Научная статья на тему 'ON THE ISSUE OF UPDATING REGULATORY DOCUMENTS WHEN JUSTIFYING THE SHELF LIFE OF CULINARY PRODUCTS'

ON THE ISSUE OF UPDATING REGULATORY DOCUMENTS WHEN JUSTIFYING THE SHELF LIFE OF CULINARY PRODUCTS Текст научной статьи по специальности «Прочие сельскохозяйственные науки»

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Ключевые слова
INTENSIVE FREEZING / SHELF LIFE / QUALITY AND SAFETY

Аннотация научной статьи по прочим сельскохозяйственным наукам, автор научной работы — Bortsova Ekaterina L., Lavrova Larisa Yu.

The ability to respond to changes in consumer demand flexibly and to introduce innovative production methods promptly is an important condition for the competitiveness of public catering enterprises at the present stage of socio-economic development. In this regard, the compliance determination of innovative products with quality and safety requirements is of particular relevance. The article considers the confirmation specifics of expiration dates of culinary products to be considered when introducing intensive freezing of semi-finished products of a high readiness degree with a prolonged shelf life. The research aim is to learn the quality and safety indicators of the semi-finished products assortment of a high readiness degree produced by the method of intensive freezing within the expiration dates.

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Текст научной работы на тему «ON THE ISSUE OF UPDATING REGULATORY DOCUMENTS WHEN JUSTIFYING THE SHELF LIFE OF CULINARY PRODUCTS»

УДК 664.4

DOI 10.29141/2500-1922-2021-6-4-9

On the Issue of Updating Regulatory Documents when Justifying the Shelf Life of Culinary Products

Ekaterina L. Bortsova1*, Larisa Yu. Lavrova1

1Ural State University of Economics, Ekaterinburg, Russian Federation, *e-mail: borcovael@yandex.ru

Abstract

The ability to respond to changes in consumer demand flexibly and to introduce innovative production methods promptly is an important condition for the competitiveness of public catering enterprises at the present stage of socio-economic development. In this regard, the compliance determination of innovative products with quality and safety requirements is of particular relevance. The article considers the confirmation specifics of expiration dates of culinary products to be considered when introducing intensive freezing of semi-finished products of a high readiness degree with a prolonged shelf life. The research aim is to learn the quality and safety indicators of the semi-finished products assortment of a high readiness degree produced by the method of intensive freezing within the expiration dates.

For citation: Ekaterina L. Bortsova, Larisa Yu. Lavrova. On the Issue of Updating Regulatory Documents when Justifying the Shelf Life of Culinary Products. Индустрия питания|Food Industry. 2021. Vol. 6, No. 4. Pp. 87-92. DOI: 10.29141/2500-1922-2021-6-4-9

Paper submitted: September 27, 2021

К вопросу об актуализации нормативных документов при обосновании сроков годности кулинарной продукции

Е.Л. Борцова1*, Л.Ю. Лаврова1

1Уральский государственный экономический университет, г. Екатеринбург, Российская Федерация, *e-mail: borcovael@yandex.ru

Реферат

На современном этапе социально-экономического развития важным условием конкурентоспособности предприятий общественного питания является их способность гибко реагировать на изменение спроса потребителей и оперативно внедрять инновационные способы производства. В этой связи особую актуальность приобретает определение соответствия инновационной продукции требованиям по качеству и безопасности. В статье рассмотрена специфика подтверждения сроков годности кулинарной продукции, которые необходимо учитывать при внедрении интенсивного замораживания полуфабрикатов высокой степени готовности с пролонгированным сроком годности. Цель работы - исследовать показатели качества и безопасности ассортимента полуфабрикатов высокой степени готовности, произведенных методом интенсивной заморозки в рамках сроков годности.

Для цитирования: Борцова Е.Л., Лаврова Л.Ю. К вопросу об актуализации нормативных документов при обосновании сроков годности кулинарной продукции //Индустрия питания|Food Industry. 2021. Т. 6, № 4. С. 87-92. DOI: 10.29141/2500-1922-2021-6-4-9

Дата поступления статьи: 27 сентября 2021 г.

Keywords:

intensive freezing; shelf life; quality and safety

Ключевые слова:

интенсивное замораживание; сроки годности; качество и безопасность

Introduction

Scientific and technological progress, the development level of the food industry at the present stage determine the need to increase the competitiveness of catering and culinary products [1; 2; 3]. Nowadays, public catering enterprises face unfavorable macro-environment factors: partial or complete closure, reduction of the consumer flow and a decrease in profits.

The practice of the food industry "survival" in the conditions of a pandemic and population self-isolation creates prerequisites for the services diversification, namely culinary products catering and delivery by pre-order [4]. New food delivery services dictate specific requirements for the innovative technology introduction hat contribute to an increase in shelf life as a guarantee of product quality and safety [5; 6; 7].

