Научная статья на тему 'Mass media literacy education in modern Russia'

Mass media literacy education in modern Russia Текст научной статьи по специальности «СМИ (медиа) и массовые коммуникации»

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Ключевые слова
MEDIA EDUCATION / MEDIA COMPETENCE / MEDIA LITERACY / RUSSIA / SCHOOL / UNIVERSITY / SOCIETY

Аннотация научной статьи по СМИ (медиа) и массовым коммуникациям, автор научной работы — Fedorov A., Levitskaya A.

The development of media literacy education in modern Russia, having been for a quarter of a century at the stage of the enthusiasts' experiment, is facing a number of problems. In accordance with UNESCO recommendations, it is necessary: ??to develop comprehensive programs for media education at all educational levels; training teachers in the field of media education and increasing awareness of media literacy of all stakeholders and organizations in the social sphere; conducting research in the field of media education and the wide dissemination of their results; international cooperation in the field of media education; and most importantly the wide practical implementation of media education of the population at various levels. In this direction, it is necessary to consolidate pedagogical universities, universities, schools of journalism, libraries, media centers, and media community; coordination of interaction of state structures, already existing media education centers and experimental sites in this field. In a word, it is necessary to introduce media education wherever possible within the curricula (schools, universities), as well as in the context of additional, informal education and self life-long education. The model of mass media education we have developed, in our opinion, can be adapted to different age and professional groups of the population, but preferably requires, of course, substantial support from the state, media and public structures.

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Текст научной работы на тему «Mass media literacy education in modern Russia»

Media Literacy Education

Mass media literacy education in modern Russia

Prof. Dr. Alexander Fedorov

Rostov State University of Economics, 69 B.Sadovaya St., Rostov-on-Don, Russia, 344002,

1954alex@mail.ru

Dr. Anastasia Levitskaya

Taganrog Management and Economics Institute, 45 Petrovskaya St., Taganrog, Russia, 347900, a. levitskaya@tmei. ru

* The reported study was funded by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR) according to the research project № 18-013-00022 "Mass Media Education in Commonwealth of Independent States - CIS (1992-2020)".

Abstract. The development of media literacy education in modern Russia, having been for a quarter of a century at the stage of the enthusiasts' experiment, is facing a number of problems. In accordance with UNESCO recommendations, it is necessary: to develop comprehensive programs for media education at all educational levels; training teachers in the field of media education and increasing awareness of media literacy of all stakeholders and organizations in the social sphere; conducting research in the field of media education and the wide dissemination of their results; international cooperation in the field of media education; and most importantly - the wide practical implementation of media education of the population at various levels. In this direction, it is necessary to consolidate pedagogical universities, universities, schools of journalism, libraries, media centers, and media community; coordination of interaction of state structures, already existing media education centers and experimental sites in this field. In a word, it is necessary to introduce media education wherever possible within the curricula (schools, universities), as well as in the context of additional, informal education and self life-long education.

The model of mass media education we have developed, in our opinion, can be adapted to different age and professional groups of the population, but preferably requires, of course, substantial support from the state, media and public structures.

Key words: media education, media competence, media literacy, Russia, school, university, society.

Introduction

After the collapse of the USSR, media education in Russia lost state support, which it received during the years of "perestroika". The Russian Cinematographers Union also stopped financing events that had taken place in the 1960s -1980s under the guidance of the Council for Film Education in School and University, headed by Professor of The All-Russian State Institute of Cinematography (VGIK), I.V. Weissfeld (1909-2003). Nevertheless, many significant events of the first half of the 1990s related to media education were financed by a private company headed by the then chairman of the board of the Russian Association for Film and Media Education, G.A. Polichko (1947-2013). In particular, it was the activity of the film studies Lyceum and Higher Film Education Courses in Moscow (1991-1996). Having given up the business in the second half of the 1990s, G.A. Polichko organized a series of film / media education festivals for schoolchildren in Russian regions.

Another leader of mass media education in Russia in the 1990s, but in the field of research and curriculum design at school, was Chair of the Screen Arts Laboratory of the Art Education Institute at the Russian Academy of Education, Prof. Dr. Y.N. Usov (1936-2000).

A notable metropolitan center of media education activity was the laboratory of technical means of education and media education of the Content and Methods of Education Institute of the Russian Academy of Education, which had existed until 2015 (in different post-Soviet years this laboratory was led by L.S. Zaznobina, A.A. Zhurin and E.A. Bondarenko).

On October 9, 2014, the Association of Media Education Specialists was established in Moscow under the leadership of I.V. Zhilavskaya, the head of the department Chair of citizens' media and information literacy and media education at Moscow State Pedagogical University. Unlike the Russian Association for Film and Media Education, membership in this organization has required fees since its foundation.

As for the regional centers of media education, in the post-Soviet space one can single out the research school "Media Education and Media Competence" at Anton Chekhov Taganrog Institute (where in 2002 the first in the Russian Federation a pedagogical specialization 03.13.30 "Media Education" was opened and then the Master's program "Media Psychology and Media Education"), media education centers in Tver Region (O.A. Baranov, V.V. Soldatov), Voronezh (S.N. Penzin), Perm (P.A. Pechenkin) and Yekaterinburg (N.B. Kirillova, A.R. Kantor). In particular, V.V. Soldatov has been organizing regular children and teen film festivals and conferences on cinema / media education since 2010.

Along with technical progress, the Russian Association for Film and Media Education in 2000 opened the first Russian websites on media education (http://mediaeducation.ucoz.ru - in Russian and English). In the same year, a similar site was created by the Laboratory of technical means of education and media education (www.mediaeducation.ru). In 2012, a new section -"Media Education" appeared on the Internet portal EvArtist (http://www.evartist.narod.ru/mdo/mo.htm). In the same year the site (http://www.stalpenzin.ru) dedicated to life, work, and heritage of one of the founders of media education in Russia - S.N. Penzin (11.11.1932 - 3.08.2011) was launched.

