Научная статья на тему 'Некоторые специфические аспекты управления системой образования, осуществляемого в царской России в Кавказском регионе'

Некоторые специфические аспекты управления системой образования, осуществляемого в царской России в Кавказском регионе Текст научной статьи по специальности «Науки об образовании»

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Ключевые слова
CAUCASIAN POLICY OF TSARIST RUSSIA / SCHOOL STATUES AND REGULATIONS / CAUCASUS EDUCATION DISTRICT / DISTRICT AND MOSLEM SCHOOLS / PLEIAD OF NEW ENLIGHTENERS / ПОЛИТИКА ЦАРСКОЙ РОССИИ НА КАВКАЗЕ / ПОЛОЖЕНИЯ И УСТАВ ШКОЛЫ / КАВКАЗСКИЙ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНЫЙ (УЧЕБНЫЙ) ОКРУГ / УЕЗДНЫЕ И МУСУЛЬМАНСКИЕ ШКОЛЫ / НОВАЯ ПЛЕЯДА ПРОСВЕТИТЕЛЕЙ

Аннотация научной статьи по наукам об образовании, автор научной работы — Байрамов Гасан Байрам Оглы

В статье разбирается история создания царской Россией региональной модели управления образования на Кавказе, прослеживается развитие и переход этого процесса на качественно новый уровень. Предметом особого исследования является роль уставов и положений школы, принятых в разные годы. Разбирая влияние указанных процессов на формирование светских школ нового типа на территориях Южного Кавказа, заселенных в основном мусульманами. Основываясь на полученных данных, изучается становление и развитие национального просветительства в лице новой плеяды русскоязычных просветителей. Также отмечается, что в связи с усилением влияния русского царизма на Ближнем Востоке и его общеевропейской политикой Северный Азербайджан приобретал все большее значение для царской России. Завоевание Кавказа являлось важной составляющей в решении т.н. «восточного» вопроса. Для проведения русификаторской политики на национальных окраинах, (Южном Кавказе в том числе), содержания местных народов в повиновении и как следствие, укрепления своих позиций в Кавказском регионе Российской империи были необходимы русскоязычные служащие, способные работать в государственных учреждениях. Потребность в таких государственных служащих можно было удовлетворить лишь открывая светские школы нового типа. Эта деятельность в свою очередь требовала формирования новых структур образования. В статье разбирается вопросы, связанные процессами, указанными выше.

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SOME SPECIFIC ASPECTS OF EDUCATION SYSTEM GOVERNANCE CARRIED OUT IN PERIOD OF TSAR RUSSIA IN CAUCASUS

In this article the process of regional model of education governing, it’s development and transition to new stage is studied. That’ why the school regulations approved in different periods, their role in education system became the object of special investigation. The process of schools of new type in Southern Caucasus, the influence of regulations on that process is studied also. It’s also pointed out, that secular schools of new type, functioned in territories, inhabited by Moslems intensified the forming of national Azerbaijani Enlightenment and that historical phenomenon was presented by pleiad of Russian –speaking intelligentsia. It’s underlined in article, that Caucasus and Northern Azerbaijan had particular military and strategic importance for the strengthening of Russian Tsarism in Middle East, for it’s all-European policy. Conquering of Caucasus was a part of “oriental problem decision” for Russian Empire. Russian Empire had the aim to keep inhabitant of it’s colonies in obedience, to conduct policy of rusification and strengthen it’s positions in Caucasus region.Russian Empire had to prepare Russian –speaking functionaries, which had to work in different state structures and carry out Russian colonial policy in regions. That purpose could be realized by opening of new, secular schools and forming of new ruling structure in education system. In article these problems are studied.

Текст научной работы на тему «Некоторые специфические аспекты управления системой образования, осуществляемого в царской России в Кавказском регионе»

УДК 37

Hasan Bayram BAYRAMOV Azerbaijan State Pedagogical University Baku, Azerbaijan bayramov.hasan@mail.ru

SOME SPECIFIC ASPECTS OF EDUCATION SYSTEM GOVERNANCE CARRIED OUT IN PERIOD OF TSAR RUSSIA IN CAUCASUS

In this article the process of regional model of education governing, it's development and transition to new stage is studied. That' why the school regulations approved in different periods, their role in education system became the object of special investigation. The process of schools of new type in Southern Caucasus, the influence of regulations on that process is studied also. It's also pointed out, that secular schools of new type , functioned in territories, inhabited by Moslems intensified the forming of national Azerbaijani Enlightenment and that historical phenomenon was presented by pleiad of Russian -speaking intelligentsia.

