Научная статья на тему 'Learning From Collaborative Teacher Development in an EAP/ESP Context'

Learning From Collaborative Teacher Development in an EAP/ESP Context Текст научной статьи по специальности «Фундаментальная медицина»

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Journal of Language and Education
Ключевые слова
collaborative teacher development / EAP/ESP / self-observation / peer observation / peer-coaching / teaching journal / professionalism

Аннотация научной статьи по фундаментальной медицине, автор научной работы — Elena Velikaya

‘Collaborative teacher development is an increasingly common kind of teacher development found in a wide range of language teaching contexts’ (Johnston, 2009, p. 241). Teachers can collaborate with other teachers in writing materials, books, doing research, and analysing observed lessons. Even the format and the content of a teaching journal can be developed in cooperation with other colleagues. The article reports on collaborative teacher development of English language teachers at the National Research University Higher School of Economics (NRU HSE) in Moscow, Russia. The study used a survey to investigate needs for teacher development at NRU HSE. Findings reveal that not all teachers practise self-observation; many teachers believe that feedback must be personal; the majority of teachers find peer observation subjective; almost all teachers have teaching journals but their understanding of what a teaching journal is seems to be erroneous. These results indicate that without a clear understanding of the listed above issues and their implementation in a given context professional development can hardly be possible. The author analyses the results of this research and makes suggestions about teacher development as a continuous and collaborative process.

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Текст научной работы на тему «Learning From Collaborative Teacher Development in an EAP/ESP Context»

Journal of Language & Education

Volume 2, Issue 1, 2016


Galina Suvorova

Moscow State Pedagogical University

Tatyana Baranovskaya

National Research University Higher School of Economics

The idea of this article is to analyse V.D. Shadrikov s scientific work in the field of psychology. V.D. Shadrikov is Doctor of Psychology, Professor, fellow of the Russian Academy of Education. The article briefly covers his fundamental publications on activity, abilities, human inner world. The problems he touches upon in his publications are considered in the context of evolution of education. Shadrikov V.D. develops the methodology of systemic genesis approach in psychology. He shows that the systemic genesis paradigm opens new aspects in fundamental and applied psychology .This paradigm gives the opportunity to carry out research on a new level

Keywords: systemic genesis, activity, abilities, human inner world, development , teaching, education

"... Nowadays special conditions for the development of systemic genesis approach both in fundamental psychology and in applied psy-chologyarerealized..."V.D. Shadrikov, 1976

Systemic Genesis Paradigm as a New Development Stage of System Approach in Psychology: Headnote

The systemic genesis approach contributes to the 21st century realizations of methodological and conceptual problems. It works out the conceptual framework, study, description and clarification of psyche, laying down the laws of mental functioning and analyzing developmental trends of psychology.

Based on the conceptual framework provided by system theory, systemic psychology considers the ongoing interaction among human beings as a privileged object of psychological analysis and is therefore essentially focused on interpersonal systems. Systemic psychology has allowed further development of the interpersonal features of human behavior that psychological disciplines focused on in the late twentieth century and its domain is defined by the stress placed on interactive and communicative processes taking place among the members of an interpersonal system. Moreover, systemic genesis approach provides an integration of these processes with the intrapsychic dynamics and the personal history of the individual. So, methodologically speaking, the systemic genesis paradigm must be largely applied to all human interactive

Galina Suvorova, the Department ofPsychology of the Elementary School Children, the Director of the Center ofPsychologi-cal Counseling, Moscow State Pedagogical University

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Galina Suvorova, the Department of Psychology of the Elementary School Children, Moscow State Pedagogical University, M. Pirogovskaya st., 1, b. 1, 119607, Moscow; E-mail: suvorovaga@mail.ru

Tatiana Baranovskaya, English Language Department for Economic and Mathematical Disciplines, National Research University Higher School of Economics

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Tatiana A. Baranovskaya, English Language Department for Economic and Mathematical Disciplines, National Research University Higher School ofEconomics, Shabolovka St., 26,119049, Moscow;

E-mail: tbaranoskaya@hse.ru


Vladimir Dmitriyevich Shadrikov has become the founder of much research and theory in systemic genesis branch of psychology.

Vladimir Dmitriyevich Shadrikov (born in 1939), who is a prominent Russian scientist, methodologist of Russian psychology, Doctor of Psychology (1977), Professor (1978), Corresponding Fellow of the Academy of Pedagogic Sciences of the USSR (1982), Fellow of the Russian Academy of Education (1992),, is well known in our country and abroad to all people concerned with psychological issues and pedagogical practice in education. In the field of fundamental and theoretical psychology he is a conspicuous researcher of human activity and abilities .He created new upcoming trends of study and showed their deep intrinsic relation with methodological problems of human developmental psychology, professional training and learning.. V.D. Shadrikov's theories stress concepts for solution of theoretical problems of psychology and practical tasks facing it in different spheres of life of a contemporary Russian society. He also lays down regulations, emphasizes new strategies in cognition and understanding of mental world.