Over the past 25 years, dozens of research projects of Russian media educators have received support from Russian and foreign foundations (the Russian Science Foundation, the Federal Target Program in Education, the Russian Foundation for Humanities, the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, the Presidential Program "Support to Leading Research Schools in Russia", the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, Fulbright, DAAD, etc.). For example, in 2008-2009, with the support of the Russian Foundation for Humanities (RGNF, grant No. 08-06-12103v), the project "Compiling and launching the electronic academic library Media Education" was carried out (the project supervisor - A.V. Fedorov, the address of the open full-text electronic library "Media Education" is http://mediaeducation.ucoz.ru/load/). In 2011-2012, with the financial support of the Russian Foundation for Humanities (project No. 11-06-12001v), an electronic academic encyclopedia "Media Education and Media Culture" was created

(http://mediaeducation.ucoz.ru/news/ehlektronnaja_nauchnaja_ehnciklopedija_mediaobrazovani e_i_mediakultura/2014-01-12 -1).

Russian media educators presented their research findings and teaching practices at major international conferences on media education and information literacy (Paris, 1997, Sao Paulo, 1998, Toronto and Geneva, 2000, Thessaloniki, 2001, Strasbourg: Council of Europe, London, 2002; Baltimore, Montreal, 2003 Petersburg: UNESCO, 2005, Prague, Paris: UNESCO, Graz: Council of Europe, 2007, Madrid: United Nations Alliance of Civilizations, Moscow, 20102012, Doha, 2010, 2013, Istanbul, 2013, Bratislava, 2016-2017 and other).

Since 1992, over one hundred and fifty dissertations on media and film education have been defended in Russia, while the share of regional scientific research in media education has

reached 70%. Studies in the field of media education in 1992-2018 were published in over two hundred monographs and textbooks, and about two thousand articles [Russian Science Citation Index, elibrary.ru].

On October 20-22, 2004, in Chelyabinsk, with the participation of the UNESCO Moscow Office and IPO "Information for All", a meeting of the Interregional Round Table "Media Education: Problems and Prospects" was held, where the idea of establishing and launching the regular issue of the journal Media Education was introduced. The journal has been published since 2005 (http://www.mediagram.ru/mediaed/journal/).

On 15-16 January 2008, the World Forum of the Alliance of Civilizations was held in Madrid - http://www.madridaocforum.org/, which included the work of the section "Media Education and Media Literacy". On October 29, 2008, the Public Chamber of the Russian Federation held hearings "Information Society: Technological Process or Social Progress?", where presentations on the role of media education in the development of the modern information society by A. Fedorov and N. Kirillova were made.

On November 17, 2008, the Government of the Russian Federation approved the Concept of Long-Term Social and Economic Development of the Russian Federation for the period until 2020. Among the priority directions of the development of information and communication technologies in the Concept, the expansion of the use of information and telecommunication technologies for the development of new forms and methods of instruction, including media education, was singled out. This meant that the need for media education was really recognized at the state level.

In the same year, 2008, the portal "Information Literacy and Media Education" (http://www.mediagram.ru) was launched, which received the aegis of the UN Alliance of Civilizations and was highly appreciated by the manager of Media and Information Literacy and Education initiatives at the United Nations Alliance of Civilizations (UNAOC) Jordi Torrent. This work was also noted by the then Director of the Division, Freedom of Expression and Communication Development, UNESCO, V. Gai, who expressed the opinion, that Russian portal has become an important tool in the development of information and media literacy education.

On May 5, 2009, the problems of media education were discussed in the Moscow City Duma: Moscow secondary schools were recommended to introduce media education classes. On August 6, 2009, the Plenum of the Board of the Russian Union of Cinematographers was held in Moscow, where mass media education issues were also discussed.

In October 2009, Anton Chekhov Taganrog State Pedagogical Institute with the support of the Federal Target Program "Scientific and Pedagogical Human Resources for Innovative Russia 2009-2013" hosted the first in Russia one week, full-time professional development course for young teachers and researchers "Media Education and Media Competence". The main goal of this school was to introduce young researchers and educators to the best theory and practice in the field of media education.

At the end of 2009 a collective monograph was published in the United States: Issues in Information and Media Literacy. Criticism, History and Policy. Learning, two chapters of which were devoted to the history and current state of media education in Russia (http://net-workingworlds.weebly.com/media-literacy.html).

In the spring of 2010, the conference "Educational Technologies of the 21st Century. Information culture and media education" took place in Moscow. Media education aspect at this conference was further strengthened in 2011-2014 (in 2014, the initiator of these conferences Svetlana Gudilina organized the International Media Festival for schoolchildren, http://art.ioso.ru/mediafestival/2014/projects.htm ).

On April 15, 2010, Moscow State University hosted a meeting of the Council for the Quality of General Education in the Russian Federation under the Presidium of the General Council of the All-Russian Political Party "United Russia". The Council stressed the need to

develop media education in schools and universities. Similar conclusions were drawn on the results of the conference "Current Trends in the Development of Russian Media Education," held June 1-2, 2010 at Moscow State University.

In the resolution of the next plenum of the Board of the Union of Cinematographers of Russia "On Film Education of the Population" (Moscow, April 16, 2012), it was stressed to urgently create a federal state system of film education of the population and promote the prompt implementation of a new educational program "100 best films of Russia and world classics" for school students.

In the same year 2012 Moscow State Humanities University opened a master's program "Media Education". Now this program continues at Moscow State Pedagogical University.

In September 2012, the International Conference "The Current State of Media Education in Russia in the Context of Global Trends" was successfully held in Taganrog. Russian achievements in the field of media education and information literacy were noted in the report of the World Summit on the Information Society of 2012 [Report ..., 2012].

In January 2013 Russian Ministry of Education and Science supported the idea of film education of schoolchildren (RIA Novosti, https: //minobarnauk.rf/presscentre/2986). This trend was reflected in the state program "Development of Education" for 2013-2020 (May 15, 2013 No. 792-r).

In 2014, Paris office of UNESCO published the overview on information literacy resources worldwide [Horton, 2014]. The list of the authors of this publication includes members of the Russian Association for Film and Media Education: N.I. Gendina and A.V. Fedorov.

