidi / tiidé [694]; Mau sisi [693]; Jula-K sisí [693]; Dafing sísí [693]; Bamana sisí [693]; Maninka sisí [693]; Xasonka siisi [693]; Mandinka siisíi [693]; Koranko sisi [693]; Lele sisi [693]; Mogofin sísei [693]; Kakabe siisi [693]; Kono sisi [693]; Vai sisí [693]; Soso turi [694]; Jalonke tüqütí [694]; Jogo sisí [693]; Jeri sigí, sigu, sügu [693]; Numu sisí [693]; Mende ndülú [694]; Loko ndüri [694]; Bandi ndüli [694]; Looma duulu, duwulu [694]; Kpelle-L lürí [694]; Kpelle-G lulu [694]; Bokobaru té-súkpe [690]; Boko súéle [690]; Busa té-súkpe [690]; Lebir sínga [693]; San te-maa [690]; Kyenga tékpésé [690]; Shanga tesóngi [690].

stand: Dan-G dó [702]; Dan-B dó [702]; Dan-K dó [702]; Tura dó [702]; Mano dó [702]; Guro dó [702]; Yaure tó [702]; Gban dó [702]; Mwan dó [702]; Wan di-nä [703]; Beng dó [702]; Seenku tigi [1012]; Bobo tä [702]; Bozo-J täá [702]; Bozo-T táä [702], síi, Jai [704]; Soninke sigi / sikki [704]; Mau ló [702]; Jula-K ló, lwó [702]; Dafing lóó [702]; Bamana jó [702]; Maninka ló [702]; Xasonka lo [702]; Mandinka loo [702]; Koranko só, so [702]; Lele só [702]; Mogofin só [702]; Kakabe ló [702]; Kono só [702]; Vai só [702]; Soso ti [1012]; Jalonke tií

[1012]; Jogo yí(n) [699], jo(n) [702]; Jeri so [702]; Numu yéy /yéné [699], do / doré [702]; Mende tó [702]; Loko to(y) [702]; Bandi to, to(y) [702]; Looma to(g) [702]; Kpelle-L too [702]; Kpelle-G to [702]; Bokobaru zé [697]; Boko zé [697]; Busa zé [697]; Lebir gyím \gini\ [698]; San yoo [699]; Kyenga kpété [700]; Shanga goo [701]. star: Dan-G süséy [705]; Dan-B súsoy [705]; Dan-K fry ~ fiy [708]; Tura mééé [709]; Mano siéyle

[705]; Guro moné gwénén [709]; Yaure méné céné [709]; Gban nü-yana [707]; Mwan mlé-kléné [709]; Wan péypéy [706]; Beng mon-léy [709]; Kpeen sowa [705]; Kpan soey [705]; Dzuun swéyn [705]; Duun kwoo-dini ("child of moon") [718]; Seenku káallé [718]; Banka sésé-dina [705]; Jo sorniy [705]; Bobo mumúlu [717]; Bozo-J topon [716]; Bozo-K twé [716]; Bozo-T topo [716]; Soninke saana / saané [705]; Mau lolo, lóó-dyéy [715]; Jula-K loló [715]; Dafing lóló [715]; Bamana doló, loló [715]; Maninka loló [715]; Xasonka loolo [715]; Mandinka looloo [715]; Koranko lólo [715]; Lele tanbuyá, tánbura [712]; Mogo-fin lóolo [715]; Kakabe loolo [715]; Kono tonboaká [712]; Vai tóóma (?) [712]; Soso tunbu [712]; Jalonke saré (?) [705]; Jogo tétéykola [714], lolón [715]; Jeri lóló [715]; Numu téténkólá [714]; Mende túnbéka [712]; Loko télégá [712]; Bandi témuleyá [712]; Looma somo deka ("coal of a torch") [1010]; Kpelle-L péméléy-káo

[706]; Kpelle-G peley, pemeney-gow [706]; Bokobaru sésoné [705]; Boko saana [705]; Busa süsüné [705], sura [710]; San leere [711]; Kyenga solo [710]; Shanga sosooní [705].

stone: Dan-G gwé [719]; Dan-B güi [719]; Dan-K güf [719]; Tura gwéé [719]; Mano gélé [719]; Guro golé

[719]; Yaure kolé [719]; Gban gwa [719]; Mwan vlé [719], kpotí [721]; Wan klé [719], kpótí [721]; Beng glé [719]; Kpeen kpéé [719]; Kpan kpai [719]; Dzuun kpáá [719], kóóná [721]; Duun kwcii-ni [719]; Seenku kunun [721]; Banka kpaa-ra [719]; Jo kfo [721]; Bobo díbí [729], dogo [730]; Bozo-J sire [728]; Bozo-K fárá-húrúyo (< Bamana) [727]; Bozo-T sere [728]; Soninke gidi/e [719]; Mau béé [725], káwa [726], fáá [727]; Jula-K béré [725], fárá [727]; Dafing béé [725], kaba [726]; Bamana bélé [725], kába [726], fára [727]; Maninka béré [725], kába [726]; Xasonka bére [725], fata [727]; Mandinka bére [725]; Koranko küru [720]; Lele gbéré [719], küru, küyi

[720]; Mogofin küréi (def.) [720]; Kakabe küru [720]; Kono se [724]; Vai séy [724]; Soso gémé [723]; Jalonke gémé [723]; Jogo kpiín [721]; Jeri küngu [722]; Numu kpiín [721]; Mende kétü [721]; Loko kotü [721]; Bandi kotü, kéti [721]; Looma kwotí, kwotu [721]; Kpelle-L koní [721]; Kpelle-G kwéni [721]; Bokobaru gbé [719]; Boko gbé [719]; Busa gbé [719]; Lebir gyaa, dyaa [719]; San kolo [720]; Kyenga gbélé [719]; Shanga gwéé [719].

sun: Dan-G yéy [732]; Dan-B lay [732]; Dan-K yéé [732]; Tura yaa [732]; Mano yéné, ylé [732]; Guro yílí [732]; Yaure yi-dé [732]; Gban yé-ve, yé-e [732]; Mwan yere-té [732]; Wan yé-té [732]; Beng yí-gbíé [732]; Kpeen bee [740]; Kpan boi [740]; Dzuun bwéy [740]; Duun boi [740]; Seenku son-tá ("sky fire") [737]; Banka bi-ra [740]; Jo súy, sún-ta [737]; Bobo sín ? [736]; Bozo-J kubu [738]; Bozo-K kwo [738]; Bozo-T kuu-jo [738]; Soninke kiyé [739]; Mau téé [735]; Jula-K téré [735]; Dafing tée [735]; Bamana tilé [735]; Maninka télé [735]; Xasonka tili [735]; Mandinka tili [735]; Koranko téle [735]; Lele téle [735]; Mogofin télé [735]; Kakabe téli [735]; Kono tée [735]; Vai téé [735]; Soso soge [736]; Jalonke sógé [736]; Jogo télé [735]; Jeri télé, téli [735]; Numu télé, tálé [735]; Mende fóló [734]; Loko fo [734]; Bandi foló [734]; Looma folo [734]; Kpelle-L fólo [734]; Kpelle-G hvolo [734]; Bokobaru yofaté [731]; Boko yiaté [731]; Busa yifa [731]; Lebir wosó, wüsó [733]; San wasa [733]; Kyenga yoso [733]; Shanga ísoo [733].

swim: Dan-G yí ké ("do water") [741]; Mwan yi-ká ("cut water") [741]; Wan yí ko ("cut water") [741], tíy lo [743]; Beng doy [742]; Kpan nomu [753]; Duun mié-na [753]; Seenku nonna [753]; Banka néné [753]; Jo téri [757]; Bobo pinä [756]; Bozo-J nuu, nii [756]; Bozo-K nuyu [756]; Bozo-T pii [756]; Soninke banbe [755], xini [756]; Jula-K nomí [753]; Bamana néwu, no, no [753]; Maninka néwu, námu, náwu [753]; Xasonka néwu [753]; Mandinka nóy, nóo, néwuy [753]; Koranko bá rá matégé [752]; Lele bá matéé (?) [752]; Mogofin jei masa (< Soso?) [750], fúulé [751]; Kono noé cé [753]; Vai jí biá ("catch water") [754]; Soso ye masa [750]; Jalonke sáfáá [749]; Numu büán kyo ('swimming-do') [748]; Loko ndémbu [745]; Looma dase(g) (?) [744]; Kpelle-L yá yá kélé ("roam through water") [741]; Kpelle-G ya kélé [741]; Bokobaru í kpá [741], dadaá o [744]; Boko kpáa o [741]; Busa í kpá [741]; Lebir dá [744], pí zé [746]; San mu baa [747]; Kyenga yí kpá [741]; Shanga dé-i [744].