He has worked out a strict conceptual framework to describe mental law, human activity and abilities. He has also found methodological principles and theoretical procedures of a systemic analysis of psyche as a complex object of cognition V.D. Shadrikov has made great contribution in the development of system of psychological knowledge of fundamental psychological problems (Suvorova, 2007).

Methodological and Theoretical Issues of Psychology in Works of V.D. Shadrikov: System

Genesis Aspect

Systemic genesis paradigm, developed by V.D. Shadrikov is oriented towards the interpersonal systems, focusing its intervention on the interactive and communicative features of human behavior. So defined, this theory and practice is peculiar to every interactive human system, although psyche has traditionally the first and privileged field of study and application to the point of using the restrictive definition of systemic-relationship paradigm. (Shadrikov, 1994; Shadrikov, 1998; Shadrikov, 1977; Shadrikov, 2007; Shadrikov, 2006; Shadrikov, 2009; Shadrikov, 2007; Shadrikov, 2001; Shadrikov, 2009; Shadrikov, 1979; Shadrikov, 1996; Shadrikov, 1976; Shadrikov, 1977; Shadrikov, 1993).

The system genesis approach has been elaborated in works of Shadrikov and his pupils since 1976 up to the present day. Despite the important accent on relationships, this kind of genesis paradigm has recently been addressing other important issues, such as the personal «history" of individuals and of their group,

the cognitive style, and individual and systemic" characteristics" In 1976 V.D. Shadrikov defended his doctor's thesis on: "Systemic approach in industrial training psychology" which laid foundation for the school of thought in activity systemic genesis. Thereafter his works on human activity and abilities (articles, monographs, work-books etc.) were published. He explicated the main theories and concepts of activity system genesis and psychological theory of human abilities. At the same time he was working at the main theoretical issues of human psychology in the context of problems of modern education, his works reflect the growing interest that psychology has shown in the relational features of human behavior and human intellectual activity.

V.D. Shadrikov's scientific research on development of methodological and theoretical psychological issues constitutes a part of the Russian contribution to psychology and education. It reflects his diversified scientific activities on the national level. The results of such work were published in several monographs and methodological articles, scientific papers and speeches, which were presented at meetings of psychologists, international and national conferences on psychological issues, academic conferences and Round tables and also in numerous interviews with different education workers.

The most important works were presented in authoritative academic periodical "Psychological Journal" published by the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (nowadays the Russian Academy of Sciences); were approved for publication by the Institute of Psychology of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (nowadays the Institute of Psychology of the RAS); were published by publishing house "Nauka (Science)" and in series "Psychologists of the Motherland" and "Psychological Achievements", have a label of the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation and are recommended as work-books for university students.

- Below a brief description of such works is given. Shadrikov's scientific opinion on handling the problems of activity and abilities as independent fundamental problems of psychology has a dialectical interconnection. His point of view is represented in four articles published in "Psychological Journal":

- "Psychological Analysis of Activity as a System" (Psychological Journal, 1(3), 1980,33-46).

- "Problems of Occupational Abilities" (Psychological Journal, 3(5), 1982, 13-26).

- "On Content of Terms "Abilities" and "Gifts" (Psychological Journal, 4(5), 1983, 3-10).

- "On Cognitive Abilities Structure" (Psychological Journal, 6(3), 1985, 38-46).

In these articles Shadrikov raises basic theoretical and methodological issues which will further form a

content of the scientifically grounded program and predetermine in many respects the strategy of experimental systemic genesis researches of human activity and abilities.

V.D. Shadrikov's publication "Methodological Problems of Professional Training" published as part of multi-author book "Techniques of Engineering, Labor and Management Psychology" is based on the analysis of current problems of the applied psychology. It was published by the Institute of Psychology of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (Editor-in-chief: Corresponding Fellow of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR B.F. Lomov and Doctor of Psychology V.F. Venda (1981). Moscow: Publishing house Nauka, 4358). It is very important from methodological point of view for the development of higher education system. The ways to solve the outlined problems of psychology of professional training are set forth in another methodologically important printed work "Introduction to Psychological Theory of Professional Training" (Yaroslavl, YaGU, 1981).

V.D. Shadrikov's monograph "Problems of Systemic Genesis of Professional Activity" approved for publication by the Institute of Psychology of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and published by Publishing house "Nauka" in 1982 is of great importance for working out of methods of psychological analysis of activity. The Editor-in-chief of this monograph is Doctor of Philosophy K.A. Abulkhanova-Slavskaya. The second edition of this monograph was published in 2007. The first chapter of this work "Systemic Approach to the Activity Research" shows the nature and principles of the systemic research of activity as a complex object of cognition. It contains the main operational terms of the activity theory used in general psychology .It was inserted into "Engineering Psychology Reader" (Dushkov, B.A., Lomov, B.F., Smirn-ov, B.A. (1991). Moscow: Higher School, 171-183) in a condensed version due to its great informational and didactic significance.

