Научная статья на тему 'Modern problems of organization of physical education of schoolchildren'

Modern problems of organization of physical education of schoolchildren Текст научной статьи по специальности «Науки об образовании»

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Журнал
Theory and Practice of Physical Culture
WOS
RSCI
Область наук
Ключевые слова
PHYSICAL EDUCATION / EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGIES / MOTIVE / SCHOOLCHILDREN

Аннотация научной статьи по наукам об образовании, автор научной работы — Krasnikova O.S., Paschenko L.G., Korichko A.V., Paschenko A.Yu., Polushkina L.N.

The purpose of the research was to identify and analyze the existing problems of the organization of physical education in a secondary school. On the basis of the findings the problems which those involved in the educational process in schools of Nizhnevartovsk have to deal with when implementing the class forms of physical education were identified: 1. Monotony of diversity in technologies used by physical education teachers, when it is possible to apply the variative content of education at different levels and phases of teaching children, to introduce modern physical training and sports technologies, to add something new in the course of development of author's programs. 2. Detachment of parents towards the problems of physical education of their children against the background of the increasing role of family physical education. 3. Insufficient consideration of the leading motives which induce a pupil to active motor activity, of his personal experience, individual goals and values of education. 4. The increasing complexity of the general education curriculum, especially by the end of school study, when it is possible to make an individual plan of learning the content of the subject «Physical Education» for pupils. 5. Inadequate material and technical base of the lesson of physical education, while modern facilities and equipment should be used in the learning process.

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Текст научной работы на тему «Modern problems of organization of physical education of schoolchildren»

CURRENT PROBLEMS OF ORGANIZATION OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION OF SCHOOLCHILDREN

O.S. Krasnikova, Ph.D.

L.G. Pashchenko, associate professor, Ph.D.

A.V. Korichko, associate professor, Ph.D.

A.Yu. Pashchenko, Ph.D.

L.N. Polushkina

Nizhnevartovsk State University, Nizhnevartovsk

Keywords: physical education, educational technologies, motive, schoolchildren.

Introduction. The current state of the system of school education requires more consideration of the content and organization of educational process within the educational institutions, including those of physical education. The significance of the exercises during the period of growth and development of children, in their school years, cannot be overestimated.

Compulsory physical education classes in the learning process are set by legal documents regulating the organization of training activity and describing the need to take into account the individual age, psychological and physiological characteristics of students.

Currently, a lot of modern concepts published define the content and organization of physical education in secondary schools (I.I. Suleymanov, V.K. Bal'sevich, L.I. Lubysheva, V.I. Lyakh, A.P. Matveev et al). There are various models of physical education for pupils: the applied models; the models focused primary on the development of motor qualities; educational, sports, health-improving, recreational and correctional models; the models aimed at systematic formation of physical culture of each pupil, including the complex models [1]. Physical education teachers can choose some particular technology while developing the program and that should help achieve better results in solving educational and health-improving problems. This raises the question whether the participants of the educational process are willing to follow the trend of modernization of the education system.

The purpose of the research was to identify and analyze the present problems of the organization of physical education in a secondary school.

Materials and methods. In order to fulfill the purpose of the study, we surveyed 26 top-rank physical education teachers and teachers of the first qualification category from 14 schools of Nizhnevartovsk and 452 2-11-formers and 228 parents. The findings were analyzed using the methods of mathematical statistics.

Results and discussion. The processes of modernization of school education require from a modern teacher the ability to orientate quickly under constantly updating educational content and the

elaboration of an original teaching methodology, which will make him competitive in the market of educational services. The survey showed that most of the teachers who work in elementary, secondary and high schools are widely using the health-preserving and game technologies (87%). The personality-centered education is used by 81% of the respondents. The technology of split-level training is being implemented by 62% of teachers who work with teenagers, girls and boys. However, the technology of developing education, the technology of modular training, the information and communication technologies, the research and design methods are not common in the practice of school physical education, notwithstanding the fact that the teachers know about them [2].

The use of traditional approaches to the organization and content of school physical education leads to the lower interest of the pupils in it. It is shown in the detected tendency of reducing degree of teachers' satisfaction with the attitude of their pupils to the subject. For example, in elementary school 71% of teachers were satisfied with the attitude of their pupils to the ongoing lessons, but as for those working in senior classes, only 33% of them were happy with it. The teachers believe, the main reasons for the pupils' unsatisfactory attitude to the subject are the decline of the interest of the pupils in physical education as well as the lack of attention of the parents to the introduction of their children into organized motor activities. In turn, the survey of the schoolchildren and their parents confirmed this fact: the number of pupils who like the subject "Physical Education" is decreasing (from 92% in elementary to 76% in secondary and 68% in high school), same as the number of those who are willing to attend these lessons (from 84% to 44%).

In previous studies [3], a decrease in the number of parents who believe that physical education lessons should be compulsory was revealed: 97% in elementary school up to 76% in high school and the increasing number of those parents who think that this school subject should be excluded from the curriculum (from 3% to 21%). The parents, with the growth of their child, become less interested in him attending physical education classes and doing sports, giving priority to theoretical subjects.