It's underlined in article, that Caucasus and Northern Azerbaijan had particular military and strategic importance for the strengthening of Russian Tsarism in Middle East, for it's all-European policy. Conquering of Caucasus was a part of "oriental problem decision" for Russian Empire.

Russian Empire had the aim to keep inhabitant of it's colonies in obedience, to conduct policy of rusification and strengthen it's positions in Caucasus region. Russian Empire had to prepare Russian -speaking functionaries, which had to work in different state structures and carry out Russian colonial policy in regions. That purpose could be realized by opening of new, secular schools and forming of new ruling structure in education system. In article these problems are studied.

Keywords: Caucasian policy of Tsarist Russia, school statues and regulations, Caucasus Education district, district and Moslem schools, pleiad of new enlighteners.

DOI: 10.17748/2075-9908-2015-7-6/1 -00-00

БАЙРАМОВ Гасан Байрам оглы Азербайджанский Государственный Педагогический

Университет г. Баку. Азербайджан bayramov.hasan@mail.ru

НЕКОТОРЫЕ СПЕЦИФИЧЕСКИЕ АСПЕКТЫ УПРАВЛЕНИЯ СИСТЕМОЙ ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ, ОСУЩЕСТВЛЯЕМОГО В ЦАРСКОЙ РОССИИ В КАВКАЗСКОМ

РЕГИОНЕ

В статье разбирается история создания царской Россией региональной модели управления образования на Кавказе, прослеживается развитие и переход этого процесса на качественно новый уровень. Предметом особого исследования является роль уставов и положений школы, принятых в разные годы. Разбирая влияние указанных процессов на формирование светских школ нового типа на территориях Южного Кавказа, заселенных в основном мусульманами. Основываясь на полученных данных, изучается становление и развитие национального просветительства в лице новой плеяды русскоязычных просветителей. Также отмечается, что в связи с усилением влияния русского царизма на Ближнем Востоке и его общеевропейской политикой Северный Азербайджан приобретал все большее значение для царской России. Завоевание Кавказа являлось важной составляющей в решении т.н. «восточного» вопроса. Для проведения русификаторской политики на национальных окраинах, (Южном Кавказе в том числе), содержания местных народов в повиновении и как следствие, укрепления своих позиций в Кавказском регионе Российской империи были необходимы русскоязычные служащие, способные работать в государственных учреждениях. Потребность в таких государственных служащих можно было удовлетворить лишь открывая светские школы нового типа. Эта деятельность в свою очередь требовала формирования новых структур образования. В статье разбирается вопросы, связанные процессами, указанными выше.

Ключевые слова: политика царской России на Кавказе, положения и устав школы, Кавказский Образовательный (Учебный) Округ, уездные и мусульманские школы, новая плеяда просветителей.

The actuality of the research: The Caucasus region and Northern Azerbaijan particularly was always of great military and strategic significance for Russian Empire. That significance was based on strengthening of Russian Empire, it's influence in Middle and Front Asia, it's all-European policy. The conquest of Caucasus was the main part of "oriental problem" decision.

Alike other national regions, in Southern Caucasus Russian Empire also had the aim to keep native peoples in obedience, to pursue the policy of russification and in such way stregthen it's power in this region. For realization of it's strategic plans Russian Empire needed state employeers, speaking Russian language. The training of such employees was possible by opening new, secular schools.

In the article all these problems are analyzed comparatively, basing on hisyorical facts and documents.

The theoretical importance of investigation consists of clearing up the genesis of education policy, carried out in national districts of Russian Empire.

The practical importance of investigation consists of comparative -historical analyses of main education tendencies of that historical period in order to study the history of Azerbaijani national education.

Tsarist government considered the occupied countries as object of Russification and Christianization policy. In the territories, where non-Russian and non-christian population lived monasters and churches were built, the inhabitant was converted to Christianity by force. In XVIII century in Kazan Archbishop Guriya opened missionary schools. The same initiation was shown by Russian government in territory of Urals and Siberia. E.g. one school was opened in Irkutsk for training missionaries from Buryat children. Such schools were opened also in Kamchatka for Northern peoples (12, 11). The training process was cariried out in Russian, that's why the children were gathered at school by force.