tail: Dan-G wey [760]; Dan-B wey, wee [760]; Dan-K wey [760]; Tura wií [760]; Mano wou [760]; Guro woli [760]; Yaure wéi [760]; Gban wí [760]; Mwan wee [760]; Wan wéy [760]; Beng pínáy [762]; Kpan kpla [760]; Dzuun kplá [760]; Duun kura [760]; Seenku kúra, kúrwa [760]; Banka kpla-na [760]; Jo jíy [761]; Bobo pege [762]; Bozo-J pié, pio [762]; Bozo-K hórí [760]; Bozo-T pisé (?) [762]; Soninke xoqqi / xóqqé (?) [760]; Mau kwó [760]; Jula-K kó, kwó [760]; Dafing kwo [760]; Bamana kú [760]; Maninka kó [760]; Xasonka xú [760]; Mandinka fépe [762]; Koranko kú [760], fóé [762]; Lele kéo [760]; Mogofin fépé [762]; Kakabe fépo [762]; Kono féé [762]; Vai fépé [762]; Soso xúlí [760]; Jalonke qúlí [760]; Jogo já(n) [761]; Jeri jáy [761]; Numu gyan [761]; Mende ngólí [760]; Loko ngó [760]; Bandi ngo(y) [760]; Looma yo(g) [760]; Kpelle-L wóy [760]; Kpelle-G woy [760]; Bokobaru vláá [758]; Boko vlá [758]; Busa vlá [758]; Lebir mom \moní\ [759]; San mui [759]; Kyenga mono [759]; Shanga buu [759].

that: Dan-G ßa [764]; Dan-B ßÄ [764]; Tura Ida [765]; Mano eyia [1009]; Guro ße [764]; Mwan ße [764], lääle [765], nü [773]; Kpan nie [773]; Dzuun nii [773]; Duun nudulu [773]; Banka nu-kere [773]; Jo kaa [771]; Bobo yoö [772]; Bozo-J kwo [771]; Bozo-T yo [770], ku [771]; Soninke ken [771]; Mau o [770]; Jula-K wo, o [770]; Dafing wo [770]; Bamana wo, ö [770]; Maninka wo, ö [770]; Xasonka wo [770]; Mandinka wo [770]; Koranko wo [770]; Lele wo [770]; Mogofin wö [770]; Kakabe wo [770]; Kono ce [771]; Vai me [769], ke [771]; Soso na [766]; Jalonke na [766]; Jeri wo [770]; Numu mä [769]; Mende na [766]; Loko na [766]; Bandi na [766]; Looma na [766]; Kpelle-L ti, pi-ti [767]; Kpelle-G ti [767]; Bokobaru keekaa [763]; Boko bee [764]; Busa dire [768]; Lebir bi [764]; San be [764].

this: Dan-G yä, yf [777]; Dan-B ne [778]; Tura e [778]; Mano e kea [780]; Guro kv [780], ße [764]; Mwan lee [778], ge [780]; Wan kä [780]; Beng bi [764]; Kpan nie [778]; Dzuun nii [778]; Duun nu [778]; Seenku lee [778]; Banka fo [781]; Jo kaa [780]; Bobo bee [764]; Bozo-T ku [780]; Soninke kee [780]; Mau muy [779]; Jula-K min [779]; Dafing mi [779]; Bamana nii [778]; Maninka nj,pi[778], me [779]; Xasonka niy,piy, piy [778]; Mandinka piy [778]; Koranko ke, ce [780]; Lele ke, ce [780]; Mogofin ke [780]; Kakabe ke, ce [780]; Kono ce [780]; Vai ke [780]; Soso yi [777]; Jalonke ji [777]; Jeri me [779]; Numu mä [779]; Mende ji [777]; Loko ndi [777]; Bandi si [777]; Looma ni [777]; Kpelle-L pi [777]; Kpelle-G yi [777]; Bokobaru bee [764]; Boko bee [764]; Busa di [775]; Lebir bi [764], nandv [776]; San be [764]; Kyenga di [775]; Shanga idii [775].

thou (you sg.): Dan-G m [783], ßa, ßf [784]; Dan-B m [783], ßa, ßf [784]; Dan-K f [783], ßa [784]; Tura i, ya [783], ßa [784]; Mano i [783], ßa, ßi, bi [784]; Guro i [783], ßi [784]; Yaure i, yia [783]; Gban ee

[783], be [784], ni [786]; Mwan e [783], ßi [784]; Wan e [783], ßi-lää [784], lä [785]; Beng mi [784]; Kpeen wo [788]; Kpan wo [788]; Dzuun wo [788]; Duun va [788]; Seenku a [787]; Banka wo [788]; Jo n [782], mi

[784]; Bobo be [784]; Bozo-J a [787]; Bozo-K ä [787]; Bozo-T an [787]; Soninke än [787]; Mau i [783]; Jula-K i [783]; Dafing ee [783]; Bamana i [783]; Maninka i [783]; Xasonka i [783]; Mandinka i [783]; Koranko i [783]; Lele i [783]; Mogofin i [783]; Kakabe i [783]; Kono i [783]; Vai i [783]; Soso i [783]; Jalonke i [783]; Jogo e [783]; Jeri i [783]; Numu e [783]; Mende bi [784]; Loko bi [784]; Bandi i [783]; Looma e, i [783]; Kpelle-L e, i [783]; Kpelle-G e, i [783]; Bokobaru n [782]; Boko n [782]; Busa n [782]; Lebir i, ibi [783]; San n [782].

tongue: Dan-G nee [789]; Dan-B ne [789]; Dan-K nee [789]; Tura ne-ee [789]; Mano näna [789]; Guro nenä [789]; Yaure nene [789]; Gban ne [789]; Mwan nene ~ nre [789]; Wan lern (?) [789]; Beng nandy [789]; Kpeen nen [789]; Kpan neew [789]; Dzuun neyn [789]; Duun ne [789]; Seenku neen [789]; Banka neena [789]; Jo nänä-i, nene-i [789]; Bobo nio [789]; Bozo-J neere [789]; Bozo-K neyo [789]; Bozo-T myemu [789]; Soninke neeni / neene [789]; Mau nyey [789]; Jula-K nen [789]; Dafing nii; [789]; Bamana ne, ne [789]; Maninka ne [789]; Xasonka ney [789]; Mandinka ney [789]; Koranko neme [789]; Lele neen [789]; Mogofin nen [789]; Kakabe nen [789]; Kono nenen [789]; Vai nee [789]; Soso neen [789]; Jalonke nen [789]; Jogo nen-de, lele(n) [789]; Jeri nen-di [789]; Numu nen-de [789]; Mende nee [789]; Loko ne [789]; Bandi nee(y) [789]; Looma ne(g) [789]; Kpelle-L ney [789]; Kpelle-G noy [789]; Bokobaru nene [789]; Boko le-nä [789]; Busa nene: [789]; Lebir neem |neeni| [789]; San le-won [789]; Kyenga nene: [789]; Shanga leeni [789].

tooth: Dan-G so [791]; Dan-B so [791]; Dan-K so [791]; Tura so [791]; Mano so [791]; Guro so [791]; Yaure söö [791]; Gban so [791]; Mwan sve [791]; Wan sve [791]; Beng se [791]; Kpeen so [791], pin-de [793]; Kpan soy [791], pii [793]; Dzuun so [791], pin [793]; Duun ni [793]; Seenku den [793]; Bankapina [793]; Jo piinäy [793]; Bobo pini [793]; Bozo-J pi [793]; Bozo-K pipo [793]; Bozo-T pimin [793]; Soninke kambe [795]; Mau piy [793]; Jula-K pin [793]; Dafing pii [793]; Bamana pi, pi [793]; Maninka pi [793]; Xasonka piy [793]; Mandinka piy [793]; Koranko pii [793]; Lele pin [793]; Mogofin pi [793]; Kakabe pin [793]; Kono pi [793]; Vai piy [793]; Soso pin [793]; Jalonke pin [793]; Jogo pin [793]; Jeri pin-di