A man requires expiration dates to issue a declaration confirming the products safety and quality requirements within the specified dates.

The paper aim is to research the quality and safety indicators of the semi-finished products assortment of a high readiness degree produced by the intensive freezing method within the expiration dates.

Materials and methods

The study objects are the following:

• frozen sauteed soups (borsch with potatoes and cabbage, meat solyanka, rassolnik with pearled barley);

• frozen flour semi-finished products (panini with cheese, pizza with meat and cheese);

• hot dishes of small-sized frozen poultry meat (chicken in creamy mushroom sauce);

• frozen beef and pork hot dishes (beef goulash, pork roast).

Research methods. To run the scientific research a man used the following methods:

1) organoleptic quality indicators (taste, color, smell, consistency, appearance) considering the integral score (GOST 31986-2012, GOST ISO 132992015);

2) physico-chemical quality indicators depending on the culinary products type:

a) for the flour semi-finished products - moisture, crumb acidity (GOST 21094-75, GOST 5670-96);

b) for the sauteed soups - mass fraction of solids, mass fraction of fat;

c) for the small-sized semi-finished meat products - mass fraction of solids, mass fraction of fat (GOST R 54607.2-2012, GOST R 54607.5-2015, GOST R 54607.6-2015, GOST R 54607.8-2016).

3) microbiological safety indicators (TR CU 021/2011).

Research results

One of the promising and innovative directions of the food industry development is the active use of technologies for intensive freezing of culinary products. The purpose of using intensive freezing technology is to meet the internal needs of catering enterprise networks that operate on a single menu. They include a factory-kitchen, which produces semi-finished products of a high degree of readiness, subsequently (before use) undergoing defrosting and bringing to culinary readiness.

According to the international practice intensive culinary products freezing enables to improve the consumer characteristics of food products. It helps to reduce the microorganism reproduction rate and, as a result, prolong the shelf life of the products if there is the freezing regime (from +85 °C to -18 °C in less than 90 min.). Catering enterprise networks develop technical conditions for new technologies as a rule. However, the issue of confirming the shelf life of semi-finished products of a high readiness degree remains debatable.

On the one hand, in the methodological guidelines of Methodological Guidelines (MG) 4.2.184704 "Control Methods. Biological and Microbiological Factors. Sanitary and Epidemiological Assessment of the Validity of Shelf Life and Storage Conditions of food Products" presents a list of microbiological indicators controlled during the storage of public catering products within the program framework to confirm shelf life. On the other hand, the current regulatory document TR CU 021/2011 "On the food safety" considers microbiological safety indicators depending on the type of raw materials and cooking technology, while there is the minimum permissible microorganism presence. The issue of confirming the shelf life of semi-finished products of a high readiness degree, which are to be defrosted and brought to culinary readiness before use in accordance with the regulatory document Sanitory Rules and Norms (SanRaN) 2.3./2.4.3590-20 "Sanitary and Epidemiological Requirements for Public Catering Organizations" remains controversial. A man defines regeneration parameters in the HACCP system as "critical control points", while they include two criteria: temperature +85 °C / +90 °C and time (5 min.), which are measured in the product thickness at the heating stage.

In this regard, the authors conducted control tests considering the shelf life determination of the culinary products range using intensive freezing technology.

The production peculiarities of the culinary products of a high readiness degree include mechanical processing, heat treatment and intensive freezing. The researchers considered these features in more detail in conjunction with the research objects.

During the mechanical processing of vegetables for frozen borsch, the treatment of pre-peeled vegetables with 10% sodium chloride solution or 3% acetic acid solution for 10 min. is a prerequisite and a critical control point in the HACCP system. The Methodological Recommendations 2.3.6.0233-21 "Methodological Recommendations for the Public Catering Enterprises" prescribes this requirement. The processing time and the concentration of the active substance are the critical limits in the working solutions.

The thermal process involves separate processing of each type of raw material according to the recipe - up to half-readiness in gentle modes. The researchers revealed that steaming was most preferable, due to the good preservation of nutritional value and high organoleptic quality indicators. This operation is also a critical control point in the HACCP system [8]. Critical parameters include the time and temperature of thermal exposure.

The final cooking process is intensive freezing, which involves a change in the thermal state of the food product from a temperature of + 85 °C to a temperature of -18 °C.

The Table 1 demonstrates the preliminary mandatory measures and parameters of critical limits in the frozen borsch production.

