Научная статья на тему 'On discourse space modeling'

On discourse space modeling Текст научной статьи по специальности «Языкознание»

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КОМПОНЕНТ / ФОРМАТИРОВАНИЕ / ОФОРМЛЕНИЕ / МОДЕЛИРОВАНИЕ / ДИСКУРСИВНОЕ ПРОСТРАНСТВО / КОГНИТИВНЫЕ СТРУКТУРЫ / СЕМАНТИЧЕСКИЕ РЕПРЕЗЕНТАЦИИ / ПРАГМАТИЧЕСКИЕ ИНТЕРПРЕТАЦИИ / ДИАЛЕКТИКА ДИСКУРСА / ИНТЕРСУБЪЕКТИВНОСТЬ / АТТРАКТИВНОСТЬ

Аннотация научной статьи по языкознанию, автор научной работы — Казыдуб Надежда Николаевна

Discourse space is a complex structure that incorporates different levels and dimensions. The paper focuses on developing a multidisciplinary approach that is congruent to the complex character of the modern discourse. Two models of discourse space are proposed here. The Integrated Model reveals the interaction of different categorical mechanisms in the construction of the discourse space. The Evolutionary Model describes the historical roots of the modern discourse. It also reveals historical factors that have brought about conceptual and structural changes in discourse space organization.

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Текст научной работы на тему «On discourse space modeling»

Флоренский П., свящ. Сочинения в 4-х т. Т. 3 (2) [Текст] / П.А. Флоренский.

- М.: Мысль, 1999 б. - 623 с.

Хоружий, С.С. К феноменологии аскезы [Текст] / С. С. Хоружий. - М.: Издательство гуманитарной литературы, 1998. - 352 с.

Христианство: [Текст]. Энциклопедический словарь. В 3 т. Т. 1. / под ред. С. С. Аверинцева. - М.: Большая Российская энциклопедия, 1993 - с. 534-535. Шмеман А., прот. Дневники. 1973-1983 [Текст] / Прот. Александр Шмеман.

- М.: Русский путь, 2005. - 720 с.

Яннарас Х. Вера Церкви: Введение в православное богословие [Текст] / Х. Яннарас. - М.: Центр по изучению религий, 1992. - 231 с.

Данная работа представляет собой дополненный и переработанный вариант статьи автора:

Постовалова В.И. «Истина» и «заблуждения» в православном миросозерцании // Логический анализ языка: Между ложью и фантазией / Отв. ред. Н.Д. Арутюнова. - М.: Издательство «Индрик», 2008. - С. 188-209.

ДИСКУРС И ТЕКСТ: ВЕКТОРЫ ИССЛЕДОВАНИЯ Казыдуб Надежда Николаевна

Доктор филологических наук, профессор, заведующая кафедрой теоретической лингвистики ФГБОУ ВПО «ИГЛУ», г. Иркутск, Россия

УДК 81’ 42 ББК 81.001.1

О МОДЕЛИРОВАНИИ ДИСКУРСИВНОГО ПРОСТРАНСТВА

Дискурсивное пространство представляет собой сложную структуру, которая включает различные уровни и измерения. Работа выполнена в русле мультидисциплинарного подхода, учитывающего сложную природу современного дискурса. В статье предлагаются две модели дискурсивного пространства: интегративная и эволюционная. Интегративная модель раскрывает взаимодействие различных категориальных механизмов при порождении дискурсивного пространства. Эволюционная модель эксплицирует исторические основы современного дискурса и определяет факторы, обусловившие концептуальные и структурные изменения в организации дискурсивного пространства.

Ключевые слова: компонент; форматирование; оформление; моделирование; дискурсивное пространство; когнитивные структуры; семантические репрезентации; прагматические интерпретации; диалектика дискурса; интерсубъективность; аттрактивность.