[793]; Numu pin [793]; Mende ngongolu, ngongou [794]; Loko ngongou [794]; Bandi ndaa-ngolui

[794]; Looma pi(g), yi(g) [793]; Kpelle-L piy [793]; Kpelle-G pi [793]; Bokobaru swäa [792]; Boko swaä [792]; Busa säka [792]; Lebir so [791]; San so [791]; Kyenga so [791]; Shanga soo [791].

tree: Dan-G diu [800]; Dan-B lm [800]; Dan-K lm [800]; Tura yili [800]; Mano yili [800]; Guro yili [800]; Yaure yi-ßa [800]; Gban yu-kwi (?) [800]; Mwan yli / yli [800]; Wan yläe [800]; Beng yli [800]; Kpeen goo-ku [801]; Kpan goo-xu [801]; Dzuun jinin [800], goo-ku [801]; Duun go-hu [801]; Seenku goo [801]; Banka gwo-kura [801]; Jo jiriy [800]; Bobo so-no [802]; Bozo-J jugu [800]; Bozo-K jiri [800]; Bozo-T jiri [800]; Soninke yitti / yitte [800]; Mau yii, yiri, yili', jii, jiri', jili [800]; Jula-K yiri [800]; Dafing yii [800]; Bamana jiri, yiri [800]; Maninka yiri [800]; Xasonka yiri [800]; Mandinka yiri [800]; Koranko ko [797], koloma [798]; Lele ko [797], koloman [798]; Mogofin lego [802]; Kakabe logo [802]; Kono ko [797]; Vai koy [797]; Soso wuri [800]; Jalonke wuri [800]; Jogo gwä [801]; Jeri gba [801]; Numu goä [801]; Mende ngulu [800]; Loko nguru [800]; Bandi ngulu [800]; Looma gulu [800]; Kpelle-L wuru [800]; Kpelle-G ulu [800]; Bokobaru li [796]; Boko li [796]; Busa li, ne [796]; Lebir go, go [801]; San da [799]; Kyenga yako [797]; Shanga agu [797].

two: Dan-G plé, peedA [803]; Dan-B píe,péedK [803]; Dan-K píe, peeda [803]; Tura pillé [803]; Mano peelé [803]; Guro fié [803]; Yaure flí, fli [803]; Gban féi [803]; Mwan plé [803]; Wan píloy [803]; Bengplaiy [803]; Kpeen fígi [803]; Kpan fii [803]; Dzuun fíí [803]; Duun fii [803]; Seenku fi[803]; Banka figi [803]; Jo fúúll [803]; Bobo pé>la [803]; Bozo-J pende [803]; Bozo-K fyenu [803]; Bozo-T pende

[803]; Soninke filló [803]; Mau fyaa [803]; Jula-K fila, fulá [803]; Dafing fla [803]; Bamana flá [803]; Maninka flá [803]; Xasonka füla [803]; Mandinka füla [803]; Koranko fela [803]; Lele féla [803]; Mogo-fin flá [803]; Kakabefila [803]; Konofea [803]; Vaifea [803]; Sosofirín [803]; Jalonkefidín [803]; Jogo falá [803]; Jeri fala [803]; Numu fila, fala [803]; Mende felé [803]; Loko fele [803]; Bandi féle [803]; Looma fele [803]; Kpelle-L feeré [803]; Kpelle-G hvile [803]; Bokobaru pláa [803]; Boko pla [803]; Busa pla [803]; Lebir píiya [803]; San paa [803]; Kyenga fia [803]; Shanga hwaa [803].

walk: Dan-G ta [804]; Dan-B tá [804]; Dan-K ta [804]; Tura taa [804]; Mano taá [804]; Guro táá

[804]; Yaure tá [804]; Gban ta [804]; Mwan táá [804]; Wan tá [804]; Beng tá [804]; Kpeen jigi [809]; Kpan jii [809]; Dzuun jii [809]; Duun ji'i-ra [809]; Seenku ká [1013]; Banka jege [809]; Jo tírí [808]; Bobo ya [810]; Bozo-J jii [809]; Bozo-K piyi [809]; Bozo-T piyi [809]; Soninke tere [808]; Mau táá, tááma [804]; Jula-K tágá, tágámá [804]; Dafing ta [804], wa [807]; Bamana tága, táa, tágama, táama [804]; Maninka táa, táama [804], wa [807]; Xasonka táxa, táxama [804]; Mandinka táa [804]; Koranko tá, táa [804]; Lele táa [804]; Mogofin tága [804]; Kakabe táa, tága [804]; Kono tá [804]; Vai táá [804]; Soso sigá [805]; Jalonke sigá [805]; Jogo tágámá [804]; Jeri tága [804]; Numu tagáma [804]; Mende njiá [805]; Loko sía [805], mbee(y) [806]; Bandi sia(y) [805]; Looma sié, sié(g) [805]; Kpelle-L sía [805]; Kpelle-G hie [805]; Bokobaru tá [804]; Boko tá [804]; Busa tá [804]; Lebir tá [804]; San to [804]; Kyenga tá [804]; Shanga tá [804].

warm: Dan-G wosiu [814]; Dan-B wozA [814], síi [815]; Dan-K wosiu [814]; Tura zolo [816]; Mano gága, gáka, gáa [817]; Guro céé [818]; Yaure kálágálá [824]; Gban fóá [813]; Mwan té-le [818]; Wan té [818]; Beng batü [819], pápá [820], wluwlu [821]; Kpeen táá-má [826]; Kpan woonta [829]; Dzuun woxkuuntá [829]; Duun wata [829]; Banka fte-na [813]; Jo mafwüü [830]; Bobo tóbá [826]; Bozo-J pyee [828]; Bozo-K gulena [827]; Bozo-T gula [827]; Soninke táwú, tayi, taye [826]; Mau gbééy [825]; Jula-K gban [825]; Dafing gwá [825]; Bamana kála [824], ga [825]; Maninka kálaman [824], gba [825]; Xasonka xandi [825]; Mandinka kandi [825]; Koranko kála-ma [824]; Lele kálama [824]; Mogofin bandi-ré [825]; Kakabe gbándin-den [825]; Kono gbandi [825]; Vai kpandi [825]; Soso fúrá [813]; Jalonke fúrá [813]; Jogo dé [822]; Jeri dée, die [822]; Numu dé / déré [822]; Mende fula [813]; Loko fura [813]; Bandi fulá [813]; Looma fila, fíle [813]; Kpelle-L wúley [823]; Kpelle-G hvúló [813]; Bokobaru lógélégó [811]; Boko looloo [811]; Busa légologo [811]; Lebir yéé [812]; San fuu [813]; Kyenga fula [813].

water: Dan-G yi [831]; Dan-B yí [831]; Dan-K yi [831]; Tura yi [831]; Mano yíí [831]; Guro yí [831]; Yaure yí [831]; Gban yi [831]; Mwan yi [831]; Wan yí [831]; Beng yí [831]; Kpeen jó [831]; Kpan zo [831]; Dzuun yú [831]; Duun zo [831]; Seenku jó [831]; Banka zo [831]; Jo jú [831]; Bobo zio / zo [831]; Bozo-J ji [831]; Bozo-K jú [831]; Bozo-T jíi [831]; Soninke jí [831]; Mau ji, yi [831]; Jula-K jí, jyé [831]; Dafing zié [831]; Bamana jí [831]; Maninka jí [831]; Xasonka jí [831]; Mandinka jíi [831]; Koranko yí [831]; Lele yíi [831]; Mogofin jéi, géi [831]; Kakabe jíi [831]; Kono yíi [831]; Vai jí [831]; Soso yéé [831]; Jalonke jéé [831]; Jogo yí [831]; Jeri yí [831]; Numu yí [831]; Mende nja [831]; Loko nja [831]; Bandi nja [831]; Looma zié, ziéé [831]; Kpelle-L yá [831]; Kpelle-G ya [831]; Bokobaru í [831]; Boko í [831]; Busa í [831]; Lebir pí [832]; San mu [833]; Kyenga í [831]; Shanga íí [831].