In 2015-2018, the Digital International Media Literacy eBook Project (DIMLE) was implemented, within its framework Russian researchers A. Fedorov and A. Levitskaya co-authored the Russian edition of the text book Media Literacy: Keys to Interpreting Media Literacy together with Art Silverblatt, professor of Media Communications and Journalism and the program facilitator for Media Literacy at Webster St. Louis, a world-renowned expert in media analysis [Silverblatt, Fedorov, Levitskaya, 2016].

On May 23, 2017 in the State Duma Committee for Education and Science held a parliamentary hearing on the topic: "Resources for the development of education and science: educational projects by cinema, television, media, and cultural organizations" [Experience ... , 2017], and November 1, 2017 Rostov-on-Don hosted the conference "Media literate teacher - a guide and guardian in the information world".

On April 3, 2018 Civic Chamber of the Russian Federation held the Round Table "Film Education and Media Pedagogy in Extra-Curricular Education for Children and Youth", at which A.V. Fedorov, E.A. Bondarenko, S.M. Gudilina and other media education experts participated.

Discussion

While in the Soviet period the development of media education in Russia took place mainly within the framework of two leading concepts: aesthetic (oriented to bring up a "high" aesthetic taste mainly on the material of masterpieces of cinema art, in many cases there was also an ideological component) and practical (oriented to teaching practical skills of working with media technology and subsequent creation of media texts), since 1992 the situation has changed. Under the influence of Western media education theories (cultural studies, semiotics, critical thinking, etc.), various media education concepts began to spread in Russia.

Russian media educators, who studied the British experience in the field of media literacy education in the 1990s [Bazalgette, 1989; Bowker, 1991; Hart, 1991; Masterman, 1985, etc.], in particular, the main media education theories (development of critical thinking, protectionist, semiotic, cultural studies, etc.), tried to derive some kind of a universal concept. For example, I.A. Fateeva came to conclusion that only a practical approach (we define it as the theory of media activity) suggests a consistently competent approach to the organization of the learning

process, aimed at the final result of the mutual activity of students and teachers, whereby for both types of media education - professional and mass. The applied nature of media education, its focus on such a sphere of a personality, as experience, requires adequate theoretical positions and appropriate pedagogical tools. Thus, she considers the practical approach to be the starting point of the theory of media pedagogy and the basis for the preference of a particular pedagogical technology [Fateeva, 2007, p. 26]. In this case I.A. Fateeva understands the practical approach (media activity theory) not narrow, only aimed at teaching the audience to use media technology and be able to create and distribute media texts, but as a much wider field of activity, including analysis of media messages / texts [Fateeva, 2007; 2015].

True, such an interpretation goes beyond the traditional understanding of a practice-oriented media education process that does not include an analytic component. Likewise, we can say that media activity lies at the basis of other known media education theories (for example, sociocultural).

But if we agree with the fact that the theory of media activity (including practice and analytics) is synthetic, we will see that it fully correlates with the final result of media education - the media competence of the individual, that is, the whole of its motives, knowledge, and abilities, (indicators: motivational, contact, information, perceptual, interpretative / evaluative, practice-operational / activity, creative), contributing to the selection, use, critical analysis, evaluation, and communicating media texts in different types, forms and genres, the analysis of complex processes of media functioning in society [Fedorov, 2007, p. 54].

However, this interpretation of "media competence" is challenged by some media educators. So, having examined the above indicators of media competence, I.M. Dzyaloshinsky and I.V. Zhilavskaya made, in our opinion, an unproven conclusion, that "all the authors, analyzed by A.V. Fedorov, and he himself, speculating on the indicators of media competence, confine themselves exclusively to the media sphere. As if the ability to consume and produce media texts are needed solely to consume and produce media texts" [Dzyaloshinsky, 2008, p. 88; Zhilavskaya, 2009, p.109].

In this case we are dealing with an absolutely incorrect interpretation of our research, since the above-mentioned indicators of media competence are directly related to various processes (political, economic, etc.) that occur not only in the media sphere but also in society. For example, motives of preferences and / or creation media texts by a person are inevitably connected with his/her moral, political, civic and other attitudes, with a sociocultural context. A similar situation with the evaluation indicator of media competence, as evaluating media texts, people are always relying on their initial moral, religious, political, civic and other positions. Moreover, without analyzing social problems, in our opinion, in general, one can evaluate neither the processes of media functioning nor specific media texts.

However, I.M. Dzyaloshinsky insists on secondariness of the development of media competence of an individual, asserting that the social significance of media education is not so much to increase media competence of an individual, as to form the setting for media activity, controlling the individual's actions aimed at finding (or producing) the information in media space [Dzyaloshinsky, 2008, pp. 90-91]. He lists 6 media activities' "main types": search, acquisition, consumption, communication, production, and distribution of mass information" [Dzyaloshinsky, 2008, p. 93; Dzyaloshinsky, Pilgun, 2011, p. 357-358].

We believe that these six types of a person's media activities, mentioned by I.M. Dzyaloshinsky, obviously lack such an important activity as the analysis of information / media texts, which reduces the media activity of a person to only the practical-utilitarian sphere, that is, to the significantly diminished version of Fateeva's "theory of media activity" [Fateeva, 2007, p. 34].

Among the media activity types I.M. Dzyaloshinsky includes "consumption", "communication", "distribution of mass information", however, they have never been considered

to be the key ones in mass media literacy education [Bazalgette, 1989; Buckingham, 2000; 2003; Gonnet, 2001; Hart, 1991; Kubey, 1997; Masterman, 1985; 1997; Silverblatt, 2001; Potter, 2016; Voznikov, 2007; Zhurin, 2009; Zaznobina, 1996; Kirillova, 2012; Korkonosenko, 2004; Korochensky, 2003; 2005; Fedorov, 2001; Silverblatt, Fedorov, Levitskaya, 2016; Fateeva, 2007; 2015; Sharikov, 1991, etc.]. Of course, "communication" and "distribution" are pivotal activities for media agencies, but as the leading experts in the field of media education rightly believe [Bazalgette, 1989; Buckingham, 2003; Gonnet, 2001; Hart, 1991; Kubey, 1997; Masterman, 1985; 1997; Silverblatt, 2001; Potter, 2016], they are secondary to the development of media competence of the mass audience. A "media active" individual who can create, receive and share text messages (often (deliberately) illiterate), photos, and videos in social networks, nonetheless might be unable to analyze even a relatively simple media text (and as a consequence - in no way can be considered as a media competent person). Numerous sociological surveys of young people is a vivid proof of this fact [Sobkin, Adamchuk, 2006; Soldatov, Nestik, Rasskazov, Zotova, 2013; Tsymbalenko, Makeev, 2015; Tsymbalenko, Sharikov, Shcheglova, 2006; Fedorov, 2007, etc.].