In 1997 another Shadrikov's work entitled "Human Abilities" (Shadrikov, 1997) was published in series "Psychologists of the Motherland". The above-mentioned work specifies the system of Shadrikov's scientific views in the field of psychology of abilities. However general provisions of abilities theory worked out by him revealed the nature, structure, determination of abilities development and ways of getting self-control over human abilities. They are interpreted by the scientist on the level of perceptual and spiritual abilities in the context of activity .Teaching and development in the process of mastering the activity are approved by experimental findings obtained by post-graduate students, postdoctoral students and fellow-psychologists. The monograph comprises the list of the most significant Shadrikov's scientific works

(Shadrikov, 1977).

V.D. Shadrikov considers spiritual abilities as the object of psychological research in a separate monograph (Shadrikov, 1998). The scientist analyzes for the first time the concept of spiritual abilities, shows the conversion of inborn aptitudes into spiritual abilities, and considers issues related to the spiritual abilities development which is relevant to the educational system. He also offers new interpretation of pedagogical abilities as spiritual ones (the book went through three editions) (Shadrikov, 1998).

Three Shadrikov's books were published with label of the Ministry of education of the RF. First of all, a new type of work-book on general psychology for the preservice teachers should be mentioned .It is written under the guidance of V.D. Shadrikov and coauthored with a group of Yaroslavl psychologists (1990) "Cognitive Processes and Abilities in the Teaching Process: Work-book for Students of Pedagogical Institutes. Moscow: Prosveshchenie". This work combined informational, as well practical and technical functions and offered modern techniques which diagnose the level of cognitive abilities development. The first Russian integrative work book on general psychology, educational psychology, labor and developmental psychology "Activity and Faculty Psychology: Workbook. Moscow: "Logos", 1996" deserves attention. The book went through two editions; the first one was entitled "Activity and abilities" and it was published in 1994 as part of program "Renewal of Education in the Humanities in Russia". It was for the first time when the book described the relationship between the problems of individual labor activity, teaching activity and abilities through comprehension of psychological nature of teaching as a process of developing a system of psychological activity.

It is worth mentioning that the first Russian work in the form of a monograph revealed the psychological nature of a human- "Human Origin: Student Training Manual. Moscow: Logos, 1999". It went through two editions (the second one in 2001).Studyingthe process of consideration of human evolution V.D. Shadrikov emphasizes special mechanisms of human survival, such as inborn aptitudes and intelligence (individual potential). He shows that is closely related to cognition and emotional intelligence. Shadrikov studying social cognition and social neuroscience has discovered many principles which human social intelligence operates. He outlined the kinds of concepts people use to make sense of their social relations. Shadrikov asserts that expanded opportunities for social interaction enhance intelligence. This suggests that children require continuous opportunities for interpersonal experiences in order to develop a keen "inter-personal" psychology. Traditional schools do not permit the interaction of complex social behavior. Instead

they are treated who must be infused with lots of information. Schools today allow very few of the skills, critical for survival in the world, to develop. As the development of the skills of "natural psychologist" in traditional schools is limited, graduates enter the job market handicapped to the point of being incapable of surviving on their own. The categories of spirituality and humanity have been introduced to the psychological science for the first time. Raising questions on spirituality as a specific human way of mental life V.D. Shadrikov considers issues connected with the development and education of spiritual abilities. He states that the systemic genesis approach to the human origin and its relationship with morale is very important (Shadrikov, 2001).

Such books as "Philosophy of Education and Educational Policy" (Shadrikov, 1993) and "Personalization of the Content of Education" (Shadrikov, 1997) have methodological prominence and practical connection with pedagogics. In the first book, addressing parents, teachers, education providers, students of pedagogical institutes and universities V.D. Shadrikov points out that social intelligence is a distinctive perspective for education on the eve of the 21st century. In the second work the scientist points out that the content of education depends on the type of cognition, on pupils' intelligence, on the dominant mode of their thoughts and abilities. The teaching process should be based on individual education plan. Shadrikov thinks that teaching should be student-oriented and should advise and facilitate students to develop their practices, create development learning resources and reflect on their own practices. . A deep analysis of universal and ethno cultural functions of education enabled V.D. Shadrikov to work out principles of individual curriculum and different content of education in a federal state.

Culture and ethnicity were viewed as separate from human behavior. Shadrikov treats ethnicity and culture as interdependent with social processes, in other words , ethnicity and culture in the same time, are constructed within those interactions .Cultural features that define an ethnic include family roles, work and recreational activities, shared values and concepts of achievement, shared expectations ofbehavior, and share symbols, such as languages (Shadrikov, 1977, p. 48-49).

The study of learning processes, both cognitive and behavioral allowed Shadrikov to understand individual differences in intelligence, cognitive development, motivation, and self-regulation as well as their role in learning. Shadrikov thinks that the field of developmental education involves the study of memory, conceptual processes and individual differences in conceptualizing new strategies for learning.