we: Dan-G kwa (incl.) [837], yi (excl.) [844]; Dan-B kwa (incl.) [837], yi (excl.) [844]; Dan-K kwa (incl.) [837], yi (excl.) [844]; Tura ko [836]; Mano ko (excl.) [836], koa (incl.) [837]; Guro kv (excl.) [836], kaa (incl.) [837]; Yaure kv (excl.) [836], kaa (incl.) [837]; Gban u [834]; Mwan ó (excl.) [834], kéo (incl.) [836]; Wan ka (excl.) [836], ka (incl.) [837]; Beng ay [843]; Kpeen mó [835]; Kpan pe [844]; Dzuun mun [835], pe [844]; Duun pie [844]; Seenku wí [835]; Banka pe [844]; Jo yi [844]; Bobo me (excl.) [835], ke (incl.) [838]; Bozo-J ke [838]; Bozo-K ngí [838]; Bozo-T ki [838]; Soninke ó [834]; Mau áy [843]; Jula-K á [843]; Dafing a [843]; Bamana á [843]; Maninka n [842], á [843]; Xasonka n [842]; Mandinka n [842]; Koranko ma [835]; Lele ma [835], n [842]; Mogofin moo [835]; Kakabe má [835]; Kono mé (incl.) [835]; Vai mú [835]; Soso muxú (excl.) [840], wón (incl.) [841]; Jalonke nxo [840], on [841]; Jogo á [839]; Jeri a [839]; Numu á [839]; Mende mú [835]; Loko mú (incl.) [835]; Bandi mú (incl.) [835]; Looma gé (excl.) [838]; Kpelle-L kú (excl.) [836]; Kpelle-G kú (excl.) [836]; Bokobaru wa [834]; Boko wa [834]; Busa o [834]; Lebir V, wo [834]; San wo [834]; Kyenga wa [834]; Shanga wa [834].

what: Dan-G meé [849]; Dan-B mÁ [849]; Dan-K mÁ, mlA [849]; Tura méé [849]; Mano ko [850]; Guro méé [849]; Gban bé (?) [849]; Mwan mé [849]; Wan mé [849]; Beng po [845]; Kpan fee [851]; Dzuun féé [851]; Duun foe [851]; Seenku kure [854]; Banka fo [851]; Jo v^ [851]; Bobo ywonon [853]; Bozo-J mwo [849]; Bozo-K maná [849]; Bozo-T man [849]; Soninke maní [849]; Mau miy [849]; Jula-K mün, miní [849]; Dafing mú [849]; Bamana mu [849]; Maninka mu [849]; Xasonka muy [849]; Mandinka muy [849]; Koranko nfé

[851]; Lele fé-se [851]; Mogofin fén-dé [851]; Kakabe pümande [852]; Kono fé [851]; Vai mé [851]; Soso mun [849]; Jalonke nén [848]; Jogo mü [849]; Jeri mi [849]; Numu men [849]; Mende gbé [847]; Loko gbéé [847]; Bandi béé [847], ndé [848]; Looma a bé [847]; Kpelle-L gbéé [847], lé [848]; Kpelle-G le [848]; Bokobaru bó [845]; Boko bó [845]; Busa bó [845]; Lebir waa [846]; San bó [845]; Kyenga bó [845]; Shanga bu [845].

white: Dan-G püü [855]; Dan-B púú [855]; Dan-K püü [855]; Tura püü [855]; Mano púlú [855]; Guro fúú [855]; Yaure fv-vv [855]; Gban ßütü [855]; Mwan pú 1 [855]; Wan pú 1 [855]; Beng púú [855]; Kpeen kpé [856]; Kpan $weey [855]; Dzuun fyé [855]; Duun fió-ma [855]; Seenku kan (?) [856]; Banka xue [856]; Jo fó [855]; Bobo furu [855]; Bozo-J kuo [856]; Bozo-K hoona [856]; Bozo-T xon [856]; So-ninke xulli / xúllé [856]; Mau gbé [856]; Jula-K gbé [856]; Dafing kwi [856]; Bamana jé [856]; Maninka gbé [856]; Xasonka xóyi [856]; Mandinka kóyi [856]; Koranko gbé [856]; Lele gbé [856]; Mogofin bée

[856]; Kakabe gbé [856]; Kono gbé [856]; Vai kpé [856]; Soso fikhe (?) [855]; Jalonke fiiqé (?) [855]; Jogo kpé [856]; Jeri kpé [856]; Numu kpé [856]; Mende kolé [856]; Loko küé [856]; Bandi kolé [856]; Looma kwéle(g) [856]; Kpelle-L kolé [856]; Kpelle-G kwele [856]; Bokobaru pú-ra [855]; Boko pú-a [855]; Busa pú-rd, pú-ld [855]; Lebir fú jfü'j [855]; San fu [855]; Kyenga fu [855]; Shanga húú [855].

who: Dan-G dé [857]; Dan-B dir [857]; Dan-K dé [857]; Tura waá [858]; Mano dei [857]; Guro di

[857]; Yaure ti [857]; Gban de [857]; Mwan dé-lé, dé-la [857]; Wan dé, déé [857]; Beng dé [857]; Kpan sii [857]; Dzuun ái [857]; Duun si [857]; Seenku té [857]; Banka si [857]; Jo nkéy [868]; Bobo kó [864]; Bozo-J wura [865], gira [866]; Bozo-K jd [861]; Bozo-T gwa [867]; Soninke kóo [864]; Mau yéy, jéy [861]; Jula-K jóón [861]; Dafing zon [861]; Bamana jó' [861]; Maninka jó" [861]; Xasonka jóy [861]; Mandinka jóy [861]; Koranko yó, yó [861]; Lele yón [861]; Mogofin pé-mó [861]; Kakabe yón [861]; Kono pó [861]; Vai jó, jó [861]; Soso ndé [857]; Jalonke ndé [857]; Jogo md [863]; Jeri ma [863]; Numu máa [863]; Mende yéó [861]; Loko e [862]; Bandi e-le [862]; Looma béé [860]; Kpelle-L gbéé [860]; Kpelle-G gbé [860]; Bokobaru dé [857]; Boko dé [857]; Busa di [857]; San die [857]; Kyenga di [857]; Shanga yi [859].

woman: Dan-G dé-bé [869]; Dan-B dé-bó [869]; Dan-K dé [869]; Tura dé [869]; Mano léé [869]; Guro lé [869]; Yaure li-mó [869]; Gban lé [869]; Mwan lé [869]; Wan lé [869]; Beng léy [869]; Kpeen táa

[873]; Kpan taa [873]; Dzuun taán [873]; Duun taa [873]; Seenku mini (?) [869]; Banka taa [873]; Jo maré (?) [869]; Bobo ya [870]; Bozo-J jugo [870]; Bozo-Kpáyanú [870]; Bozo-T yá-lo [870]; Soninke ya-xari [870]; Mau moso [872]; Jula-K müsó [872]; Dafing mósó [872]; Bamana müsó [872]; Maninka müsó, mosó [872]; Xasonka müsu [872]; Mandinka müsu [872]; Koranko müsu [872]; Lele müsu, müso [872]; Mogofin müsú [872]; Kakabe müsu [872]; Kono müsu [872]; Vai müsú [872]; Soso giné [871]; Jalonke giné [871]; Jogo pá [870]; Jeri pá [870]; Numu pá [870]; Mende pd-há [870]; Loko pd-há [870]; Bandi pa-há [870]; Looma ya-za [870]; Kpelle-L néni, néi [869]; Kpelle-G nenu [869]; Bokobaru nó-gbé [869]; Boko nó [869]; Busa nó [869]; Lebir lv jlv'j [869]; San ló [869]; Kyenga né-gbi [869]; Shanga nénéni [869].

yellow: Dan-B sóygozé, viévié [875]; Dan-K güéyíídéyáá [876]; Tura zainlé [877]; Mano zóló [573]; Guro kán [878]; Gban ßüaa [879]; Beng dálé [881]; Kpan néfaama [886]; Dzuun nééfámá [886]; Duun nefama [886]; Banka néréfarama [886]; Jo náfánámáy [886]; Bozo-J nalondúú ("powder of nere") [886]; Bozo-T náálúúmdd [886]; Soninke boobo [890], makkajinma ("juice of corn") [891], puuru [892]; Mau nssmuulamdy [886]; Jula-K nérémügüramán, nérémügütigi [886]; Dafing néémúúmá [886]; Bamana nérémuguláma [886]; Maninka nérémuuláma [886]; Xasonka nétemunguma [886]; Mandinka nétemunku [886]; Koranko nérémunkulamé

[886]; Lele néémuulamá [886]; Mogofin nétékutalama [886]; Kono móin dené [889]; Vai suya (Koelle)

[887], waay [888]; Jogo yérfogó ("nere flour") [886]; Numu yiré füko ("nere flour") [886]; Bandi báhi [884]; Looma kpazi ('corn') [1009]; Kpelle-L gbéléyói [885]; Kpelle-G bahi [884]; Bokobaru kpaikpai

[874]; Boko kpai [874]; Busa téra [881]; Lebir kárpisi [882]; San küsi [883]; Shanga kwa'i [874].