In our opinion, media activity (as interpreted by I.M. Dzyaloshinsky) is an important part of a broader concept - "media competence". Therefore, in this context, the statement that "the social meaning of media education is not so much an increase in the media competence of an individual as in the formation of an attitude toward media activity, ... the further development of media education is associated with the development of a civic approach that is aimed not just at improving the students' media competence, but at enhancing media activity of the population" raises some doubts [Dzyaloshinsky, Pilgun, 2011, p. 353, 365].

In fact, the aspiration to increase the level of citizens' media competence means (among other things) the need to increase the media activity level, and media competence organically includes media activity as an important indicator of the complex result of media education process.

We also find the following I. Dzyaloshinsky's assertion unsubstantiated: the "traditional pedagogical approach to media literacy education, which is limited to analyzing the link "individual - media text", cannot answer the main questions: What is the reason for the existence of such a configuration of the information and media space in modern Russia? Why do media produce such, and not other texts? What should an individual do to not only be protected from the "corrupting influence of the media, but also to seek information necessary to succeed?" [Dzyaloshinsky, 2008, p. 99].

In our opinion, this statement is far from the real state of affairs: pedagogical media literacy education technologies have never been limited to media texts, but have always contributed to the analytic process of differential relationships between media and society [Bazalgette, 1989; Buckingham, 2003; Fedorov, 2003; Gonnet, 2001; Hart, 1991; Kubey, 1997; Masterman, 1985; Potter, 2016; Silverblatt, 2001; Zaznobina, 1996; Fedorov, 2001; Fedorov, 2007; Sharikov, 1991, etc.].

Moreover, whilst I.M. Dzyaloshinsky is convinced that the "traditional" pedagogical "approach to media education" cannot answer the main questions, then how can one be sure that solely the theory of media activity can give the same answers to the same questions (difficult and complex)?

Probably, these and other questions connected with the process of media education and media activity may prompt answers of varying degrees of validity and depth, regardless of whether they are answered by journalists, sociologists, teachers, cultural studies researchers, political scientists or representatives of other groups and communities.

In our opinion, I. Dzyaloshinsky's point that the "pedagogical approach" is supposedly directed mainly at protecting from media influences and does not touch upon the topic of finding the information necessary to succeed in life (in fact, the "protectionist/inoculatory" approach is

just one of the branches of media education that has long since retreated to the background, naturally giving way to social, cultural, and other approaches) [Bazalgette, 1989; Buckingham, 2003; Fedorov, 2003; Gonnet, 2001; Hart, 1991; Kubey, 1997; Masterman, 1985; Potter, 2016; Silverblatt, 2001; Fedorov, 2007; Sharikov, 1991, etc.].

I. Dzyaloshinsky also argues that the further development of media education is associated with the development of a civic approach that focuses not just on improving the media competence of students, but on increasing media activity of the population. "That, in turn, will stimulate the development of civil communications, ensuring the formation and development of civil society" [Dzyaloshinsky, 2008, p. 99]. Similarly, I.V. Zhilavskaya insists that "media education is the activity in the field of media, the work of consciousness and subconsciousness, the analysis and correlation of self and society with global problems of the media-saturated environment. In fact, media education is a form of civic education. It allows young people to become responsible citizens, who understand how their country, hometown, and the rest of the world lives" [Zhilavskaya, 2009, p.75].

Definitely, media education includes teaching and learning about democracy and civil responsibility [Buckingham, 2000; Gonnet, 2001, p. 24; UNESCO, 2001, p. 152; Korochensky, 2003; Fedorov, 2001; 2003; 2007, p. 370, etc.]. At the same time, if from among the whole variety of media education tasks one puts forward primarily a "civic approach", then it is more logical to engage in civics or social studies, political education, because the tasks of media literacy education [Potter, 2016; Silverblatt, 2001, etc.] are much broader.

The erroneous approach of I. Dzyaloshinsky and I. Zhilavskaya, in our opinion, stems from the fact that both researchers "forget" that the multifaceted notion of media competence, although being based on the core ability of an individual to analyze the relationship between media and society and media texts of various kinds and genres, nonetheless seamlessly integrates media activity.

Consistently proceeding from the priority of "media activity", I.V. Zhilavskaya once again groundlessly claims that "the overwhelming majority of scientific articles and dissertations that somehow affect the issues of media education are related to the field of pedagogy and practically do not investigate the productive function of media education in relation to the phenomenon of media" [Zhilavskaya, 2009, pp.104-105]. Most likely, I.V. Zhilavskaya's statement is due to her clearly insufficient knowledge of the history of media education development - both globally, and in Russia. After all, it was precisely the "productive function of media education" that the pedagogical models of Russian media educators were built on in many respects both in Soviet and post-Soviet times [Baranov, 1979; 2002; Zaznobina, 1998; Penzin, 1987; Spichkin, 1999; Usov, 1989; Sharikov, 1990; 1991, etc.].

However, disregarding this successful experience, I.V. Zhilavskaya (co-authored with D.A. Zubritskaya) writes that in the USSR "active practical work was carried out in schools, universities, film clubs by experts in film education Y.N. Usov, I.S. Levshin, Z.S. Smelkov, Y.M. Rabinovich, S.N. Penzin, O.A. Baranov, S.M. Ivanov, E.V. Gorbulin, E.N. Goryukhin" [Zhilavskaya, Zubritskaya, 2017, p. 50], turning Elvira Goriukhina (1932-2018), Inna Levshina (1932-2009), Zinaida Smelkova, Svetlana Ivanova and Yevdokia Gorbulina into male persons. This fact raises some serious doubts if I. Zhilavskaya and D.A. Zubritskaya have really studied the work of these prominent Russian media educators.