Table 1. Preliminary Mandatory Measures and Parameters of Critical Limits in the Frozen Borsch Production Таблица 1. Предварительные обязательные мероприятия и параметры критических пределов при производстве борща замороженного

Technological Process Stage Technological Process Parameters

Mechanical 10 % Sodium Chloride Solution / 3 % Acetic Acid Solution for 10 min

Thermal Temperature 95 °C for 15 min

Freezing From +85 °C to -18 °C in less than 90 min

The production of panini with frozen cheese and pizza with frozen meat includes three important technological stages in the HACCP system. At the first stage, there is the preparation of the test semi-finished product. At the same time, fermentation takes place at a temperature of plus 4 °C for 48 h enabling an intensive process of gas formation, which further gives uniform porosity of the product during baking. This technology avoids the proofing process and saves production time. In this case, the temperature and time parameters are the critical limits. The second technology stage is baking the dough piece at a temperature of 270-280 °C for 4 min. This is a critical control point with the critical

temperature and time parameters. The third stage is intensive freezing, carried out by placing pre-pre-pared semi-finished products, followed by intensive freezing, to a temperature of -18 °C.

The Table 2 shows the preliminary mandatory measures and parameters of critical limits in the production of panini with cheese and pizza with frozen meat.

Table 2. Preliminary Mandatory Measures and Parameters of Critical Limits in the Production ofPanini with Cheese and Pizza with Frozen Meat Таблица 2. Предварительные обязательные мероприятия и параметры критических пределов при производстве панини с сыром и пиццы с мясом замороженных

Technological Process Stage Technological Process Parameters

Mechanical Temperature from 2 to 6 °C within 48 h

Thermal Temperature 270-280 °C for 4 min

Freezing From +85 °C to -18 °C

in less than 90 min

A man has to declare the culinary products of a high readiness degree using raw materials of animal origin (TR CU 021/2011) and subject it to veterinary and sanitary examination. Therefore, meat raw materials undergo slow defrosting under the following conditions: temperature - 2-6 °C; humidity - 85 %. These are critical process parameters. The thermal process is carried out in a gentle mode under low-temperature cooking conditions. The critical control point: the temperature in the thickness of the product is 85-90 °C and the duration is 5 min. The intensive freezing stage involves lowering the temperature to -18 °C in less than 60 min.

The Table 3 presents preliminary mandatory measures and parameters of critical limits in the production of small-sized semi-finished products from beef, pork, frozen poultry.

Table 3. Preliminary Mandatory Measures and Parameters of Critical Limits of Small-Sized Semi-Finished Products from Beef, Pork,, Frozen Poultry Таблица 3. Предварительные обязательные мероприятия и параметры критических пределов мелкокусковых полуфабрикатов из говядины, свинины, птицы замороженных

Technological Process Stage Technological Process Parameters

Mechanical Temperature from 2 to 6 °C; humidity - 85 %

Thermal Temperature 85-90 °C for 5 min

Freezing From +85 °C to -18°C in less than 90 min

The authors run the analysis of regulatory documents to identify differences in the requirements for the microbiological safety indicators assessment depending on the assortment of semi-finished products of a high readiness degree and culinary products. The Table 4 shows the analysis results.

According to the Table contradictions between regulatory documents on microbiological safety indicators are visible throughout the range of semi-finished products of a high readiness degree. So, in the MG 4.2.1847-04, there is no distinction between semi-finished products subjected to heat treatment before use and ready-to-use products.

The list of microbiological safety indicators varies depending on the type of raw materials used for the production of culinary products. As an example, we consider the frozen borsch. The document regulating the procedure for confirming the expiration dates provides a list of all microbiological safety indicators without considering the characteristics of the raw materials included in the formulation. There is no quantitative regulations of such indicators as Salmonella, bacteria L. Monocytogenes, bacteria of the genus Proteus, yeast, mold fungi in the TR CU 021/2011.

As another control testing sample there was a semi-finished product of a high readiness degree "Frozen chicken breast stewed with sauce". The authors found the following contradictions between the regulatory documents: technical requirements did not regulate E. coli, sulfite-reducing clostridia, L. Monocytogenes bacteria, yeast, mold fungi and had no quantitative indicators.

So, it is necessary to harmonize the MG 4.2.184704 with the TR CU 021/2011 in order to eliminate contradictions at the stages of confirming the shelf life of semi-finished products of a high readiness degree.

Other mandatory requirements, as part of the expiration date confirmation, are physico-chemical and organoleptic quality indicators, the list of which significantly depends on the raw materials list and the type of culinary products [9; 10].

During the experiment, a man improved the technologies of culinary products production of the Collection of Dish Recipes and Culinary Products for public catering enterprises. For example, according to the traditional technology presented in the Technical Supervision Service, frozen sauteed soups after defrosting and heat treatment had low organoleptic quality indicators in appearance, consistency, taste and vegetable color. The authors changed the technological process in order to eliminate these inconsistencies. For example, a man brought vegetables and cereals to culinary readiness by steaming, and subjected only the semi-finished product sample to heat treatment for panini with cheese and pizza with meat and cheese.