In recent years V.D. Shadrikov has published some

new important monographs dedicated to the f theoretical and methodological issues of psychology.

In his book "Human Abilities and Intelligence" (Shadrikov, 2004) Vladimir Dmitrievich reveals the nature of intelligence, offers a new intelligence model and outlines the ways of human intelligence development while learning .He also pays attention to the intellectual operations, which help to gain mental experience and are included into the human intellectual activity..

The book "Intellectual Operations" (Shadrikov, 2006) focuses on human intellectual operations as an independent category of psychological actions. It gives their definition, systemizes them and works out the possibility of their development. Some kind of "periodic system of intellectual operations" specifies the way of development of operational characteristics of abilities: it becomes evident to what extent it is possible to "increase the number of extensively used actions and obtain a general skill in their performance". This book is important to the development of pedagogical psychology, psychology of abilities, psychology of thinking, psych diagnostics, psychology of educational activity etc.

Publication of monograph "The World of Human Interior Life" (Shadrikov, 2006) was very important for handling methodological problems of modern psychology. The book was highly praised by scientific community .It was recognized as a fundamental work which opens prospects of psychology development and shows the ways of overcoming a permanent crisis and entering a new stage of development in methodological respect. Two leading psychological journals "Psychological Issues" and "Psychological Journal" placed reviews to this book. A.V. Karpov notes that V.D. Shadrikov makes a significant step in the development of psychology, defines and implements a strategy of transfer from globally analytical stage of psychology development to a systemic stage where awareness of mental complexity entirety should be considered as individual way of learning (Karpov, 2006). K. Abulkhanova compares Shadrikov' book with the book "Fundamentals of General Psychology" byS.L. Rubinsteinin. She takes into account the coverage of psychological problems. The book demonstrates courage and constructiveness of the author's concept which restores the idea of soul as a superior value of historical, philosophical and psychological thought. It also gives a strictly scientific reconstruction of a human (Abulkhanova-Slavskaya, Denisov, Chernyshev, 1981). G.A. Suvorova notes importance of such a category as "the world of human interior life" in a system genesis interpretation for the purposes of advisory practice in education (Suvorova, 2006a; Suvorova, 2006b).

During the period 2001-2003 V.D. Shadrikov pub-

lished a series of books "Introduction to Psychology" where he gave a new life to the scientific facts and some theoretical and experimental studies which had become available to psychological science during the last 50 years. He gave a new understanding of the fundamentals of psychology: "Introduction to Psychology: Behavior. Motivation" (2001), "Introduction to Psychology: Emotions and Feelings" (2001), "Introduction to Psychology: Human Abilities" (2001, 2002), "Introduction to Psychology: the World of Human Interior Life" (2002), "Introduction to Psychology: Will and Volition Features" (2004), "Introduction to Psychology: Intelligence and Creativity" (2004). These books were designated for scientists and experts in the field of psychology and humanities, as well as for the university students whose major is psychology and/or pedagogics. These works expand the idea of psychol-ogyboth as a science and as an educational subject.

Shadrikov's work "The goal of Teaching Activities" (Shadrikov, 2001) is very significant for handling a problem of teaching activity. This book gives a new classification of learning objectives and characteristics of several cognition tasks.

In his monograph "Psychological Characteristics of a Normal Human Being" V.D. Shadrikov describes systemic genesis of personality traits. Having analyzed different methods of normal (mentally sane) human description in works of Russian and foreign psychologists he pointed out ideological, theoretical and methodological issues which arise in the process of its (psychological) characteristics. Speaking about the abilities, motivational and emotional characteristics Shadrikov demonstrates different personality traits which identify and describe aspects of personality. The scientist identifies the relationship between different personalities and achievements in learning (Shadrikov, 2009).

The new Shadrikov's book "From Individual to Individuality: Introduction to Psychology" (Shadrikov, 2009a) is of special note. In the foreword to the book corresponding fellow, Doctor of Psychology, Professor A.L. Zhuravlev and Doctor of Psychology, Professor M.A. Kholodnaya note that this exclusive by volume and complexity work - summarizing monograph "... reflected almost all main branches and problems of a modern psychological science". They believe that the category of "a human" handled by Shadrikov makes it possible to "include into the theoretical framework of his study mental( cognitive ) process, psychological personality attributes, abilities and activities; and to join anthropological, neurophysiological, psychophysiological and psychological aspects of the problem of psyche; as well as to outline a way to study the individuality phenomenon and higher levels of mental development - intelligence, aptitude and faculty (Zhuravlev, Kholodnaya, 2009, p. 11-16). .The author

specifies three aspects of his work: evolution in history, in the subject of psychology and in the theory of activity (Shadrikov, 2009a, p. 17-19).