Most likely, I.V. Zhilavskaya and D.A. Zubritskaya did not study the practical approach to media education activities of an important French educator Celestin Freinet (15.10.18967.10.1966), largely based on the media activity of schoolchildren. Otherwise, how can one explain that an internationally recognized classic of education, contrary to the tradition long established in the Russian language [OpeHe, 1990; 1996], is present on the pages of their book as ... «Ce^ecTHH OpeHHe» [Zhilavskaya, Zubritskaya, 2017, p. 12].

It should be noted that the above errors appear on the pages of the textbook for universities "The History of the Development of Media Education" [Zhilavskaya, Zubritskaya, 2017], which briefly (unfortunately, not always accurate) render the contents of three our monographs on media literacy education [Fedorov, Chelysheva, 2002; Fedorov, Novikova, 2005; Fedorov et al., 2014].

Regrettably, insufficient investigation of the history of the development of Russian media education is characteristic of many representatives of the journalists' media education approach. For example, in the book "Media education in school: a collection of syllabi" [Media Education ..., 2010], published by a team of authors affiliated mainly at the Faculty of Journalism of Moscow State University, there is not a single reference to the works of such well-known Russian film/ media educators of the 1960s - 1990's as OA. Baranov, L.S. Zaznobina, S.N. Penzin, L.P. Pressman, Y.M. Rabinovich, Y.N. Usov, et al.

And even on the whole very useful monograph by A.A. Zhurin, devoted to integrated media education in secondary school, contains some avoidable inaccuracies. Thus, A.A. Zhurin asserts that "media education according to S.N. Penzin, the so-called Kurgan experience..." [Zhurin, 2009, p. 285], whereas the well-known media educator S.N. Penzin (1932-2011) worked in Voronezh and had nothing to do with the film / media education process in Kurgan. But unmentioned Y.M. Rabinovich (1918-1990) was actually the head of the film education movement in Kurgan [Rabinovich, 1991].

Let's go back to the so-called interactive (journalist) model of media education suggested by I.V. Zhilavskaya, "which should be distinguished from the pedagogical model. The basis for distinguishing these models is the spatial and role arrangement of participants in media education activities in the existing coordinate system" [Zhilavskaya, 2009, p. 106]. Justifying this model, I.V. Zhilavskaya [Zhilavskaya, 2009, p. 177] relies on the concept of the Russian module of media education [Vartanova, Zasursky, 2003, p. 5-10], which lists the key aspects of media education (media agencies, media categories, media technologies, media language, media audience, and representation). Meanwhile, the "Russian module of media education" of 2003 is actually a translated from English concept developed in the UK in the 1990s [Bazalgette, 1991, p. 8; Bazalgette, 1995; Hart, 1991, p. 13; 1997, p. 202], that was introduced to Russian media educators personally by C. Bazalgette who presented her report at the Russian-British seminar on media education in Moscow [Bazalgette, 1995].

As one of the main advantages of the journalist model of media education developed by I.V. Zhilavskaya, the focus on a broad audience is positioned [Zhilavskaya, 2009]. However, pedagogical media education models are aimed not only at schoolchildren and students, but as well at different groups of population, people of different ages and professions [Baranov, 2002; Zaznobina, 1998; Lazutkina, 2015; Kirillova, 2005; Penzin, 1987; Saveljeva, 2017; Spichkin, 1999; Usov, 1989; Fortunatov, 2009; Hilko, 2007; Sharikov, 1991; Chelysheva, 2008, etc.], therefore the journalist model of media education does not take precedence over the pedagogical one in this aspect.

Moreover, we believe that I.V. Zhilavskaya artificially shares communicative strategies aimed at "impact" (pedagogical models of media education) and "interaction" (journalistic model of media education) [Zhilavskaya, 2009, p. 107], because pedagogy (incl. media pedagogy) has long ago shifted from the traditional teacher-centered to the student-centered paradigm. In "pedagogical media education", active learning strategies aimed at cooperation, interaction, creativity and critical thinking development, have been implemented for over several decades [Baranov, 1979; 2002; Bondarenko, 2009; Gudilina, 2007; Zhurin, 2009; Zaznobina, 1998; Penzin, 1987; Polat, 2001; Spichkin, 1999; Usov, 1989, etc.].

Zhilavskaya's comparison [Zhilavskaya, 2009, p. 107] of motivation levels in pedagogical and journalistic media education models also seems quite controversial. The assumption that the subjects of the journalistic media education model (i.e. journalists, directors,

camera men, media managers, etc.) have (in contrast to teachers) a high level of media education motivation, is questionable, and, unfortunately, not confirmed by real actions / work of the vast majority of these representatives of the media community.

Following the western model, most Russian media structures are guided mainly by commercial and / or political goals, not by media education goals, when creating media texts [Sharikov, 2005, p. 100-105, 137-140]. The "boomerang effect" seems to take place: "a poorly educated audience negates all efforts in the field of improving the quality of the functioning of the media and vocational training institutions. The reason for this is the phenomenon of "communicative aberration", a lack of the recipients' understanding of the messages intended for them, which forces professionals to lower their aesthetic, moral, intellectual level. This trend is most clearly manifested in the current commercialization of national media" [Fateeva, 2007, p.35].

Certainly, in a wide range of modern media channels, there are such as "Russia-Culture" (a channel specifically broadcasting culture, history and arts-oriented shows) but overall, international media agencies (and Russian media are not exception), are very long way away from the genuine media education motivation and effectiveness.

I.V. Zhilavskaya asserts that the effectiveness of the journalistic media education model is manifested in "the formation of a communicative environment on the basis of mutually beneficial cooperation with the audience, the formation of media's positive image, attracting the audience, increasing their circulation, ratings, and profit" [Zhilavskaya, 2009, p. 107], which, allegedly, is much more effective than pedagogical models of media education aimed at creating a "society of media-competent citizens".