ON DISCOURSE SPACE MODELING

Discourse space is a complex structure that incorporates different levels and dimensions. The paper focuses on developing a multidisciplinary approach that is congruent to the complex character of the modern discourse. Two models of discourse

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space are proposed here. The Integrated Model reveals the interaction of different categorical mechanisms in the construction of the discourse space. The Evolutionary Model describes the historical roots of the modern discourse. It also reveals historical factors that have brought about conceptual and structural changes in discourse space organization.

Key words: component; formatting; styling; modeling; discourse space; cognitive structures; semantic representations; pragmatic interpretations; discourse dialectics; intersubjectivity; attractiveness.

Given the critical value of discourse organization and discourse management for effective intercultural and interpersonal communication it is reasonable to search for the basic principles of discourse space formation. Discourse space, as we understand it here, is the area of negotiating beliefs, ideas and values. It is a multi-faceted phenomenon as it relates to the complex character of human activities. I argue that discourse space is an operator that coordinates different dimensions activated in the process of communication. The list includes:

□ cultural dimension that involves cultural concepts and scripts;

□ psychological dimension that presents itself as personal intentions and personal choices;

□ semiotic dimension construed by language signs and their meanings;

□ strategic dimension constituted by cognitive, pragmatic and rhetorical strategies;

□ historical dimension that identifies historical contexts of discourse events.

As a systemic operator the discourse space sets the parameters for the interaction of the above mentioned dimensions through the assessment of their congruence to the purpose of communication. It is also an instrument of managing cultural and personal differences providing cognitive foundations for a collaborative approach to problem solving. Discourse dialectics can be grasped and illustrated by means of modeling discourse space dimensions.

Considering variety of discourse practices within the framework of the discourse space it seems the right thing to try and define key principles of discourse space modeling. These principles provide the ideological and structural coherence of the discourse space as well as govern the combinability and interaction of its structural elements. The key principles correlate with systemic characteristics that retain the discourse identity across a multitude of contexts. Key principles can be termed as authenticity, intellectual and emotional convergence, intersubjectivity, social and linguistic variation and historical perspective.

The key factor of the discourse space is the discourse personality, i.e. a person involved in communication. The discourse personality possesses a wide range of features and feelings. Cf.: “If I am anything as a person, it is what I think judge feel value

honor

esteem

love

hate

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fear

desire

hope for

believe in

and

am committed to” [Powell, 1969, p. 7].

Further, the discourse personality has a number of identities: physical, psychological, geographical, ethnic, cultural, social and contextual [Crystal, 2001, p. 17]. So the discourse space model has to allow for cognitive and linguistic diversity. “Instead of taking it for granted that everyone has the “same” reality, we now address the pro b-lem of how and how far different people’s models of reality may converge or diverge [Beaugrande, 1994, p. 4]. The discourse personality is considered a critical factor for the present model because it shapes the discourse through selection of cognitive, semantic and pragmatic instruments appropriate for the context of communication. The discourse personality weaves the fabric of the discourse measuring the illocutionary force of an utterance against its perlocutionary effect. And it is the discourse personality that activates the dimensions of the discourse space.

It might be thus expected that the discourse space model should allow for flexible instruments to “assemble” and “reassemble”, coordinate and harmonize different parameters and component elements of human cognition and communication. Coordination triggers the interaction of cultural, psychological, semantic, pragmatic and strategic dimensions of the discourse space. The above mentioned phenomena are the constituents of the Integrated Model.

The cultural dimension can be described in terms of cultural concepts and cultural scripts. Fundamental for the discourse organization are value concepts that reveal cultural priorities and preferences [Donaldson, 1996; Fairbanks, 2000; Macionis, 2002; Ka3bigy6, 2009]. Value concepts create discourse orientation syst ems - frames for strategic decisions and linguistic choices of the language user. Value concepts make the skeleton of the discourse and open vistas for discourse negotiations. Such concepts operate on different levels: universal, ethnic, social and personal. Thus, there are different routes to access human motives to stimulate a happy and productive discourse.

Value concepts are actualized by specific language descriptions:

• Lexemes: HONOUR. POWER. PRESTIGE. INDEPENDENCE.