Shadrikov's views and opinions concerning certain issues and problems of theoretical and practical psychology of personality are stated in some academic, research and publicist journals (such as "Problems of Educational Psychology ", "Pedagogical Journal", "Professional Education", "Public Education", "Higher Education Nowadays". "Economics of Education", "Gifted Child", "Issues of Psychology", "Educational Journal", "Applied Psychology", "Fee Paid Education", "Acknowledgement" etc.), newspapers ("The First of September", "Teacher's Newspaper" etc.).

Systemic Genesis of Activity and Human Abilities

The problem of activity is central in Shadrikov's scientific work (Shadrikov, 1994; Shadrikov, 2007b; Shadrikov, 1979; Shadrikov, 1993). A deep and thorough examination of human activity allowed Shadrikov to create a psychological theory of activity systemic genesis which has been tested on models of two core human activities - professional and teaching activity. Special conferences were devoted to the problems of systemic genesis. Different aspects of systemic genesis approach in psychology have been discussed there. They revealed methodological and mechanistic potential for the solution of a wide variety of relevant for educational psychology issues. (Nizhegorodtseva, 2003; Povarenkov, 2005; Povarenkov, 2007).

Activity theory is a term for social sciences theories and research with its roots in the Soviet psychological activity theory pioneered by Lev Vygotsky, Alexei Leont'v and Sergei Rubinstein. These scholars understood human activities as complex, social situated phenomena and went beyond paradigms of reflexology (the teaching of V. Beekhterev) and physiology of higher nervous activity (the teaching of Ivan Pavlov) psychoanalysis and behaviorism. It became one of the major psychological approaches in Russia and was widely used in theoretical and applied psychology and in education and professional training.

Over a number of years the scientific situation around the problem of activity and activity approach in psychology (Shadrikov, 1982; Abulkhanova-Slavska-ya, Denisov, Chernyshev, 1981; Suvorova, 2006a; Suvorova, 2006b; Zhuravlev, Kholodnaya, 2009; Nizhegorodtseva, 2003; Povarenkov, 2005; Povarenkov, 2007; Bodrov, 1999; Davydov, 1996; Zhuravlev, 2005; Ilyasov, n.d.; Karpov, 1988; Karpov, 2004; Klimov, 1996; Leytes, Ravich-Shcherbo, 1985; Leontyev, 1977; Lomov, 1984) was under discussion. It is closely related to the problem of psyche. The psyche emerges and

developed in history. Activity was the key analytical tool used by Leontiev in his historical analysis (Leont-yev, 1977). Activity was considered a vehicle for transmitting human experience from generation to generation. The structure of activity changed the structure of human interactions with the world .According to general activity theory, human mind develops from historically contextualized, object-practical activity (Leontyev, 1977). B.F. Lomov (Lomov, 1984) stresses the importance of working out the framework of categories and concepts of the psychological activity theory. V.V. Davydov (Davydov, 1996) raises a question of working out "extensive and detailed interdisciplinary activity theory of general psychology". The analysis proved that a wide use of category "activity gave rise to different directions within this approach. It is necessary to describe the ways of solution of the most important theoretical problems of activity theory.

In activity theory, individual is the principal object of study. In activity theory developmental, genetic principles and social interactions are also important. However, activity theory is not focused only on this question. Anokhin (1962) and Bernstein (1966) established self-regulation as a theoretical foundation for activity theory. According to the systemic-structural approach, activity is a complex, multidimensional system, requiring the use of systemic principles. One can extract from the same activity different structures as independent objects of study, depending on the purpose of study.

Shadrikov attacked the problems; he was interested in, in the frame of systemic genesis approach. Firstly it should be noted that the title of Shadrikov's works on psychology of activity is directly related to handling the problems of systemic genesis of activity: "Psychological Analysis of Activity: System Genesis Approach" (Shadrikov, 1979), "Psychological Analysis of Activity as a System" (Shadrikov, 1980), "Problems of System Genesis of Professional Activity" (Shadrikov, 2007), "Activity and Abilities" (Shadrikov, 1994), "Psychology of Activity and Human Abilities" (Shadrikov, 1996).

V.D. Shadrikov highlights the key points in his method: activity - systemic approach to the activity research - system genesis of activity - process, problems and laws of construction of psychological activity system - ways of improvement of activity efficiency. He particularizes the content of psychological analysis of activity both as an independent subject of study and as an explanatory principle. He also gives a paradigm of psychological activity analysis, points out the methodological principles and theoretical procedures of the system analysis of activity as a complex object of cognition and offers how to settle a matter on activity structure and its mechanisms. (It's worth noting that the scientist devotes much attention namely to a clear

conceptual framework in all his theories, such as theory of personality system genesis, psychological theory of abilities, evolutional personality concept, individualization concept of content of education, concept of personality experience in the process of professional and subject training,, concept of educational abilities as spiritual ones etc.).