After conquering Northern Azerbaijan by Russian Empire tsarsit government met with very serious problems here. The main of them was neccessity of training of officials, functionaries who could help to strengthen the social and economical positions of Russian Empire in this region. It meant the neccessity of new education system forming. Education system carried out by Russian tsarism in Northern Azerbaijan was a part of Russian colonial system and had all it's negative characteristic features.

In the same time, objectively, that system prepared in Northern Azerbaijan the basis for getting education in new, progressive, secular way. In general, that historical period was very important stage of Azerbaijani Enlightenment history. That time is characterized by setting of new, Russian primary schools and by reorganization of traditional education system too.

After occupation of Northern Azerbaijan the system of primary education was still concentrated in special religious schools- molla-khanas, lead by Moslem confessors. Those schools were the main soucer and factor of religious outlook forming. According the historical documents, in 1842 in Baku, Guba, Karabakh, Shaki, Shirvan and Lankaran regions of Azerbaijan 502 schools, under mosques functioned. In those schools 534 teachers worked, 5242 pupils studied (2, 127).

It's known from history, that colonial and conqueror states, always tried to make conquered peoples get their mode of life, to teach their language and impose their culture. As it's seen from Russian history, Russian influence among Caucasian peoples, and in it's Northern part especially was carried out and propangandized by Russian schools and Christian Orthodox (Pravoslav) church confessors (7, 5-12).

While conquering separate Caucasian countries and peoples, tsarist government tried to spread education in Russian language among lower part of local inhabitant as much as possible. As a rule, "enlightenment activity" of Russian Empire began from spreading of Christianity.

In connection with it, count I.F.Paskevich prepared a number of suggestions on that subject. The Comitee of Educational Institutions of Public Education Ministry agreed with three main suggestions of I.F. Paskevich. These suggestions were following: 1. to bring the number of district schools to 20; to maintain 40 students of Tiflis gymnasium from state budjet; 3. increasing of teachers' pay. As for fourth suggestion, Committee considered necessary to give teachers in schools of Southern Caucasus equal privileges and rights with civil functionaries, working in provinces.

So, 1829, 2 August, Russian government approved " Statue of Southern Caucasus Schools". That document became the basis of Russian State education system in Southern Caucasus and in Northern Azerbaijan, and defined it's following development.

Really, Russian state education system began to establish by opening new schools in Northern Azerbaijan, Georgia and other regions of Southern Caucasus. It must be also pointed out, that earlier, in mentioned countries state education system didn't exist.

In 8 December 1828 the general regulation of education system was approved. The main aim of that regulation was to rule the primary and secondary educational institutions and to apply unitary rules in that sphere. Except that regulation tsarist government considered neccessary to apply special statue for Southern Caucasus schools, taking into account the local conditions and neccessities. According that statue unification had to be applied in four of six districts.

Russian goovernment took into account, that "Southern Caucasus was relatively "young" province of Russiian epire." That's why, in educational activity and policy Russian Empire prefered to add it particular, specific character. In the same time, in some other cases (not mentioned in statue) the regulations, approved in 1828, 8 December for gymnasiums, district and parish schools had to be applied in Southern Caucasus school as guide for action.

According " Statue about Southern Caucasus schools" in province one gymnasium (e.g in Tiflis, Georgia), and 20 district ("uyezd"-Russian) schools had to be established. Seven of those schools had to work in Tiflis, Gori, Telavi, Signag, Dusheti, Kutaisi and in Mingrelia princedom. ( In Mingrelia the school could act in agreement of Mingrelia governor). 10 of those schools had to work in Yelizavetpol (Ganja), Shusha, Nukha (Shaki), Shamakhi, Nakhchivan, Ordubad, Guba, Baku, Kulbe (Julfa) and Gazakh. At last, two schools had to work in Irevan and Jalaloglu, 1 school had to work in Derbend.

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Basing on "Statue" of 1829, in Southern Caucasus a number of Russian educational institutions were opened. Derbend district school was one of those schools. The opening of that school was annouced officially, but in fact, the lessons in that school began in 1838, 2 January.