CITIZENSHIP.

• Collocations: COMMITMENT TO PROGRESS. ROMANTIC LOVE. GOOD SPORTSMANSHIP. PERSONAL CHOICE. MATERIAL WEALTH.

• Proverbs and sayings: TIME IS MONEY. A PENNY SAVED IS A PENNY EARNED. A MAN’S HOME IS HIS CASTLE.

Of special interest are the names of heroes and heroines ascertaining the most fundamental value concepts: Abraham Lincoln, Martin Luther King, John F. Kennedy, Yuri Gagarin and Princess Diana.

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Incalculably important are “cultural truths” - implicit cultural beliefs that are taken as givens by native speakers but may not be accepted as such by a person from a different culture or subculture [Kohls and Knight, 1997, p. 39]. Asymmetrical and incongruous cultural assumptions may bring about culture clashes and create risks of cross-cultural conflicts. To overcome such risks one needs to be able to access deep layers and symbolic levels of the target culture through interactive experiences.

The psychological dimension involves personal indexes and personal senses. Personal indexes portray the language user as a person with various statuses (both acquired and achieved) and experiences of various kinds. Since the quality of a person is argued to be the critical factor for his / her success it is worth while trying to identify a range of features that help construct a cooperative discourse space. These features can be considered as personal assets and potent cognitive resources for achieving a communicative goal of the discourse message. The following list draws upon the qualities the language user has to possess to be an effective communicator:

■ non-linear thinking:

■ cognitive flexibility;

■ charisma power;

■ creativity;

■ credibility;

■ responsibility;

■ reliability;

■ multi-level communication skills.

Personal indexes account for a wide spectrum of personal senses that are activated and negotiated by the communicators in the process of discourse space modeling.

The semiotic dimension establishes relations between language descriptions and cultural meanings. The latter make up the worldview of any mainstream culture. They are rooted in the cultural history, relate to cultural identities and fix both cultural patterns and practices. Since culture is a dynamic phenomenon cultural meanings are being modified by time and new environment. Also, new cultural truths are being introduced. Language descriptions are loaded with cultural meanings that suggest certain ways of their interpretation as well as govern the choice of language in intra- and intercultural contexts. Cultural meanings can be described in terms of components, aspects and satellites.

The component representation reveals the constituents of the semantic structure of a culturally loaded word. For example, the semantic structure of the word friendship incorporates such features as amity, sociality, brotherhood, likeness, knowledge, love, intimacy, support, introduction, reconciliation, not enmity.

The aspect representation makes explicit a wide range of aspects cultural phenomena demonstrate. For instance, power can be legitimate, reward, coercive, expert, charisma, referent, etc.

The satellite representation brings to focus satellite meanings that provide conditions for the reconstruction and interpretation of cultural contexts. Thus, the cultural meaning of motivation can be grasped through its satellites: purpose, challenge, camaraderie, responsibility, growth and inspirational leadership.

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There is an important issue of how cultural meanings interact with personal senses. There is no simple correlation between cultural knowledge and personal experience. Basically, there can be two interactional scripts: congruent and incongruous. In the congruent script cultural meanings and personal senses do not conflict thus making it possible for the language user to choose the safe discourse route of cultural and personal convergence. The incongruous script is a conflict one: a clash between cultural meanings and personal senses distorts the discourse space balance and leads to misunderstandings and misinterpretations. Though there are ways to channel incongruous personal senses into culturally accepted frames.

The strategic dimension provides an inventory of strategies to manage discourse relationships and create optimal matching of cultural meanings and personal senses. For such a purpose there is a wide choice of strategies that can be differentiated in terms of their functional characteristics. The strategic repertoire of the discourse space consists of:

• cognitive strategies;

• semantic strategies:

• pragmatic strategies;

• rhetorical strategies;

• repair strategies.

Cognitive strategies define fundamental principles for the choice of cognitive processes and cognitive representations. The latter are functionally important for the discourse space production and interpretation.