Резюме

В семье манде (макросемья нигер-конго) достаточно однозначно выделяются группы небольшой глубины родства; основные споры ведутся по поводу промежуточных ступеней внутренней классификации. В статье предлагается новый вариант такой классификации, впервые выполненный на основании обсчёта полного юо-словного списка М. Сводеша. Данные глоттохронологии сопоставляются с данными палеоклиматологии и археологии, делается предположение, что территория обитания людей, говоривших на праязыке семьи манде во второй половине IV тысячелетия до н. э., локализуется в Южной Сахаре, между 3° и 12° западной долготы и к северу от 16° или даже 18° северной широты. Это предположение подтверждает и анализ культурной лексики, предположительно реконструируемой для праманде.

Languages o £ Q m £ Q £ Q Tur 0 1 r £ O Gba Mwa Wan Ben e PH Kpa Dzu Dun w m £ B O O ^ Bbo N m BzK BzT Son Mau ^ n Ph D Bmn 1 Xsn Mdk e j J Mgf Kkb o S ? o 1/3 S § o O 2 ^ Nmu Men Lko Bnd Lom KpL KpG Bkb Bok Bus Lbr San X Shn

DnG 0 0,93 0,9 0,77 0,75 0,72 0,74 0,63 0,72 0,6 0,62 0,35 0,4 0,42 0,35 0,38 0,37 0,42 0,36 0,24 0,27 0,26 0,29 0,36 0,38 0,36 0,35 0,36 0,36 0,34 0,34 0,34 0,34 0,34 0,29 0,28 0,37 0,34 0,36 0,36 0,35 0,34 0,33 0,35 0,34 0,37 0,36 0,42 0,43 0,42 0,51 0,5 0,52 0,45

dnb 0,88 0 0,88 0,74 0,74 0,69 0,74 0,62 0,71 0,62 0,64 0,35 0,43 0,43 0,37 0,42 0,37 0,39 0,35 0,25 0,27 0,26 0,3 0,36 0,38 0,37 0,38 0,38 0,38 0,36 0,35 0,34 0,34 0,33 0,32 0,29 0,33 0,31 0,38 0,36 0,37 0,35 0,34 0,37 0,35 0,39 0,36 0,4 0,42 0,4 0,52 0,49 0,5 0,44

dnk 1,03 1,15 0 0,8 0,73 0,72 0,76 0,63 0,69 0,64 0,62 0,31 0,37 0,38 0,33 0,4 0,34 0,38 0,37 0,23 0,25 0,27 0,27 0,36 0,38 0,36 0,36 0,36 0,36 0,34 0,34 0,34 0,33 0,34 0,29 0,28 0,34 0,31 0,38 0,36 0,38 0,34 0,32 0,36 0,36 0,37 0,37 0,41 0,41 0,41 0,49 0,47 0,49 0,44

Tur 1,75 1,85 1,59 0 0,73 0,74 0,78 0,64 0,76 0,67 0,67 0,33 0,38 0,39 0,33 0,41 0,33 0,39 0,36 0,22 0,26 0,26 0,27 0,38 0,39 0,38 0,4 0,39 0,39 0,36 0,36 0,36 0,35 0,35 0,31 0,29 0,32 0,32 0,36 0,34 0,35 0,33 0,29 0,32 0,35 0,35 0,36 0,42 0,43 0,44 0,51 0,47 0,51 0,44

Mno 1,82 1,88 1,92 1,93 0 0,76 0,77 0,64 0,72 0,65 0,6 0,32 0,39 0,39 0,35 0,45 0,36 0,39 0,37 0,25 0,27 0,27 0,3 0,36 0,37 0,37 0,38 0,37 0,37 0,34 0,36 0,37 0,38 0,34 0,34 0,33 0,34 0,35 0,39 0,35 0,39 0,3 0,29 0,3 0,33 0,37 0,37 0,48 0,49 0,46 0,47 0,45 0,49 0,45

Gur 1,95 2,09 1,95 1,85 1,77 0 0,87 0,63 0,8 0,72 0,66 0,31 0,38 0,39 0,33 0,39 0,33 0,39 0,36 0,24 0,25 0,26 0,26 0,34 0,37 0,36 0,37 0,36 0,36 0,33 0,34 0,35 0,36 0,34 0,31 0,3 0,33 0,31 0,38 0,32 0,36 0,31 0,29 0,3 0,33 0,34 0,34 0,43 0,45 0,43 0,47 0,48 0,46 0,42

Yre 1,86 1,86 1,78 1,7 1,72 1,25 0 0,62 0,81 0,69 0,67 0,34 0,41 0,41 0,37 0,44 0,38 0,39 0,34 0,25 0,27 0,26 0,28 0,38 0,39 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,39 0,36 0,38 0,39 0,38 0,38 0,36 0,33 0,34 0,34 0,38 0,36 0,37 0,33 0,32 0,34 0,33 0,36 0,35 0,47 0,48 0,47 0,51 0,51 0,52 0,48

Gba 2,41 2,47 2,4 2,36 2,36 2,41 2,46 0 0,64 0,57 0,58 0,3 0,36 0,37 0,31 0,36 0,31 0,32 0,33 0,23 0,24 0,26 0,25 0,32 0,33 0,33 0,34 0,34 0,34 0,34 0,3 0,34 0,34 0,31 0,29 0,27 0,33 0,29 0,34 0,33 0,33 0,33 0,3 0,33 0,34 0,33 0,33 0,39 0,39 0,39 0,47 0,46 0,44 0,4

Mwa 1,98 2 2,11 1,8 1,98 1,59 1,54 2,36 0 0,74 0,61 0,35 0,39 0,41 0,35 0,43 0,35 0,41 0,33 0,21 0,25 0,24 0,28 0,35 0,36 0,35 0,37 0,37 0,37 0,34 0,34 0,33 0,34 0,33 0,31 0,28 0,32 0,32 0,36 0,31 0,33 0,29 0,28 0,31 0,31 0,35 0,35 0,47 0,51 0,48 0,52 0,54 0,55 0,49

Wan 2,56 2,47 2,37 2,21 2,32 1,95 2,14 2,75 1,88 0 0,56 0,26 0,32 0,34 0,28 0,4 0,28 0,35 0,31 0,2 0,25 0,24 0,24 0,34 0,35 0,36 0,35 0,35 0,35 0,31 0,33 0,33 0,33 0,33 0,3 0,29 0,29 0,28 0,38 0,33 0,36 0,31 0,27 0,3 0,32 0,36 0,35 0,42 0,44 0,42 0,44 0,45 0,45 0,41

Ben 2,45 2,37 2,48 2,21 2,54 2,26 2,19 2,7 2,5 2,78 0 0,35 0,39 0,39 0,34 0,37 0,35 0,36 0,36 0,27 0,29 0,28 0,29 0,35 0,35 0,34 0,37 0,35 0,34 0,35 0,33 0,33 0,34 0,32 0,34 0,29 0,27 0,28 0,31 0,31 0,29 0,3 0,29 0,29 0,28 0,31 0,29 0,4 0,42 0,42 0,48 0,47 0,48 0,41

Kpe 4,24 4,24 4,59 4,36 4,45 4,63 4,32 4,73 4,24 5,09 4,24 0 0,82 0,85 0,78 0,54 0,77 0,49 0,38 0,29 0,32 0,29 0,32 0,43 0,43 0,42 0,43 0,43 0,43 0,42 0,43 0,4 0,41 0,44 0,36 0,35 0,35 0,36 0,38 0,38 0,34 0,29 0,25 0,29 0,25 0,26 0,26 0,24 0,25 0,24 0,27 0,26 0,21 0,23

kpa 3,79 3,61 4,05 4 3,89 3,95 3,74 4,16 3,9 4,49 3,92 1,48 0 0,97 0,91 0,6 0,89 0,42 0,38 0,28 0,31 0,24 0,34 0,36 0,38 0,37 0,4 0,4 0,39 0,38 0,33 0,33 0,32 0,32 0,32 0,27 0,3 0,31 0,33 0,3 0,28 0,27 0,24 0,25 0,25 0,27 0,26 0,28 0,3 0,28 0,31 0,32 0,26 0,28