So, 14 schools of Southern Caucasian 20 schools had to be created in different regions of Northern Azerbaijan. But such little number of schools wasn't enough for that country. That's why, it was decided, that new "Statue" will come into operation since 1 January, 1836. Two-years schools, functioned in region, were transformed into three year schools, their syllabuses became more broad. In programme of three years school new subjects, such as geography and history were included (8, 1361).

It must be also pointed out, that instead of 20 schools, had to be open basing on statue of 2 August 1829, only 11 schools were opened. In 1830 four schools were opened in Gori, Kutaisi, Telavi, Shusha, in 1831 four schools were opened in Signag, Ahalsikh, Nukha, Irevan. The rest three schools were opened in Baku (1832), Yelizavetpol (1833), and Dusheti (1834).

The statue of 1834 was considered as measure, aimed to high guardianship to Southern Caucasus region, whch was inportant and very interesting region for Russian Empire. Russian schools, established here had to be " the last and furthest trophy of Russian gun" (11, 727).

So, since 30th of XIX century, in Southern Caucasus, and in Northern Azerbaijan also Russian educational system began to spread gradually.

In PALEJENIS statue of 12 May 1835 the exact and clear rules of training organization were given. According that document in first two classes (I and II classes) the teaching had to be carried out in native language, but later (since III class) the teaching had to carried out in Russian.

As a result, the education in Russian gradually became useful and neccessary for all peoples of Southern Caucasus. Local citizens sent their children to Russian schools with more desire, enthusiasm. In spite of this fact, the Azerbaijani children were in minority in those schools in comparison with Georgians and Armenians.

According to regulations of 1835 in Nothern Azerbaijan disrtrict schools had to be opened. One of them was opened in Nakhchivan in March of 1837, first year in that school 20 pupils were accepted.

Next district school was opened in 20 May, 1838 in Shamakhi. The schools, planned in accordance with regulation in Gazakh, Guba, Lankaran were not opened again because of some objective and subjective reasons.

Local and central Russian power couldn't work out and prepare regular educational policy in Southern Caucasus for a long time. In order to to form educative activity in correspondence with their own will new regulations were approved in 1848. Those regulations proved the will of government to open two new schools Northern Azerbaijan. One of them was in Guba, another one- Lankaran region. Soon, the establishing of schools of such kind was stopped, and it was substatiated by "absence of financial means". But, as matter of fact, it was based on unwillingness to spend money from state treasury. Really, both in Guba and in Lankaran the necessity of such school was obvious.

The weak development of school system in Southern Caucasus took place because of number of reasons. One of them was absence of definite person in regions, responsible for education policy here. By statues, approved in 1829 and 1835 the ruling of that system was entrusted to director of Tiflis gymnasium. All schools were subordinated to Central administration of Southern Caucasus. Educational institutions of Siberia province (e.g. in Tobolsk, Tomsk, Irkutsk, Yeniseysk) also subordinated to civil governors (11, 329).

In that period in national regions of Russian Empire Moslem schools were paid particular attention. That's the reason, that M.S. Vorontsov decided to to prepare a special project for "Moslem" schools. That work was entrusted to famous orientalist M.S. Khanikov and inspektor of Southern Caucasus schools I.V. Roskovshenko. When the projects were prepared, governor-general became familiar with them and approved N. Khanikov's one. So, it was considered advisable to establish such schools as experiment.

The name "moslem schools" was also given in accordance with state policy of Russian tsarism. It must be also pointed out, that establishment of "Ali" and "Omar" schools wasn't only pedagogical, but the social experiment also (10, 55).

Such social-pedagogic experiment had the aim to define the level of influence of those names on social psychology of Moslem inhabitant and could help to define, how local Moslem inhabitant perceived that "novelty". The name "moslem school" had positive influence and Moslems began to send their children to Russian schools with more enthusiasm.

The second aim of Russian schools establishing was to demonstrate the advantages of Russian schools over traditional, religious education. That aim could be achieved only by providing correct, considered teaching and educational work (10, 56).