Semantic strategies give rules for the selection of cultural meanings appropriate for an actual discourse event and offer instruments to relate cultural meanings to the goal of the discourse and characteristic features of the pragmatic context.

Pragmatic strategies demonstrate the ways to adapt our linguistic choices to cultural norms and pragmatic maxima of socially accepted and approved behavior.

Rhetorical strategies - means to produce an effective discourse and influence on people in the way the addresser desires and plans it to be.

Repair strategies govern the choice of instruments to compensate for the damage done either intentionally or unintentionally to the development of discourse events or relations.

Thinking about the discourse space in evolutionary terms reveals how discourse space historically develops and progresses. The historical perspective integrates past into present and future development of social interaction. The Evolutionary Model highlights the key parameters of discourse space in different historic periods and the changes that reshape discourse structures and practices.

The combination of actual and retrospective descriptions of discourse space is a heuristic procedure that might prove effective for a complex discourse analysis.

List of References

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1. Beaugrande, R. de Cognition, Communication, Translation, Instruction. The Geopolitics of Discourse [Text] / R. de Beaugrande // Language, Discourse and Translation in the West and Middle East; ed. by R de Beaugrande, A Shunnaq and M. H. Helief. - Amsterdam; Philadelphia : John Benjamins Publishing Company, 1994.- P. 1-22.

2. Crystal, D. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language [Text] / D. Crystal. -Second edition. - Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 1997. -487 p.

3. Donaldson, T. Values in Tension: Ethics Away from Home [Text] / T. Donaldson // Harvard Business Review. - 1996. - V. 74. - № 5. - P. 48-62.

4. Fairbanks, M. Changing the Mind of a Nation: Elements in a Process for Creating Prosperity [Text] / M. Fairbanks // Culture Matters: how values shape human progress; ed. by L. E. Harrison, S. P. Huntington. - New York : Basic Books, 2000. - P. 268-281.

5. Kohls, L. R. Developing intercultural awareness: a cross-cultural training book [Text] / L. R. Kohls, J. M. Knight. - Yarmouth : Intercultural Press, Inc., 1994.-283 p.

6. Macionis, J. J. Society. The Basics [Text] / J. J. Macionis. -6th ed. - New Jersey : Prentice Hall, 2002. -515 p.

7. Powell, J. Why Am I Afraid to Tell You Who I Am. Insights into Personal Growth [Text] / J. Powell. -Allen, Texas : Tabor Publishing, 1969. - 198 p.

8. Казыдуб, Н. Н. Аксиологические системы в языке и речи [Текст] / Н. Н. Казыдуб // Вестник Иркутского государственного лингвистического университета. - 2009. - № 2 (6). - С. 132-137.

Тюрнева Татьяна Викторовна

Кандидат филологических наук, доцент кафедры английского языка 2-ая специальность ФГБОУ ВПО «ИГЛУ», Иркутск, Россия

УДК 81 ББК 81.432.1

ФЕНОМЕНОЛОГИЯ Э. ГУССЕРЛЯ КАК ОСНОВА КОГНИТИВНОГО ИССЛЕ ДОВАНИЯ МАНИПУЛЯЦИИ И СТОЛКНОВЕНИЯ

ИНТЕРПРЕТАНТ ЧЕРЕЗ ОНТОПСИХОЛОГИЧЕСКУЮ ПРИЗМУ

Дискурс различий может наблюдаться в любой исторический период, однако именно в современную эпоху постмодерна эта дискурсивная практика наиболее распространена. Отсутствие единого вектора интерпретации приводит к появлению индивидуальных контекстов интерпретации знаков, которые зиждутся на личном опыте интеракции индивида со знаками какой-либо семиосферы. Более того, подобный хаос интерпретаций послужил отправной точкой к началу процесса симулякризации ключевых знаков культуры.

Ключевые слова: Дискурс Различий; концепт; феноменология; опыт; интерпретация; онтопсихология.

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