Dzu 3,65 3,58 3,93 3,89 3,86 3,92 3,7 4,04 3,76 4,33 3,86 1,34 0,57 0 0,89 0,64 0,88 0,46 0,39 0,29 0,31 0,27 0,36 0,4 0,41 0,41 0,45 0,44 0,43 0,42 0,39 0,39 0,37 0,35 0,34 0,32 0,33 0,34 0,36 0,32 0,3 0,32 0,27 0,3 0,28 0,29 0,29 0,28 0,31 0,28 0,32 0,34 0,26 0,29

Dun 4,24 4,02 4,36 4,4 4,23 4,43 4,03 4,62 4,18 4,86 4,3 1,69 1,02 1,08 0 0,58 0,84 0,39 0,34 0,28 0,28 0,25 0,29 0,35 0,37 0,37 0,39 0,39 0,39 0,36 0,33 0,33 0,33 0,31 0,29 0,28 0,29 0,3 0,31 0,28 0,26 0,23 0,22 0,24 0,22 0,24 0,23 0,23 0,25 0,23 0,28 0,27 0,22 0,23

Sek 3,93 3,63 3,79 3,72 3,45 3,9 3,55 4,14 3,59 3,84 4,03 2,9 2,59 2,37 2,66 0 0,56 0,46 0,43 0,32 0,3 0,33 0,4 0,46 0,47 0,46 0,49 0,5 0,5 0,48 0,45 0,44 0,42 0,44 0,43 0,38 0,38 0,39 0,47 0,41 0,39 0,37 0,34 0,35 0,33 0,37 0,36 0,31 0,33 0,3 0,3 0,35 0,28 0,26

bnk 4,08 4,05 4,29 4,43 4,12 4,36 3,95 4,55 4,2 4,91 4,23 1,7 1,09 1,16 1,39 2,81 0 0,39 0,35 0,28 0,3 0,26 0,35 0,37 0,39 0,38 0,4 0,4 0,39 0,37 0,35 0,35 0,34 0,36 0,33 0,3 0,3 0,3 0,34 0,3 0,28 0,24 0,23 0,25 0,24 0,25 0,26 0,26 0,28 0,26 0,28 0,3 0,24 0,25

Joo 3,64 3,92 3,96 3,92 3,89 3,87 3,91 4,47 3,75 4,21 4,09 3,22 3,67 3,39 3,92 3,36 3,86 0 0,41 0,29 0,34 0,34 0,4 0,4 0,39 0,37 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,41 0,41 0,41 0,41 0,39 0,36 0,34 0,35 0,41 0,38 0,37 0,28 0,27 0,26 0,28 0,3 0,3 0,3 0,29 0,3 0,28 0,29 0,24 0,26

Bbo 4,12 4,18 4,05 4,09 4,01 4,12 4,26 4,36 4,43 4,59 4,09 4 4 3,86 4,33 3,59 4,23 3,76 0 0,42 0,36 0,38 0,37 0,4 0,38 0,37 0,39 0,4 0,4 0,41 0,41 0,39 0,43 0,44 0,4 0,37 0,39 0,39 0,4 0,39 0,38 0,37 0,33 0,37 0,37 0,35 0,35 0,27 0,29 0,26 0,29 0,29 0,26 0,25

BzJ 5,33 5,3 5,48 5,73 5,23 5,44 5,3 5,56 5,77 6,07 5,04 4,78 4,89 4,82 4,94 4,51 4,88 4,78 3,68 0 0,74 0,81 0,5 0,45 0,44 0,43 0,46 0,46 0,46 0,45 0,42 0,39 0,39 0,44 0,38 0,38 0,31 0,3 0,36 0,37 0,32 0,28 0,25 0,3 0,31 0,29 0,29 0,18 0,18 0,15 0,2 0,2 0,16 0,17

BzK 5 4,96 5,3 5,09 5,01 5,23 5,05 5,45 5,27 5,27 4,76 4,45 4,61 4,54 4,89 4,64 4,7 4,3 4,16 1,88 0 0,84 0,53 0,51 0,52 0,49 0,51 0,5 0,51 0,47 0,46 0,43 0,41 0,44 0,41 0,41 0,29 0,3 0,4 0,39 0,34 0,28 0,26 0,3 0,29 0,27 0,26 0,22 0,23 0,21 0,23 0,2 0,2 0,19

BzT 5,11 5,2 5,07 5,2 5 5,11 5,16 5,13 5,4 5,36 4,96 4,78 5,33 5,01 5,27 4,43 5,2 4,33 3,98 1,55 1,39 0 0,52 0,44 0,44 0,45 0,45 0,45 0,45 0,45 0,46 0,46 0,44 0,48 0,41 0,42 0,29 0,28 0,39 0,41 0,33 0,28 0,25 0,3 0,32 0,3 0,3 0,19 0,19 0,18 0,21 0,18 0,17 0,17

Son 4,76 4,73 5,07 5,08 4,64 5,11 4,89 5,27 4,9 5,36 4,84 4,49 4,33 4,09 4,78 3,84 4,2 3,82 4,06 3,13 2,94 3,01 0 0,41 0,42 0,41 0,43 0,44 0,43 0,44 0,42 0,43 0,38 0,41 0,39 0,37 0,32 0,31 0,36 0,38 0,3 0,28 0,26 0,29 0,28 0,28 0,28 0,25 0,26 0,24 0,24 0,22 0,22 0,23

Mau 4,09 4,09 4,14 4 4,16 4,3 3,97 4,47 4,21 4,27 4,24 3,58 4,14 3,77 4,17 3,36 4,05 3,81 3,84 3,43 3,1 3,5 3,71 0 0,94 0,96 0,96 0,98 0,94 0,88 0,84 0,76 0,77 0,82 0,7 0,64 0,47 0,48 0,57 0,62 0,51 0,37 0,32 0,37 0,36 0,34 0,34 0,23 0,24 0,23 0,29 0,28 0,22 0,24

Jlk 3,98 3,95 3,99 3,87 4,01 4,06 3,91 4,4 4,1 4,24 4,21 3,58 3,95 3,73 4,06 3,35 3,91 3,87 3,98 3,5 3,03 3,49 3,63 0,81 0 0,97 0,95 0,97 0,95 0,89 0,8 0,74 0,73 0,8 0,67 0,63 0,46 0,46 0,57 0,63 0,53 0,36 0,33 0,38 0,37 0,35 0,35 0,24 0,26 0,24 0,29 0,3 0,23 0,25

dfn 4,14 4,06 4,1 3,97 4,04 4,09 3,84 4,43 4,18 4,14 4,3 3,64 4,02 3,74 4,05 3,4 3,93 4,02 4,06 3,62 3,2 3,46 3,76 0,66 0,57 0 0,95 0,98 0,95 0,89 0,82 0,74 0,76 0,79 0,7 0,67 0,46 0,47 0,56 0,62 0,54 0,37 0,33 0,38 0,37 0,36 0,35 0,24 0,25 0,24 0,3 0,3 0,24 0,26

bmn 4,18 3,98 4,11 3,82 3,96 4,01 3,77 4,33 4,04 4,18 4,06 3,58 3,82 3,46 3,92 3,2 3,77 3,82 3,9 3,39 3,07 3,45 3,59 0,66 0,73 0,74 0 0,97 0,96 0,89 0,83 0,75 0,75 0,82 0,68 0,64 0,45 0,47 0,58 0,6 0,51 0,37 0,32 0,38 0,38 0,36 0,36 0,24 0,25 0,24 0,29 0,3 0,22 0,24

mnk 4,1 3,98 4,11 3,9 4,05 4,1 3,77 4,33 4,04 4,18 4,24 3,58 3,82 3,54 3,92 3,13 3,77 3,82 3,82 3,39 3,13 3,45 3,52 0,46 0,56 0,46 0,56 0 0,98 0,92 0,86 0,79 0,77 0,84 0,72 0,67 0,47 0,49 0,58 0,63 0,52 0,37 0,33 0,38 0,37 0,35 0,35 0,24 0,25 0,24 0,3 0,31 0,23 0,26