The first school for Moslem children was opened in 10 April, 1849, in Yelizavetpol. The school worked at the expence of little allocations, given by governor-general. The chief mosque of

Yelizavetpol provided that school by light and fuel. In teaching plan of that school different subjects, such as Azerbaijani, Persian, Russian languages, arithmetic, geographcs, and history were included. First year to Yelizavetpol Moslem school 22 pupils were admitted (5, 62).

In short time that school began to be distinguished by it's successes. That fact was pointed in 1849 in newspaper "Caucasus": "Here (at school) young Moslem attain great success in study Russian, Tatar (Azerbaijani, H.B.) Persian languages (3, 63).

In 1849, April 23, Moslem (Shiite) school was founded in Shusha.

In 1849, 2 May in Shamakhi two schools for Moslem children (Shiite and Sunni) were founded officially. In inaguration of both schools governor-general M. S. Vorontzov and his wife took part. As a matter of fact, the schools began to work earlier, from 1st February.

In territory of Northern Azerbaijan the next school for Moslem children was founded in 1849, 18 May in Baku. In general, in all district schools only 49 pupils of different nationalities studied. As for newly founded Baku Moslem school, in short period 50 pupils began to study here.

Gradually, in 1850 new Moslem schools began to work in Nukha, in Lankaran and in Salyan.

In spite of short time of activity and definite defects in training system, those schools played very serious role in development of public education and founding of new type schools in Northern Azerbaijan.

In 1849, 18 December Russian government confirmed the statue "About founding of independent educative district in Caucasus" and it's stuff. The Russian government also laid down definite conditions:

1. The statue and personnel had to function as experiment board during three years;

2. Governor-general of Caucasus will conduct the statue and stuff gradually. It means, that his directions will be fullfilled not by means of state funds, but by using finances, which are in his own disposal.

3. In three years after of statue and stuff approving governor-general must submit special document. In that document information about all necessary additions to statue and stuff must be given, basing on three year experience.

In accordance with statue in Caucasus 35 educational institutions were to be founded. But till the day of statue confirming in Southern Caucasus only 17 educational institutes-1 gymnasium and 16 district schools- functioned.

Among other educative districts of Russian Empire Caucasus district was the "yongest" one. There were few schools here, in spite of it, this district differed from others by it's positive innovations. One of them was that students from well-provided families were also included in state education policy and paid good amounts for schools. As a result, they transformed into bearers of Enlightenment ideas, and helped to realize government plan of public education.

So, before 1853 the main aim of tsarist educative policy in Caucasus region was to adapt schools to specifics local conditions. Gradually, in Caucasus the government suggested new directions of educative activity. E.g. the structure of local Caucasus educational institutions gradually was brought closer to Russian educational institutions without refusion from local conditions and specifics.

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The first device of Caucsian schools was to adapt to local conditions, but new aim was to make Caucasian schools closer to Russian ones. There is no doubt, Russian Empire aspired to strengthen it's positions in new colonies, and having got it's aim, tsarist rejime gradually refused from political manipulations, and didn't cover up it's real aims by falce "care for needs of local peoples".

Basing on those principles the project of reorganization of Caucasus educational department was confirmed as test for 4 years period in 29 October 1853. In the same time in government decree one important idea was stressed:

the educative institutions, function in Caucasus must be formed in correspondence with structure of the schools, placed in internal provinces. In such way in Caucasus and in Southern Caucasus particularly the public education will be organized in accordance to public education system, exists in other regions of Russian Empire (11, 1256).

So, these recommendations defined the future activity of Caucasus educative administration, it's duties and programme.

Every time, approving new regulation, the term "accounting of local conditions" was brough forward as main thesis. But really, the "local conditions" notion was taken into account not for interest of people, but for colonial policy and interests of Russian Empire. So, the school regulations, applied temporarily in that historical period, were nothing but masking real aims of Russian Empire and demonstrating itself as "instructive, educational" state.

In 1869, 2 June new statue about education system ruling was approved. It was supposed, that statue had to remain valid till 1863, 1 January. According that statue the ruling of education system was given to subjection of Central administration of Caucasus governor-general, concretely to Common department. Thus, Caucasian Education district was abolished, it's rights were given to province chairmen.

The abolishment of education districts, and giving them to district and region civil governors and chiefs subordination, became the reason of internal discipline weakening, passiveness of pedagogical collective, etc. Naturally, all these factors became the reason of decrease of education standard, it's quality and loosing the success of pupils, low level of teaching process. In the half of 60th of XIX century all characteristic features, mentioned above, were typical for Caucasus educational institutions, uncluding the schools, working in Azerbaijan.