The following definitions: activity, activity goal, activity result, activity characteristics, activity effectiveness parameters, goal parameters, work method, regulatory approved work method, individual work method, individual work style, structure, function (element, structure, system), system, structure and system elements, structure and system components, dynamic system, activity structure psychological activity structure, functional psychological activity system, psychological activity system and system genesis are referred by Shadrikov to the basic terms of psychological activity. Considering the activity as "human activity type which is expressed in hormic transformation of a natural and social reality" pervades all researches of the scientist.

In the psychological analysis of activity V.D. Shadrikov for the first time differentiates such terms as "activity structure", "psychological activity structure", "psychological activity system". Shadrikov differentiated the nature of two concepts "system" and "structure" in psychological activity analysis. The system is defined as "structure which is considered in reference to the definite function". It requires the use of systemic principles. As far as system is concerned it is noted that "the same result can be reached by different systems and in one and the same structure the same elements can be distributed among different systems according to the designated use". In Shadrikov's opinion the system always has a functional aspect, therefore such terms as "system" and "functional system" act as synonyms.

"Psychological activity system", being a basic concept of Shadrikov's systemic genesis theory, became a methodological term. For the first time it was K.A. Abulkhanova-Slavskaya who stated this fact (1979, 2007).She notes that Shadrikov raises methodological questions in the process of handling a problem of activity through a clear and complete highlighting of psychological aspect of its analysis. He introduces a new concept of psychological activity systemic and outlines components and levels of its systemic genesis analysis. Abulkhanova shows that the author of activity system genesis theory traces the relationship between psychological activity structure and real social activity. Shadrikov highlights the subjective result of activity comparing it with a social one and integrates these two different activity realities through a personality (Abulkhanova-Slavskaya, Denisov, Chernyshev, 1981; Abulkhanova, 2007).

In the systemic genesis approach cognition is understood as a process and as a system of actions or other functional information processing units. Thus cognition incorporates both structure and system. Shadrikov's method entails a plan of activity within which all components of activity-goals conditions, tools, etc -are integrated.

In the author's opinion the psychological character and subject of psychological study of activity is "a functional psychological system of activity which is formed on the basis of qualities of an individual accomplishes the activity goal" (Shadrikov, 1996, p. 287).

Having discovered the specific features of cognition, using the systemic approach Shadrikov outlined the outstanding features and main directions of realization of this approach in the process of activity research. He also pointed out the conditions of a uniform understanding of systemic research results. V.D. Shadrikov states the object, subject and tasks, he also specifies the base lines of a psychological activity research and offers a general theoretical construct (model) realizing the psychophysical unity approach in its investigation.

In his works Shadrikov specifies:

1) the change of the objective world change the process of the goal-directed activity of a personality;

2) the mechanism of a psychic activity regulation


3) the change of a human in the process of activity;

4) the impact of activity on the human nature; (Shadrikov, 1994, p. 10).

In the process of consideration of the systemic genesis theory it's worth mentioning that V.D. Shadrikov has created an ideal model of psychological activity system and its theoretical construct. He also outlined certain solution methods in respect to the detailed tasks of psychological activity study using such a model. The scientist writes that in the process of developing the architecture of psychological activity system he based his work on the framework of a functional physiological system created by P.K. Anokhin He emphasizes that the structural elements of a psychological activity system have another content (Shadrikov, 1994; Shadrikov, 2007b; Shadrikov, 1979; Shadrikov, 1996); this differentiating content is pointed out and described in the psychological theory of activity systemic genesis.

Thus Shadrikov found the answer to the question on a universal psychological mechanism of activity -it is "organized as a psychological system psychical function and process, which is necessary for the activity goal achievement".

Activity is performed through a functional system which at the level of a psychological analysis acts as

a psychological activity system. For this reason it is possible to carry out the activity analysis and describe its separate components. Activity can be described taking into account both; development and functioning mechanisms. However the author of the systemic genesis theory specifies that each activity type has different: content of psychological activity system; mechanisms of development; relationship between the components of psychological activity system; connection between the compositional analysis and efficiency of psychological activity system; system-forming factors of activity at the various stages of its mastering. He proves that the activity development indicators increase due to the development of a complete psychological activity system, integrity of its components (motivational, informational, programming, and controlling) (Shadrikov, 2007b).

In his works V.D. Shadrikov considers the close relationship of professional and teaching activities and the possibility of applying the objective laws of activity systemic genesis to the teaching activity (Shadrikov, 1994; Shadrikov, 1996). He advances the idea that the structure of activity and behavior determine the human's inner world (Shadrikov, 2006; Shadrikov, 2009a).