Xsn 4,1 3,98 4,11 3,9 4,05 4,1 3,86 4,33 4,04 4,18 4,33 3,58 3,9 3,61 3,92 3,13 3,86 3,82 3,82 3,39 3,07 3,45 3,59 0,81 0,73 0,74 0,65 0,45 0 0,91 0,81 0,75 0,75 0,82 0,69 0,64 0,46 0,47 0,57 0,61 0,5 0,37 0,33 0,38 0,37 0,35 0,35 0,24 0,25 0,24 0,3 0,31 0,23 0,26

Mdk 4,27 4,15 4,3 4,15 4,33 4,36 4,13 4,33 4,3 4,56 4,24 3,68 3,98 3,68 4,09 3,28 4,02 3,82 3,75 3,46 3,34 3,45 3,52 1,19 1,12 1,14 1,11 0,93 0,99 0 0,82 0,78 0,82 0,82 0,74 0,69 0,41 0,42 0,58 0,59 0,5 0,36 0,33 0,37 0,35 0,34 0,34 0,23 0,24 0,23 0,3 0,3 0,22 0,24

krn 4,27 4,24 4,3 4,15 4,14 4,27 3,95 4,64 4,3 4,36 4,43 3,58 4,43 3,92 4,36 3,43 4,2 3,75 3,75 3,67 3,41 3,38 3,66 1,4 1,59 1,47 1,43 1,28 1,53 1,48 0 0,91 0,88 0,9 0,82 0,77 0,45 0,46 0,57 0,59 0,51 0,36 0,32 0,37 0,34 0,33 0,33 0,21 0,23 0,21 0,29 0,29 0,22 0,24

lle 4,27 4,33 4,3 4,15 4,05 4,18 3,86 4,33 4,39 4,36 4,43 3,79 4,43 3,92 4,36 3,51 4,2 3,75 3,9 3,9 3,55 3,38 3,59 1,76 1,88 1,87 1,82 1,63 1,82 1,68 0,99 0 0,85 0,84 0,83 0,79 0,43 0,41 0,54 0,55 0,47 0,37 0,32 0,37 0,34 0,33 0,34 0,22 0,23 0,22 0,29 0,28 0,22 0,27

Mgf 4,33 4,3 4,36 4,21 3,93 4,15 4 4,3 4,27 4,43 4,3 3,74 4,49 4,06 4,43 3,67 4,26 3,71 3,57 3,87 3,76 3,49 3,93 1,72 1,9 1,78 1,83 1,74 1,83 1,49 1,17 1,34 0 0,88 0,8 0,78 0,42 0,41 0,55 0,56 0,49 0,34 0,3 0,33 0,33 0,34 0,34 0,22 0,24 0,22 0,29 0,29 0,22 0,25

Kkb 4,33 4,43 4,3 4,24 4,3 4,27 3,93 4,54 4,36 4,43 4,5 3,54 4,5 4,17 4,57 3,51 4,16 3,7 3,54 3,54 3,5 3,26 3,76 1,48 1,57 1,64 1,47 1,36 1,47 1,47 1,08 1,36 1,14 0 0,78 0,76 0,45 0,44 0,57 0,6 0,5 0,37 0,33 0,39 0,37 0,35 0,36 0,23 0,24 0,23 0,28 0,29 0,21 0,26

Kno 4,76 4,52 4,82 4,63 4,33 4,56 4,13 4,76 4,59 4,66 4,33 4,12 4,52 4,27 4,78 3,59 4,4 3,9 3,82 3,98 3,71 3,73 3,88 2,06 2,23 2,07 2,16 1,97 2,11 1,87 1,48 1,43 1,59 1,67 0 0,88 0,41 0,41 0,53 0,52 0,49 0,34 0,32 0,35 0,31 0,33 0,31 0,22 0,24 0,22 0,28 0,27 0,22 0,26

Vai 4,96 4,81 4,91 4,81 4,4 4,73 4,4 4,96 4,87 4,84 4,81 4,24 5,04 4,53 4,86 3,93 4,68 4,12 4,06 3,95 3,76 3,63 4,01 2,37 2,43 2,23 2,38 2,23 2,38 2,13 1,74 1,64 1,7 1,77 1,17 0 0,4 0,39 0,54 0,53 0,51 0,34 0,29 0,35 0,32 0,33 0,33 0,19 0,21 0,19 0,27 0,24 0,21 0,26

Sso 4,06 4,39 4,26 4,49 4,3 4,43 4,33 4,43 4,46 4,84 5,04 4,19 4,7 4,43 4,74 3,99 4,68 4,3 3,87 4,59 4,76 4,76 4,46 3,33 3,39 3,36 3,42 3,29 3,35 3,7 3,42 3,56 3,67 3,43 3,7 3,82 0 0,93 0,43 0,44 0,42 0,49 0,47 0,51 0,47 0,45 0,48 0,21 0,21 0,19 0,23 0,27 0,22 0,2

Jln 4,33 4,6 4,58 4,5 4,19 4,63 4,33 4,77 4,46 4,86 4,94 4,15 4,6 4,33 4,64 3,92 4,64 4,2 3,89 4,71 4,65 4,89 4,56 3,26 3,39 3,33 3,33 3,19 3,33 3,68 3,39 3,76 3,73 3,51 3,76 3,92 0,89 0 0,44 0,45 0,42 0,48 0,45 0,51 0,48 0,46 0,49 0,22 0,23 0,2 0,24 0,27 0,24 0,22

Jgo 4,1 3,93 3,98 4,1 3,91 3,96 3,95 4,29 4,14 3,96 4,61 3,94 4,36 4,13 4,62 3,33 4,33 3,72 3,81 4,1 3,84 3,87 4,14 2,75 2,72 2,77 2,7 2,7 2,75 2,7 2,75 2,88 2,84 2,75 2,94 2,9 3,6 3,5 0 0,84 0,93 0,42 0,38 0,43 0,41 0,44 0,45 0,24 0,25 0,22 0,28 0,29 0,23 0,24

Jri 4,14 4,14 4,1 4,33 4,23 4,46 4,16 4,36 4,56 4,43 4,6 3,96 4,71 4,5 4,91 3,72 4,72 3,94 3,86 4,02 3,86 3,76 4 2,48 2,4 2,45 2,55 2,44 2,49 2,6 2,6 2,83 2,77 2,56 3,01 2,97 3,5 3,48 1,37 0 0,8 0,4 0,38 0,41 0,4 0,41 0,41 0,22 0,23 0,2 0,27 0,3 0,23 0,24

nmu 4,18 4,06 3,96 4,24 3,89 4,14 4,03 4,43 4,36 4,14 4,74 4,28 4,94 4,64 5,13 3,92 4,93 4,02 3,94 4,53 4,26 4,36 4,67 3,1 2,97 2,88 3,07 3,01 3,13 3,13 3,07 3,33 3,16 3,13 3,19 3,1 3,65 3,63 0,85 1,56 0 0,37 0,35 0,38 0,36 0,41 0,41 0,23 0,24 0,21 0,27 0,27 0,23 0,23

Men 4,33 4,24 4,3 4,43 4,69 4,63 4,43 4,43 4,74 4,6 4,71 4,84 5,03 4,53 5,52 4,08 5,34 4,91 4,08 4,94 4,86 4,86 4,86 4,08 4,11 4,08 4,06 4,06 4,06 4,14 4,14 4,06 4,3 4,05 4,33 4,3 3,2 3,27 3,69 3,79 4,05 0 0,94 0,96 0,84 0,81 0,78 0,2 0,21 0,18 0,2 0,2 0,21 0,2