Let us divide the above claim in two parts. One can concede that "media agencies shape a communicative environment" and media's image, wishing to lure the audience in various ways, and thus to raise the ratings, box office and circulation (although, the humanistic tasks of media education do not have anything to do with this). But the assertion that this process is preferable to the aspiration of supporters of pedagogical models of media education to create a "society of media competent citizens" seems on more dubious ground.

Thus, the journalistic media education model suggested by I.V. Zhilavskaya, in our view, is rather far from reality and is utopian in nature. Idealism of the model is realized also by I.V. Zhilavskaya herself, she recognizes that "today not all media CEOs are ready to set themselves the task of increasing the level of the audience's media competence and to provide targeted input into media education activity. Moreover, many media pursue different goals: with minimized costs, they will get a quick and maximum profit. This is possible in the case of exploiting human weaknesses and basic needs. Media education not only does not contribute to this, it also hinders" [Zhilavskaya, 2009, p.108].

It seems that such a situation in the global media will continue not only today, but tomorrow, and beyond, and this, alas, concerns the vast majority of media agencies in the world. We agree with A.P. Korochensky that "the practical implementation of the tasks of forming a rationally critical citizens' communication culture on the basis of the development of independent rational-critical thinking encounters a number of significant hindrances and difficulties. This cannot be explained only by the underdevelopment of the institutions of media education or by the incompleteness of conceptual elaboration of the goals, methods and content of activities in this field of pedagogy (although both of these phenomena actually take place). Large-scale "achievements" of the mass media in manipulating the consciousness and behavior of the audience for political and commercial purposes; progressive irrationality of the images of "media reality" formed by the means of mass communication; intellectual passivity and emotional infantilism of a significant part of citizens in the face of negative media influences -all this is being observed both in Russia, other countries where mass media education passes the

stage of formation, and in the countries where it has already become an obligatory component of the educational process at various levels" [Korochensky, 2005, p. 37-38].

One way or another, the subject of media education and media culture attracts a growing number of researchers, not only because media culture is the dominant culture of the information society, where traditional and electronic media are recreating the sociocultural picture of the world through verbal, and visual images; culture-universe, having absorbed the functional diversity of mass, folk, elitist cultures and their modifications, ontologically rooted in human life; culture-meta-message about the worldview of mankind [Voznikov, 2007, p. 61-62]. Continuing the discussion with his major policy article "On the Need for Reconceptualization of Media Education", A.V. Sharikov [Sharikov, 2012, p. 61-76] argues that it is not enough to consider only the processes of mass communication, ... because there are non-mass forms of media as well [Sharikov, 2012, p. 66-68].

Hence, researchers appreciate the interdisciplinarity of media literacy education that uses a wide range of developments in pedagogy, psychology, sociology, philosophy, cultural studies, arts, linguistics, political science and other sciences. This accounts for the attempts to include media education and media culture in a generalized scientific context. After R. Debray [Debray, 1991] N.B. Kirillova [Kirillova, 2012, p. 6-7] began to promote medialogy as a synthetic science based on the foundations of media, cultural, social, philosophical, semiotic, political, pedagogical, psychological and other theories of the humanities.

Recently, media education has received support of representatives of the Christian church. Thus, nun Sofia, the president of the annual International Orthodox Sretinsky Film Festival "Meeting", conducts a large-scale film education activity, targeted primarily at young generation. Within the framework of this work, a teaching manual "Using the Potential of Spiritually and Morally Charged Films in Modern School" [Atrihalova, Ksenofontov, 2010] and a DVD collection for schoolchildren and young people was produced.

Media literacy education in the XXI century is generating great public interest throughout the world. For example, the European Parliament resolution of 16 December 2008 on media literacy in a digital world maintains that "media education should be an element of formal education to which all children should have access and which should form part and parcel of the curriculum at every stage of schooling; calls for media literacy to be made the ninth key competence in the European reference framework for lifelong learning set out in Recommendation 2006/962/EC; recommends that media education should, as far as possible, be geared to practical work and linked to economic, political, literary, social, artistic, and IT-related subjects, and suggests that the way forward lies in the creation of a specific subject - "Media Education" - and in an interdisciplinary approach combined with out-of-school projects; recommends that educational establishments encourage the development of media products (printed page, audio/video new media) in a manner involving both pupils and teachers, as a way of providing practical training in media literacy; calls on the Commission, when, as announced, it lays down the media literacy indicators, to take into account both the quality of school tuition and teacher training in this field;...maintains that media education is a matter of particular importance in special schools, given that, when people have disabilities, the media can often do a great deal to overcome obstacles to communication; recommends that compulsory media education modules be incorporated into teacher training for all school levels, so as to enable the subject to be taught intensively; calls on the relevant national authorities to familiarise teachers of all subjects and at every type of school with the use of audiovisual teaching aids and with the problems associated with media education" [European Parliament Resolution, 2008].

In recent years, UNESCO has begun to connect the tasks of developing media competence with information literacy. The Moscow Declaration on Media and Information Literacy developed by UNESCO Information for ALL Programme (2012) emphasizes the necessity to include media and information literacy in the priority directions of the national

policy in the sphere of education, culture, and media; urgency of structural and pedagogical reforms necessary for enhancement of media and information literacy (MIL); its integration in the curricula including systems of assessment at all levels of education, inter alia, lifelong and workplace learning and teacher training; encourage an intercultural dialogue and international cooperation while promoting MIL worldwide [The Moscow Declaration..., 2012].

The synthesis of media education and information literacy / culture has been investigated in dozens of articles by Russian researchers [Gendina, 2013; 2017, etc.].

The process of media education development in Russia has also become the subject of research by some foreign authors [Burke, 2008; Petzold, 2008, pp. 17-18, 45; Yoon, 2009, pp. 189-213]. However due to the language barrier, unable to read authentic Russian-language sources, their research is limited by brief rendering of our research team's works published in English.