When asked about what could enhance the interest in the subject "Physical Education", most of the elementary, secondary and high school pupils gave the following answers: the opportunity to choose the type of sports activity at physical education lessons and the diversity of the lesson. In order to increase the interest of senior pupils it is important to use modern equipment and inventory and provide showers for them. The desire of younger pupils to actively participate in mass sports events can be seen in their answers.

The survey of schoolchildren showed that at younger age the most interesting types of motor activity are those involving rollerlades, bicycle or scooter (60%), as well as team games (57%), running (53%) and swimming (52%). In the secondary and high school period team games are still popular (69% and 64%, respectively). Toward finishing of high school the pupils get more interested in physical exercises with the use of groove machines (from 47% in secondary to 57% in high school).

In order to better address the challenges of physical education the teachers should take into account the motives which encourage pupils to motor activity while selecting a particular educational technology, as compulsory physical education does not solve the problems of the formation of healthy living habits and the improvement of physical fitness.

Younger pupils' motivation for physical exercises and sport consists in the desire to improve their physical fitness (74%). The protection and promotion of health were noted by 53% of the respondents, the correction of posture - by 36%. In secondary school the motivation is somewhat different - 68% of pupils do exercises to increase the level of development of physical qualities, 64% -to improve health. By adolescence, one of the leading motives is the desire to make their body look better (43%). During high school the priorities still include the desire to improve health (62%), followed by the beautiful body formation (57%) and the improvement of the physical fitness level (53%). This is consistent with the students' choice of a priority type of motor activity.

Some of the pupils noted the desire to get a good mark in Physical Education, regardless of the stage of learning, and the opportunity to improve their physical working capacity. The development of personal qualities (will, character and purposefulness) during physical education lessons becomes the motive in secondary and high school - 39% and 40% of respondents, respectively, while in elementary school - only 15% of children noted this motive. An opposite trend shown in the desire to learn about healthy lifestyle was observed among the largest number of students, who selected this motive, amounting to 21%, and 3% in the elementary and high school accordingly.

While organizing the teaching process on physical education, in addition to the interests and motivations of pupils, teachers should take into account the degree of complexity of the curriculum and extra-curricular activities related to theoretical disciplines. The increasing complexity of the curriculum leads to stronger fatigue among pupils, which affects their subjective assessment of their state after school, so if in elementary school 40% of pupils feel very tired by the end of the school day, in secondary and in high school the number is 58% and 64% respectively. This may cause an overexertion of psycho-physiological mechanisms of the body of pupils and a possible disruption of adaptation processes.

It is difficult to achieve high results in the course of classes without an adequate material and technical support. The need to improve the material and technical condition is indicated by more than a half (56%) of the teachers, who work mainly in elementary school. In most schools in Nizhnevartovsk built before mid-90s, the lessons of physical education with younger pupils are held in the adapted premises. And the schoolchildren are OK with that. But senior pupils consider it important to use modern equipment and inventory.

Conclusions. On the basis of the findings the problems which those involved in the educational process in schools of Nizhnevartovsk have to deal with when implementing the class forms of physical education were identified:

1. The lacking diversity in technologies used by physical education teachers, when it is possible to make the process of teaching children diverse at different levels and phases, to introduce modern physical culture and sports technologies, to add something new to the course of development of author's programs.

2. Detachment of parents towards the problems of physical education of their children against the background of the increasing role of family physical education.

3. Insufficient consideration of the leading motives which induce a pupil to active motor activity, of his personal experience, individual goals and values of education.

4. The increasing complexity of the general education curriculum, especially by the end of school program, when it is possible to make an individual plan of learning the content of the subject "Physical Education" for pupils.

5. Inadequate material and technical support of the physical education lesson, while modern facilities and equipment need to be used in the learning process.

Teachers' concentration on solving these problems will increase the efficiency of school physical education in educational institutions of the city of Nizhnevartovsk.

References

1. Kuramshin, Yu.F. Problems of modernization of physical education of students / Yu.F. Kuramshin // Health - the basis of human development - problems and solutions: - Publ. h-se of SPbSPU. - St. Petersburg, 2011. - P. 6. - № 1. - P. 353-354. (In Russian)

2. Pashchenko, L.G. Professional use of modern educational technologies by physical education teachers / L.G. Pashchenko, O.S. Krasnikova, Yu.V. Korichko, L.N. Polushkina // Aktual'nye problemy gumanitarnykh i estestvennykh nauk. - Moscow: SRIC, 2014. - № 3-2. - P. 238-241. (In Russian)

3. Pashchenko, L.G. The attitude of pupils' parents to family physical education / L.G. Pashchenko, O.S. Krasnikova, Yu.V. Korichko // Fizicheskaya kul'tura: vospitanie, obrazovanie, trenirovka. - 2014. - № 3. - P. 71-76. (In Russian)

Abstract. The current state of the system of school education requires more thorough consideration of the content and organization of the educational process within the educational institutions, including those of physical education. The article presents the results of the study,

involving by physical education teachers, 2-11-formers and their parents. We identified a number of problems of the organization of physical education in comprehensive schools.

Corresponding author: kaa_03@mail.ru

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