In 1867, December 9, new regulation was approved. Basing on that regulation new statue of Caucasus Education District (QTD) was approved and the educative district was restored. According that regulation local schools brought closer to general educative system and the teaching of Russian was intensified. The Russian pupils were not obliged to study local languages. The system of schools was widened, district schools, existed in Southern Caucasus were transformed into three years schools, boarding school were created. Since 1867 Caucasus Education District (QTD) monthly edition "Regulations" began to be published.

In accordance with regulations, approved in 1867, 15 May (1, 321), the Ministry of People Education in Caucasus region, it's institutions were subordinated to only inspectorate ( in borders of governor-general rights) and was shared among 5 directorates.

Thus, gradually the district schools transformed into almost useless bodies for Caucasian cities That's why, their substituting by educative institutes of other kind was inevitable. It means, that the substitution of district schools by industrial vocational schools or by two-years schools was a demand of time. That's why new consideration of statue was connected with the widening of education district activity.

In 1871, 30 July the Russian government approved new regulation for gymnasiums and classical schools. The regulation of 1871changed the educational, administrative, economical structure of educative institutions. In accordance with that regulations, directors had to take part in educative activity themselves, together with teachers. Besides, the rules appointed a post of class tutor.

In 1870 people schools began to be created in provinces. In 1827, 27 of January in Caucasus Education District (QTD) Baku-Dagestan directorate was formed. Educative institutions, subordinated to Baku directorate and Derbend educative institutions were handed over to that directorate.

The regulations of of gymnasiums and classical schools, dated by 1871, 30 July and regulations of non-classical, secondary schools, dated by 1872, 15 May, the rules of their application in Caucasus education district were confirmed by Russian Emperor in 1873, 15 May. So, 1873 became the year of transition of educative activity in Southern Caucasus region in accordance with rules, being in force in other Russian regions, and unification of all that activity. In the same time, that unification had some mechanical character.

In 15 May of 1872 regulations about non-classical, secondary schools were approved. New regulations of gymnasiums and secondary schools began to put into practice in Caucasus and Azerbaijan since 1874.

L.Modzalevski characterized that process in such way: " In that period in education sphere great enlivening was observed. That prosess was so intensive, that deputy staffs from Shusha, Aleksandropol, Zagatala, Poti, Akhalkala, Racha and other places came to Caucasus governor-general or sent written requests to open new schools. Even village communities joined to that activity and collected enough donations for that advantegous and noble action." (6, 27).

In 70th of XIX century a number of regulations for schools in Southern Caucasus, were applied, including regulations for gymnasiums and classical schools (July 30, 1871) and regulations for non-classical secondary schools and urban schools (15 May, 1872). After it special regulations for school of Southern Caucasus lost their validity. As a result, secular schools in Northern Azerbaijan alike all Caucasian schools became more correspondent to all school system of Russian Empire and the schools began to be managed by regulations of Russian Empire.

At the end of XIX century in Moslem regions of Russian Empire the movement for establishing schools of new type began to expand. One of main aims of that movement was to create new schools, in which the training process was based on new, modern methods of education.

The schools of new type were created because of time demands, necessity to add to traditional Moslem schools some innovator character and it became one of positive tendencies in Russian Empire educative activity. That innovations began from Ismail bey Gasprinski's activity, and later that

approach spread not only in Moslem areas of Russian Empire, but in Iran and Turkey. As a result, it became great historical incitement for further social and enlightenment reforms in important geopolitical area.... As it's known, that according the old, letter-syllable method training begins from alphabet and after learning, mastering it the pupils immediately began to study religious books. By this method the training learned with difficulties and the pupils wasted too much time for getting primary education.

As for new phonetic method, here the training also began from alphabet. But here, each letter was pronounced not as word, but as sound, then followed in alphabet order alike in Russian. Such method was basis of all training and gave opportunity to learn reading and writing in short time. (4, 416).

Outstanding Azerbaijani thinker, the teacher of Irevan gymnasium Firudin Kocherli underlined the importance of schools of new type, gave high prize to their activity. F. Kocharli's oipinions were reflected in his article, published in "Keshkul" (Irevan). (look. "Keshkul", 1890, 20 April, №104.).