Genesis approach examines how the cultural means used by society at different stages of historical development influence cognitive and psychic processes. Historical development of human culture and psyche allows for a deeper grasp of activity as a whole. Shadrikov states, that a man and his psyche are formed and manifested in the process of activity and therefore they can be studied firstly through manifestation in one or another type of activity.. In some of his works Shadrikov reports on human development in the process of activity. In series of his studies he demonstrates that the development of psychic qualities in the process of activity is made through the development of operating mechanisms of such qualities. Under the influence of activity requirements the operating mechanisms of psychic qualities are being transformed. He calls such process as a process of conversion of operating mechanisms into the operative ones. He believes that this process is the essence of transfer from psychic qualities to the actively important (professionally and educationally) ones. Taking into account the systemic genesis principles V.D. Shadrikov reveals the psychological mechanism of qualitative formations in the personality ontogeny process. He writes: "This process is marked by availability of stages and it splits the growth of some qualities... The most formations act as functional systems. It is the functional system that resolves contradictions between the limit of essential personal qualities and the variety of activity and behavior forms. The individual qualities can be manifested at the same time

through the activity style and behavior individuality. It is in the functional system that inheritable qualities and qualities to be developed, as well as qualities to be educated and acquired act as a whole and determine activity and behavior." (Shadrikov, 1993, p. 57). And further he notes that development process appears both in respect of certain essential individual qualities and in the process of functional systems which realize some types of activity and behavior.

The system consideration of activity and its nature as a multilevel construction are revealed in the system genesis activity theory through a mixed-level analysis: person-motivational, component-objective, structure-functional, informational, psychophysiological and individual-psychological. V.D. Shadrikov estimated the combination of all specified levels and gave a systemic concept of activity. Acvtivity should be regarded as a multilevel system Taking into account this idea the scientist developed strategies, methods and experimental procedures for each level of activity (Shadrikov, 2007a).

V.D. Shadrikov attacked the problem of relation between abilities and activity. Consideration of general and specific abilities on the basis of psychological analysis of activity allowed the author to differentiate the way of development of professional abilities from general abilities.He offered general principles of abilities diagnostics and validated the abilities diagnostics method which got the name of activity development method. V.D. Shadrikov initiated the work of his pupils who worked out different modifications of this method (Suvorova, 2007).

He stated general principles of systemic approach to the study of complex objects of cognition with two kinds of systemic knowledge (mono and poly-system focusing). V.D. Shadrikov set specific scientific-methods requirements to the organization procedure of a system research of activity as a complex object of cognition. He also considered the relationship between the cognition, abilities and activity results and compared scientific cognition levels and scientific thinking methods.

B.F. Lomov qualifies the systemic genesis laws specified by Shadrikov as psychological laws which form the "mechanism" of psychical phenomena (Lomov, 1984, p. 112). A.V. Karpov accentuates that the concept of activity systemic genesis is a unity of system, genetic and psychological study of activity (Karpov, 1988, p. 11). V.A. Bodrov notes that Shadrikov's systemic genesis concept is a methodological base for psychological study of professional activity. It also reflects systemic principles of mental alertness, and its variability. This concept helps to work with" professional activity" (Bodrov, 1999, p. 644).

The founder of the activity system genesis theory uses the term "functional system", which was first

studied by P.K. Anokhin and A.R. Luriya. Shadrikov shows the possibilities of its use in the process of workingwiththe terms "abilities" and "gifts".

Shadrikov considers the role of certain abilities in the activity structure and offers his own point of view. V.D. Shadrikov specifies the fundamental hypothesis in handling the problem of abilities structure. It is based" on the principle that this structure is uniform for all abilities and similar to the activity structure", i.e. "while there are multiple abilities you have a single and uniform activity structure which is repeated in structures of individual abilities". The scientist points out that "ontologically this uniform structure is realized through the brain entirely as a mental organ and is functionally determined by activity goal and motivation". In the abilities theory V.D. Shadrikov allows for the fact that "abilities are functional systemic features which fulfill some psychical functions" and "psychical functions are activity forms and can be characterized as functional activity systems".

The following problems are considered to be most important by Shadrikov:

- Determination of the position of category of abilities in the system of base psychological terms and concepts;

- Determination of human abilities in three dimensions - individual, actor and personality;

- Detection of abilities position in the psychic structure;

- Revealing the relationship between general and specific abilities;

- Establishment of relationship between abilities and mental processes;

- Detection of mechanism of abilities development: mastering intellectual operations and developing general skills ;

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- Classifying the abilities according to their psychical functions;

- Finding the ways of abilities development through activity: integration of certain abilities in the activity system and adaption of abilities to the object world and activity requirements etc.

- Interpretation of abilities problem as mental development problem (Shadrikov, 1998; Shadrikov, 2007a; Shadrikov, 2009a; Shadrikov, 1993).

V.D. Shadrikov proves and elaborates that intelligence development is made through mastering intellectual operations, developing mental skills, gaining mental experience and introduction into the intellectual activity of the Human's inner world (Shadrikov, 2007a).

The analysis of Shadrikov's views on evolution and assessment of his researches in psychological field have been performed by N.S. Leytes and I.V. Rav-

ich-Shcherbo, D.B. Bogoyavlenskaya and I.V. Du-brovina.