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Lko 4,43 4,3 4,47 4,84 4,75 4,84 4,47 4,7 4,88 4,96 4,84 5,27 5,34 4,99 5,74 4,33 5,54 5,06 4,4 5,23 5,09 5,27 5,13 4,47 4,43 4,36 4,53 4,43 4,43 4,43 4,53 4,53 4,64 4,43 4,53 4,76 3,34 3,45 3,95 3,98 4,23 0,77 0 0,93 0,79 0,79 0,75 0,2 0,21 0,17 0,2 0,19 0,22 0,19

bnd 4,17 4,08 4,13 4,46 4,7 4,68 4,33 4,43 4,57 4,64 4,76 4,75 5,23 4,69 5,45 4,18 5,23 5,09 4,01 4,64 4,74 4,68 4,79 4,01 3,96 3,93 3,99 3,99 3,99 4,08 4,08 4,08 4,36 3,89 4,17 4,23 3,1 3,06 3,59 3,71 3,98 0,68 0,85 0 0,87 0,81 0,81 0,19 0,2 0,17 0,21 0,21 0,21 0,2

Lom 4,27 4,24 4,11 4,24 4,43 4,43 4,43 4,33 4,56 4,52 4,96 5,27 5,3 4,86 5,67 4,43 5,44 4,92 4,03 4,63 4,76 4,46 4,87 4,09 4,06 4,06 3,93 4,01 4,01 4,18 4,27 4,27 4,43 4,06 4,56 4,52 3,32 3,23 3,76 3,81 4,09 1,37 1,61 1,22 0 0,84 0,84 0,22 0,22 0,19 0,22 0,19 0,19 0,2

KpL 4,01 3,9 4,02 4,24 4,05 4,33 4,13 4,43 4,18 4,15 4,63 5,09 5,04 4,74 5,37 4,03 5,3 4,7 4,21 4,84 5 4,66 4,87 4,27 4,24 4,14 4,1 4,18 4,18 4,27 4,36 4,36 4,33 4,24 4,36 4,43 3,46 3,36 3,52 3,73 3,76 1,53 1,61 1,55 1,39 0 0,94 0,23 0,25 0,2 0,24 0,2 0,22 0,21

kpg 4,1 4,15 4,02 4,15 4,05 4,33 4,23 4,43 4,18 4,24 4,84 5,09 5,17 4,74 5,51 4,12 5,16 4,7 4,21 4,84 5,13 4,66 4,87 4,27 4,24 4,24 4,1 4,18 4,18 4,27 4,36 4,27 4,33 4,14 4,56 4,43 3,26 3,16 3,45 3,73 3,76 1,68 1,82 1,55 1,39 0,8 0 0,23 0,25 0,2 0,23 0,21 0,22 0,2

bkb 3,63 3,82 3,7 3,67 3,27 3,6 3,31 3,87 3,29 3,67 3,82 5,45 4,92 4,86 5,51 4,55 5,16 4,7 5,04 6,29 5,72 6,14 5,23 5,55 5,33 5,37 5,36 5,36 5,36 5,5 5,8 5,65 5,62 5,51 5,65 6,1 5,77 5,67 5,37 5,67 5,55 6 6,07 6,11 5,65 5,5 5,5 0 0,91 0,89 0,51 0,47 0,58 0,52

Bok 3,56 3,67 3,7 3,6 3,2 3,46 3,24 3,87 3,1 3,53 3,67 5,27 4,7 4,63 5,23 4,43 4,91 4,81 4,81 6,29 5,56 6,14 5,11 5,4 5,2 5,23 5,23 5,23 5,23 5,36 5,5 5,5 5,33 5,37 5,36 5,77 5,77 5,51 5,23 5,51 5,4 5,83 5,89 5,93 5,65 5,23 5,23 1 0 0,9 0,53 0,5 0,57 0,52

Bus 3,63 3,82 3,7 3,53 3,41 3,6 3,31 3,87 3,22 3,67 3,67 5,45 4,92 4,86 5,51 4,66 5,16 4,7 5,17 6,93 5,89 6,32 5,36 5,55 5,33 5,37 5,36 5,36 5,36 5,5 5,8 5,65 5,62 5,51 5,65 6,1 6,1 6 5,68 6 5,86 6,38 6,48 6,51 6,14 5,97 5,97 1,12 1,06 0 0,51 0,48 0,6 0,52

Lbr 3,1 3 3,16 3,07 3,31 3,29 3,1 3,35 3,01 3,5 3,26 5,05 4,6 4,53 4,91 4,71 4,93 4,94 4,78 5,96 5,57 5,86 5,4 4,82 4,78 4,68 4,78 4,67 4,67 4,67 4,78 4,78 4,74 4,94 4,89 5,01 5,51 5,44 4,86 5 5 6,04 5,96 5,78 5,67 5,37 5,51 3,1 2,97 3,1 0 0,63 0,56 0,54

San 3,13 3,16 3,3 3,29 3,48 3,23 3,06 3,37 2,89 3,43 3,29 5,09 4,46 4,3 4,98 4,22 4,64 4,78 4,81 6,07 6,04 6,29 5,62 4,86 4,7 4,71 4,73 4,63 4,63 4,73 4,84 4,96 4,81 4,74 5,08 5,44 5,04 5,07 4,81 4,71 4,98 5,96 6,23 5,89 6,1 5,93 5,77 3,32 3,13 3,26 2,4 0 0,54 0,52

Kyn 3,03 3,13 3,17 3,07 3,2 3,41 3,03 3,5 2,85 3,44 3,23 5,9 5,09 5,16 5,61 4,9 5,38 5,37 5,09 6,7 5,92 6,51 5,76 5,65 5,56 5,45 5,76 5,6 5,6 5,76 5,76 5,76 5,72 5,78 5,76 5,89 5,72 5,45 5,5 5,49 5,49 5,82 5,71 5,78 6,11 5,76 5,76 2,67 2,73 2,56 2,77 2,88 0 0,72

Shn 3,47 3,51 3,49 3,51 3,46 3,66 3,28 3,77 3,2 3,7 3,7 5,51 4,88 4,81 5,49 5,12 5,27 5,13 5,27 6,51 6,15 6,55 5,48 5,37 5,3 5,2 5,33 5,2 5,2 5,33 5,33 5,07 5,3 5,2 5,2 5,16 5,93 5,65 5,38 5,37 5,52 6,04 6,12 6 5,96 5,79 5,96 3 3 3 2,87 3,03 1,98 0

The upper right triangle of the chart represents the percentage of cognates between individual pairs of languages on the Swadesh list. of language names correspond to the underlined letters in the full list of languages in Appendix 1 of V. Vydrin's article.

The

ower left triang

e represents the approximate age of separation between languages (in millennia) accorc

ing to glottochronological calculations. Abbreviations

-3.50

-3.00

-2.50

-2.00

-1.50

-1.00

-0.50

0.00

0.50

1.00

1.50

South Mande (-0.65)

\(-0

South-Eastern Mande (-1.56)

Mande (-3.11)

36)

Dan (0.78)

(1

Dan+Guro (0.07)

(0.18)

0.37)

(0.73)

Bisa+San (-0.51)

Eastern Mande (-1.08)

i

Boko+Kyenga (-0.76)

08)

Boko+Busa (0.84) (0.96)

Soninke+Bozo (-1.11)

Western Mande (-2.23)

Samogo+Bobo (-1.82)

Samogo (-1.48)-

Samogo-Central- SW (-2.09)

Kyenga+Shanga (0.03)

Bozo (0.25)

(0.57)

Duun-Seenku (-0.83)

(0.22)

(0.57)

r

Duun+Dzuun (0.84)

Jogo+Jeri (0.37)

(1

Central Mande (-0.86)

Central+Soso+SW (-1.85)

Soso+SWM (-1.33)

Manding (0.78)

Great Manding (-0.02)

Mokole+Vai (0.18)

Kono+Vai (0.78)

(0.96)

Mokole (0.57)

(0.78)

(1.39)

08)

Eastern Manding (1.26)

(1.50)

Soso+Jalonke (1.08)

South Western Mande (0.13)

Mende+Loko (1.08)

Looma+Kpelle (0.52) "

m (1.30)

Kpelle (1.15)

2.00

Dan-:

Gban Beng Wan

Dan-G

Dan-B

Mano

Tura

Mwan

Guro Yaure Lebir San Busa

Bokobaru

Boko

Kyenga Shanga Soninke

Bozo-Jenamaa Bozo-Kelinga —^Bozo-Tie -^Bob^

-JT

{Seenkul Kpeen Banka Duun

Kpan

-Jogol Numu

Mandinka

- Xasonka

Jula-Kong Bamana

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Maninka Kono

—fVajf

Koranko

Lele - Mogofin Kakabe

Soso Jalonke Loko

Mende Bandi

Looma

Kpelle-L Kpelle-G

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