Results

I.A. Fateeva [Fateeva, 2007, pp. 144-145] reasonably identifies a number of problem areas for the development of mass media education in the Russian Federation:

- the underdevelopment of mass media education in formal media education institutions (secondary and professional), except for media departments at universities;

- weak media education programs for the adult population;

- lack of proper attention to the issue of teacher training in media education;

- excessive isolation of different levels of education and different thematic educational programs that do not meet modern requirements of transparency and flexibility of education;

- weak partnership relations between education institutions, media business and other interested parties.

In our opinion, one can add some more difficulties in the development of mass media education, such as: the reluctance of the universities' administrations to take concrete steps to introduce media education courses (although there are ample opportunities in the spectrum of the disciplines of the regional component and elective courses approved by universities); traditional approaches of the structures of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, actively supporting training courses in IT and computer applications with much less attention to media literacy.

Meanwhile A.P. Korochensky raises a number of acute problem issues that go beyond the usual framework of organizational and capacity difficulties:

Whether the idea of forming a rational, critical media culture is an illusion that disguises the impossibility of realizing in this socioeconomic and cultural contexts the declared humanistic concepts of preparing citizens for life and activity in the information age?

Is it possible to advocate for a rational, critical communication culture in a social environment where there are powerful tendencies working specifically to reduce the level of critical awareness of recipients of media information? Under these circumstances, does the attempt of a local social design (what the project of educating media literate audience actually is) have a chance to succeed?

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Furthermore, he points out that for individuals as well as for human communities at large, the instincts, unconscious impulses and emotions play a very significant role. And the effective use of modern mass media technologies aimed at influencing the collective unconscious, suppressing the rational reaction of people, is a vivid confirmation of this. In this regard, it is legitimate to ask whether the ideal of rational-critical communication culture is a phantom, a purely speculative goal, unattainable due to the immanent characteristics of the human personality and human communities?

Finally, the researcher questions whether the critical autonomy of an individual in communicating with the media is the myth that conceals the failure of real emancipation and

self-emancipation of citizens from manipulative media influences and other harmful effects of the media [Korochensky, 2005, pp. 41-42].

The questions raised by professor A.P. Korochensky are really thorny. But if to accept the illusory of the very aim of media education, the implementation of which is hampered by the powerful forces of commercial media, human instincts, etc., one will probably have to recognize the futility of education in general. And with all of its, if not irreproachable development, human civilization has proved, that all its achievements are the result of education process, which has always faced a lot of difficulties.

Yes, the task of raising masses' media competence, no doubt, may seem utopian, however, we are convinced that we should strive for this.

The research group ZIRCON for a number of years conducted mass surveys of Russian population in order to reveal the levels of media and information literacy: All-Russian representative sample of at least 1600 respondents - in the studies in 2014-2015 (1602 respondents); regional, using representative samples in 10 regions of the Russian Federation with at least 500 respondents in each (total 5011 respondents) [Zadorin, Maltseva, Shubina, 2017, p. 126]. As a result, it was revealed that in 2015 "a low level of media literacy is characteristic for 26% of Russia's population" [Zadorin, Maltseva, Shubina, 2017, p. 128]. However, the levels of media literacy / media competence vary widely by region, so, for example, in the Astrakhan region, a low level of media literacy is 44% [Zadorin, Maltseva, Shubina, 2017, p. 134]. At the same time, according to ZIRCON, about 40% of the population lacks the ability to verify and critically evaluate information using alternative sources of information [Zadorin, Maltseva, Shubina, 2017, p. 128].

However, due to the fact that ZIRCON surveys are largely based on the results of individuals' self-assessment, the real state of affairs with media literacy / media competence in Russia is likely to be even more alarming. In any case, our local ascertaining studies of media competence in the student environment [Fedorov, 2007; Levitskaya, Fedorov, and others, 2016] show that with an in-depth analysis of the audience's knowledge and skills in the field of media culture, the percentage of low media competence is much higher, while the percentage of high media competence level is, alas, much lower than the results of ZIRCON's surveys.

As early as in 2007, we developed a model for the development of media competence and critical thinking of students at a teacher training university [Fedorov, 2007, p. 138-146]. The time seems to have come to expand and adapt this model, suggesting a universal (suitable for various ages mass audience) media education model.

Thus, having analyzed various foreign and Russian approaches [Bazalgette, 1989; Buckingham, 2000; 2003; Gonnet, 2001; Hart, 1991; Kubey, 1997; Masterman, 1985; 1997; Silverblatt, 2001; Potter, 2016; Silverblatt, 2014; Vozchikov, 2007; Zhurin, 2009; Zaznobina, 1996; Kirillova, 2012; Korkonosenko, 2004; Korochensky, 2003; 2005; Fateeva, 2007; 2015; Sharikov, 1991, etc.], we have developed the following model of mass media education:

Basic definitions:

Media education is the process of personal development with the help and on the material of mass media aimed at developing the media communication culture, creative, communicative abilities, critical thinking, comprehensive perception, interpretation, analysis and evaluation of media texts, teaching various forms of expression through media technology, resulting in media literacy. There is also a point of view according to which media literacy is part of a broader and more capacious concept - information literacy. This trend is finding more and more supporters today, although there are a lot of terminological differences. Main directions of media education are: media education of future professionals in the field of mass communication - journalists, editors, directors, producers, actors, camera men, etc.; media education of future teachers; media education as part of the general education of schoolchildren and students at secondary schools, colleges, universities. It can be integrated with traditional disciplines or autonomous (elective,

etc.); it may take place in institutions of additional education or leisure centers; it may be distant or face-to-face; it may be life-long learning. A positive result of media education is the personality's media competence - i.e. the entirety of its motives, knowledge, abilities, [indicators: motivational, contact, information, perceptual, interpretative (evaluative), practical-operational (activity), creative] facilitating the choice, use, critical analysis, evaluation, creation and communication of media texts in various forms, and genres, the analysis of complex processes of media functioning in society" [The Big Russian Encyclopedia, V. 17, p. 480].

Media competence of a person is a set of skills (motif, contact, information, interpretation / evaluation, activity, creative) to select, use, critically analyze, evaluate, communicate and create media texts in various forms, and genres, analyze complex processes of media functioning in the society.