N.S. Leytes and I.V. Ravich-Shcherbo made comments on B.M. Teplov's publication on abilities and gifts (Leytes, Ravich-Shcherbo, 1985, p. 313) They noted that gift as a synthetic concept characterizing the abilities is considered in his theory as a systemic demonstration of abilities. However V.D. Shadrikov gives further detailed handling of this problem in his article "On Content of Terms "Abilities" and "Gifts" (Shadrikov, 1983).

D.B. Bogoyavlenskaya points out that Shadrikov's abilities theory reveals a new approach to the problem of nature and relationship between general and specific abilities. It gives holistic comprehension of gifts .It allowed the authors who studied the operational gifts concept to work out a general position of leading Russian specialists. They stated giftedness as a system quality and specified principles and methods of development of gifted children (Bogoyavlenskaya, 2003).

Shadrikov's work was presented at the II International research and practice conference "Operational Concept of Gifts - to the Educational Practice" (Du-brovina, 2004). The book was devoted to cognitive abilities. This conference pointed out the existence of Shadrikov's school of thought .This school has its own clear-cut and express policy, scientific opinion. The work that has been done during many years on the abilities problem is a deep theoretical work which should be considered as a unique event in our academic community. Shadrikov has made a great contribution to the theoretical understanding of abilities problem. The nature of human abilities, their structure and development are studied in the context of a coherent human being. He also formulated an approach to abilities as personal manifestations which are always expressed through a level of skills in any type of activity - teaching, cognitive and professional activity. Special emphasis was placed on complexity of theoretical aspects of abilities. He treated individual, as an actor and personality, and paid special attention to the analysis of the process and ways of abilities development.

The importance of key issues of activity psychology in the elaboration of abilities problem researched by Shadrikov has been stressed by A.K. Bolotova (Bo-lotova, 1977). It should be noted that among topical issues of Shadrikov's psychological theory of abilities which are essential to the development of consultative function of a psychologist in the field of education are the following issues : working at terms "gifts-abilities-psychic activity-activity", raising a question on development of abilities in a variety of conditions of human vital activity; pointing out the importance of experimental study of mechanisms of human abilities

development operating mechanisms of pupils' development of cognitive abilities and determination of the key role of cognitive actions and tasks in their analysis (Suvorova, 2006a; Suvorova, 2004).

Future Development of System Genesis Approach in Psychology. (Conclusion)

While not all ideas are claimed in the "intelligent card" of the systemic genesis approach, it desirable to draw attention to the following things. V.D. Shadrikov:

1) developed systemic genesis approach in the pro-

cess of working at methodological and theoretical problems of psychology;

2) defined strategies of the systemic genesis ap-

proach in the process of studying psyche, activity, abilities, Human's inner world and human individuality;

3) drew weighty conclusions in methodological re-

spect which concern contemporary problems of theory and practice of psychology in the field of education.

V.D. Shadrikov's works are very important for working out the content and strategies of psychology of teaching as an educational subject in the system of training of teachers and psychologists. Any Person, his/her activity, activities, morals, spirituality, ability to understand, recognize and transform the external and inner world are placed in the center of educational and developmental psychology.

Methods of the systemic genesis approach are applied in the process of investigation of personal integral qualities and abilities, and metacognitive processes (Karpov, 2004). Psychological children's readiness for school is an individual manifestation of general/universal human quality - readiness for actions (Nizhegorodtseva, Shadrikov, 2004) etc.

Works on systemic genesis are fundamental for the development of expert activities of a psychologist in mass media and consulting in the field of education (Suvorova, 2006a). They enable to enter and carry on a multifunctional and multilevel dialogue. The problems they cover are: mental development of a man, his intelligent education both in town and country, self-evolution on the level of personality and individuality; operation of psychological laws; existential psychology and life scenarios, child-parent relationship in a new cultural-historical situation of human being; propaganda of psychological knowledge of spiritual development and growth of a human etc.

Theoretical and practical role of systemic genesis concepts in psychology of professional training for highly qualified teachers was embodied in a new professional teaching standard. It was developed on the basis of Shadrikov's model of functional psychologi-

cal activity system (Kuzminov, Matrosov, Shadrikov, 2006). Based on the systemic genesis activity theory the psychological analysis of teaching activities was performed. Specific theoretical data on teacher's activities ,the functional tasks and the problem of teacher as a subject of teaching activity were generalized. The content of professional teacher's competency was also defined. Basic competences of a teacher are specified according to the main components of a functional system of his activity assuring the successful work. The psychological framework was established for specifying the content of professional training of a contemporary teacher. The combination of activity, systemic and competence approach in professional teaching standard defines the strategic areas for the development of psychological innovations in the field of education.

The expansion of reflexive bases of the systemic genesis approach as a new paradigm of psychological science in education can be continued. It can be done due to the coherent research program on activity systemic genesis and human abilities. The study of the problems of socialization and professional self-realization which are needed in practice is still in progress.


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