The use of intensive freezing of semi-finished products of a high readiness degree, followed by defrosting and bringing them to culinary readiness, does not worsen their organoleptic quality indicators within the confirmed shelf life, considering the stock factor.

There were no significant changes in the assessment of physico-chemical quality indicators of

Table 4. Regulatory Documents Analysis for Differences in Microbiological Safety Indicators of Food Products Produced by Intensive Freezing Таблица 4. Анализ нормативных документов на предмет различий микробиологических показателей безопасности пищевой продукции, произведенной методом интенсивного замораживания

Culinary Products Name Including Microorganism List

Semi-Finished Products of High Readiness Degree according to the MG 4.2.1847-04 according to the TR TC 021/2011

Frozen Borsch QMAFAnM, iform bacteria, E. coli, QMAFAnM, iform bacteria (coliforms), E. coli, S. aureus, Sulfite-Reducing Clostridia

Frozen Panini with Cheese Staphylococcus, Salmonella, E coli (in the Frozen Semi-Finished Product)

Frozen Pizza with Meat Sulfite-Reducing Clostridia, Pathogenic Microorganisms, including L. Monocytogenes Bacteria, Bacteria of the Genus Proteus, Yeast, Mold Fungi QMAFAnM, iform bacteria (coliforms), Staphylococcus, Salmonella, E coli (in the Frozen Semi-Finished Product)

Chicken Breast Stewed with Frozen Sauce QMAFAnM, aliform bacteria (coliforms), S. aureus, Salmonella, Bacteria of the Genus Proteus

Pork Stewed with Frozen Sauce QMAFAnM, aliform bacteria (coliforms), S. aureus, Salmonella, Yeast, Mold, Bacteria of the Enterococcus, L. Monocytogenes

Table 5. Physico-Chemical Indicators Evaluation of the Semi-Finished Products Quality of High Readiness Degree at a Temperature not Higher than -18 °C when Determining the Shelf Life Таблица 5. Оценка физико-химических показателей качества полуфабрикатов высокой степени готовности при температуре не выше -18 °C при определения срока годности

Physico-Chemical Indicators Control Frequency, Days

of the Semi-Finished Products Quality 1 18 30 39

Frozen Chicken Breast

Mass fraction, % Fat 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.1

Dry Matter 41.0 41.2 41.6 41.8

Frozen Panini with Cheese Filling

Humidity, % 18.0 18.3 18.4 18.5

Crumb Accidity, о 0.4 - - 0.4

Frozen Borsch with Potatoes and Cabbage

Mass fraction, % Fat 15.6 15.6 15.6 15.6

Dry Matter 45.3 45.3 45.3 45.3

semi-finished products of a high readiness degree. The Table 5 presents the examples of determining regulated quality indicators within the program framework for confirming the shelf life of a semi-finished product of a high readiness degree.

The researchers revealed experimentally that the physico-chemical parameters of all frozen dishes on the first and last day of the study, considering the margin factor, had not undergone significant changes; deviations were within the error margin.

Conclusions

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The authors determined the prerequisites for the public catering services diversification in conditions of self-isolation. As a result, there was a need to confirm the shelf life of products developed by

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The regulatory documents comparison of regulating quality and safety indicators determined the need for their revision with the requirements of the TR CU 021/2011.

The research results analysis on the assortment of semi-finished products of a high readiness degree produced by the method of intensive freezing within the expiration dates showed their compliance with the regulatory document requirements on quality and safety.

The obtained results can be useful for public catering organizations implementing innovative technologies, but faced with the problem of confirming the shelf life of these products.

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Information about Authors / Информация об авторах

Bortsova,

Ekaterina Leonidovna

Борцова

Екатерина Леонидовна

Тел./Phone: +7 (343) 222-26-72 e-mail: borcovael@yandex.ru

Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Food Technology Department Ural State University of Economics

620144, Russian Federation, Ekaterinburg, 8 March/Narodnoy Voli St., 62/45

Кандидат экономических наук, доцент кафедры технологии питания Уральский государственный экономический университет

620144, Российская Федерация, г. Екатеринбург, ул. 8 Марта/Народной Воли, 62/45 ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4683-1523

Lavrova, Larisa Yuryevna

Лаврова Лариса Юрьевна

Тел./Phone: +7 (343)222-26-72 e-mail: Lavrova100@yandex.ru

Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Food Technology Department Ural State University of Economics

620144, Russian Federation, Ekaterinburg, 8 March/Narodnoy Voli St., 62/45

Кандидат технических наук, доцент, доцент кафедры технологии питания Уральский государственный экономический университет

620144, Российская Федерация, г. Екатеринбург, ул. 8 Марта/Народной Воли, 62/45 ORCID: https://orcid. org/0000-0001-6983-3017

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