Conceptual ground: the synthesis of cultural studies, sociocultural and practical theories of media education.

Purpose: development of the media competence of an individual (i.e. media communication culture, creative, communicative abilities, analytical thinking, the ability to create, share, interpret, analyze and evaluate media texts of different types and genre, the role and functions of media in society).

Objectives: developing the following audience's skills:

- hands-on, creative (search, creation and sharing media texts of various kinds and genres, humane and ethically correct messages);

- analytical (analysis and assessment of the role and functions of media in society, media texts of various types and genres);

Methods of media competence's development (should be adapted depending on age or/and profession of the target audience):

1) by the sources of knowledge: verbal (lectures, talks, discussions, including the creation of problem situations); visual (demonstration of media texts, illustrations); practical, learning-by- doing (including games, role plays, hands-on activities, etc.).

2) by the level of cognitive activity: explanatory-illustrative (communication of certain information about the media sphere and media education, perception and assimilation of this information by the audience); problematic (problem analysis of certain situations in the field of media and / or media texts in a sociocultural context aimed at developing analytical thinking and media competence); research (the organization of research activities of the audience associated with the media).

The main constituents of the media education curriculum (based on key aspects of media education such as "media education", "media competence", "media literacy", "media agencies", "media categories", "media technologies", "media language", "media representations" and "media audiences", etc.):

- place and role, media and media education functions in the modern world, types and genres, media languages (the level and scope of this knowledge depends on the age and other characteristics of a particular audience);

- basic terms, theories, key aspects, approaches related to media culture (for high school students and older audiences);

- main historical stages of the development of media culture around the world (the level and scope of this and following components depend on the age and other characteristics of a specific audience);

- analysis and evaluation of the functioning of media and media texts of different types and genres in a sociocultural context;

- technologies for creating and communicating media texts of various kinds and genres.

Areas of application: schools, secondary special educational institutions, higher

education institutions, professional development courses, additional education institutions and

leisure centers; distant media education courses; independent (continuous) media education (may be life-long).

The main sections of the contents of the media education program (concerning the study of such key notions of media education as "media education", "media competence", "media literacy", "media agencies", "media categories", "media technologies", "media language", "media representations" and "Audience of media", etc.):

- place and role, media and media education functions in the modern world, types and genres, language of the media (the level and scope of this knowledge depends on the age and other characteristics of a particular audience);

- basic terms, theories, key concepts, directions related to media culture (for high school students and audiences older than school age);

- the main historical stages of the development of media culture in the world (the level and scope of this knowledge depends on the age and other characteristics of a specific audience);

- analysis and evaluation of the functioning of media and media texts of different types and genres in a sociocultural context (the level and scope of this kind of knowledge and skills depends on the age and other characteristics of a specific audience);

- technologies for creating and distributing media texts of various kinds and genres (the level and scope of this kind of knowledge and skills depends on the age and other characteristics of a specific audience).

Areas of application are: schools, secondary special educational institutions, higher education institutions, professional development courses, additional education institutions and leisure centers; distant media education courses; independent (continuous) media education (may be life-long).

In our opinion, this model of mass media education in the most general form can be presented in the following form (Fig. 1):

1) diagnostic (ascertaining) component: ascertaining levels of media competence of the population (different age and professional groups) at the initial stage of training;

2) the content-goal component: the theoretical component (a unit on history and theory of media culture) and the practical component (a unit on activities aimed at selection, creation and correct distribution of a variety of media texts, a unit on analytical activity: developing people's skills to analyze media texts of various types and genres);

3) the efficiency component (a unit of the audience's final survey, test, and a unit of analysis of the levels of development of the audience's media competence of different age and professional groups after training in the field of media culture).

The necessity of the diagnostic and efficiency components of the model is justified by the fact that both at the beginning and at the end of the implementation of the main structural units it is important to have a clear idea of the entry media competence level of a particular segment of the audience. First - to specify the syllabus to reach media education objectives. Finally - to determine the efficiency of the media education course, adapted for a particular age and profession of the audience.

Such diagnostics is possible both within educational institutions [Fedorov, 2007; Levitskaya, Fedorov, etc., 2016], and out of them [e.g. research of the level of media literacy of the population on a national scale: ZIRCON, 2012; Zadorin, Maltseva, Shubina, 2017, p. 123141].

In order to implement this model comprehensively, in our opinion, it is necessary to use the following indicators for the audience's development of media competence: 1) motivational (motives of contact with media texts: genre, thematic, emotional, epistemological, hedonistic, psychological, moral, intellectual, aesthetic, therapeutic, political, economic and etc.); 2) contact (the frequency of contact with media texts); 3) information (knowledge of terminology, theory and history of media culture, the process of mass communication); 4) evaluative (the ability to

interpret, analyze media texts); 5) practice and activity oriented (the ability to create and communicate one's own media texts).

Fig.1. Model of mass media education

Objective:personality's media competence development

Result: the increased level of media competence of specific age and

occupation groups

Conclusions

Thus, the development of media education in modern Russia, having been for a quarter of a century at the stage of experiment of enthusiasts, is being challenged by a number of problems. In our opinion, in line with the UNESCO recommendations [UNESCO, 2001; Moscow Declaration ..., 2012], it is necessary to develop comprehensive programs on media education at all educational levels; to train teachers in the field of media education and to increase awareness of the media literacy importance of all stakeholders and organizations in the social sphere; to facilitate researches in the field of media education and a wider dissemination of their results; to set up international cooperation in the field of media education; and most importantly - to translate research into practice - to implement media education curriculum at various levels. Obviously, the consolidation of pedagogical departments and universities, schools of journalism, libraries, media centers, and also the media community, interaction between state structures, existing media education centers and experimental sites in this area is needed. In a word, as stated in the UNESCO documents [UNESCO, 2001; Moscow Declaration ..., 2012], it is necessary to introduce media education wherever possible within the curricula (schools, universities), as well as in the framework of additional, informal education and life-long self-education.

The model of mass media education of the population developed by us, in our view, can be adapted to different age and occupational groups, but ideally requires, of course, substantial support from the state, media and public structures.

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