By "Regulations", approved in 2 November, 1873 "public" education of Caucasus area, was included in school system of Russian Empire. In such way the preferences, given to those, who entered high schools were removed. The teaching of Russian languge became more active in that period.

In 1881 Caucasus Education District was subordinated to Russian Ministry of Public Education. Thus, in Southern Caucaus, including Azerbaijan the governing of education system passed completely in authority of tsarist rejime.

Before 1881 Caucasian educative administration fucntioned as special part of Chief Admnistration of Caucasian Governorate-general. In 1883, 26 April, the Governorate-general in Caucasus was liquidated. Then, new governing structure- Chief civil department- was arranged and correspondent edicts were published. After it, Caucasian Educative district was subordinated to Ministry of Public Education Ministry, which was independent educative-administrative institution, functioned basing on the same rules.

As it's seen, the strengthening of transition to primary education, the improvement of school system structure was observed during all XIX century. In connection with all these processes the Ministry of Publuc Education faced with serious difficulties. The Ministry tried to get the right to open one- and two yeasr schools itself. Besides, if the opening of such schools could be charged to guardian of education districts, in such case the privilege to define state subsidies for the schools (one and two schools- H.B.) also had to be given to Ministry of Public Education.

The government took into account all points, marked by ministry of Public Education and 1900, 5 June took a decision " About changing of terms for opening one and two years schools of Ministry Public Education".

It's quite logic, that in borders of Russian Empire in primary education problem Caucasus was at last position after Siberia and Turkistan. (9, 163).

It was serious sign of Russian Empire attitude to national regions, and to Caucasus especially. It's necessary to remember, that the main attention of that activity was concentrated on Tiflis, which was the centre of Caucasus province.

It means, that educative activity developed in areas where christians lived or regional specifics was good, suitable for further conversion to Christianity.

As for territories, where Moslem inhabitant was in the majority, Christian public education didn't spread here very widely and drawing of Moslem inhabitant into public education of new type was paid very little attention. In spite of it, Moslem inhabitant was in progress even in such little "condition" and aspired to widen the limits of national enlightenment, to define the main priorities of new orientation in education, to adopt European values. (13)

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БИБЛИОГРАФИЧ ЕСКИЕ ССЫЛКИ

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5. Ghmadov T. Nariman Narimanov. Baki: Yazigi, 1982, 298 p. (in Azerbaijani)

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9. Пашаев А.Х. Очерки истории начального образования на Кавказе в XIX - начале XX веков. Баку: Изд-во АПИ, 1991, 214 с.

10. Пашаев А.Х. Очерки истории Азербайджанской школы в Грузии в XIX начале XX веков. Учебное пособие, Баку: Изд-во АГПИ, 1997, 120 с.

11. Сборник постановлений по Министерству народного просвещения. т.1, СПб., Тип. Императорской Академии Наук, 1864, 1887 с.

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Information about the author

Информация об авторе

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Hasan Bayram Bayramov, Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, Associate Professor. Senior Lecturer

Azerbaijan State Pedagogical University, Baku, Azerbaijan bayramov.hasan@mail.ru

Байрамов Гасан Байрам оглы, кандидат педагогических наук, доцент. старший преподаватель, Азербайджанский Государственный Педагогический Университет, г. Баку. Азербайджан bayramov.hasan@mail.ru

Received: 04.08.2016

For article citation: BayramovH.B. Some specific aspects of education system governance carried out in period of tsar Russia in Caucasus. Is-toricheskaya i sotsial'no-obrazovatelnaya mys'l = Historical and Social Educational Ideas. 2016. Vol . 8. no. 5. Part. 1. Pp. 00-00. doi: 10.17748/2075-9908-2015-7-6/2-00-00. ( in English)

Получена: 04.08.2016

Для цитирования статьи: Bayramov H.B. Some specific aspects of education system governance carried out in period of tsar Russia in Caucasus.

[Некоторые специфические аспекты управления системой образования, осуществляемого в царской России в Кавказском регионе.] Историческая и социально-образовательная мысль. 2016. Том. 8. № 5. Часть 1. с.00-00. doi: 10.17748/2075-9908-2015-7-6/2-00-00. ( in English)