Научная статья на тему '«It is the West who taught it to us»: formation of Russian encyclopedia studies in tsarist Russia'

«It is the West who taught it to us»: formation of Russian encyclopedia studies in tsarist Russia Текст научной статьи по специальности «Языкознание и литературоведение»

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Аннотация научной статьи по языкознанию и литературоведению, автор научной работы — Vladimirsky I.

The article analyses main stages in the development of Russian national encyclopedias. The way to first Russian encyclopedias coincided with the development of Russian intellectual elite and struggle with foreign influence and spirit within Russian academia. First Russian encyclopedias tried to copy the structure and the content of the famous foreign encyclopedias such as British Britannica, German Brockhaus and French Encyclopedie. First Russian national Brockhaus-Efron encyclopedia was published at the end of the 19 th century and immediately became the national bestseller.

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Текст научной работы на тему ««It is the West who taught it to us»: formation of Russian encyclopedia studies in tsarist Russia»


I. Vladimirsky

History Department Achva Academic College Shikmim, Israel, 79800

The article analyses main stages in the development of Russian national encyclopedias. The way to first Russian encyclopedias coincided with the development of Russian intellectual elite and struggle with foreign influence and spirit within Russian academia. First Russian encyclopedias tried to copy the structure and the content of the famous foreign encyclopedias such as British Britannica, German Brockhaus and French Encyclopedie. First Russian national Brockhaus-Efron encyclopedia was published at the end of the 19th century and immediately became the national bestseller.

Key words: encyclopedia, general knowledge, organization of knowledge, popularization of values and ideas.

Russia joined the row of 'encyclopedia' nations such as Britain, France, Germany and United States relatively late at the end of the XIX century with the successful completion of multi-volume Brockhaus-Efron 'Encyclopedical Dictionary' in 1890-1907. Its impact on Russian intelligentsia was so significant, that in 2005 it was decided to publish a renewed printed reprint with digitized version on four CD's (1).

Russia's way to its own encyclopedia enterprise was not easy and subjected to several characteristic features in the creation of its national elite. Formation of the new generation of the Russian nobility was initiated by the reforms of Peter the Great and the beginning of rapid 'westernization' of every sphere of life: Orthodox Church calendar was replaces by the modern one, new capital city was built and given the western name, administrative order was settled according the western pattern, foreigners from different European countries were welcomed to settle and to serve the new northern ruler (2).

Reforms implementation resulted in growing confrontation between two types of culture, Russian old traditional culture and new Western concept of Enlightenment. Russian traditional culture was based on values of traditional Orthodox faith. New concept of Russian culture proposed by Peter the Great laid down on European cultural experience (3).

Education of new noble intellectual elite demanded establishing of new facilities such as schools, universities, libraries, laboratories, making of geographic and geodesic instruments, printing of text-books, books and maps. One of Peter's decrees was a decree on Civil script which was signed in 1704 and targeted on complete separation between Church and secular authorities over publishing facilities. Next step in the creation of new Russian intellectual space was the foundation of the Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences that was implemented in a Ruling Senate Decree of January 28 (February 8), 1724. Moscow University was established in 1755 and became the first university of the Russian empire (4).

One of the main purposes of the University he saw in education of nobility children as new Russian elite (5). University was established by the government permission, education became the governmental business and University considered as official institution.

Beginning from the second half if the XVIII century a question of national identification became important not only to Russian authorities but for the thin stratum of the new Russian educated elite as well. Russia's vast geographical extension allocated her place neither in Europe nor in Asia. According to Russian writer Alexander Herzen, Russia contains two principles, the Western and the Eastern that are visible on every corner (6). In a considerable degree the age of the Enlightenment invented and presented Eastern Europe as lands of backwardness, even barbarism (7).

Official support to science and philosophy of European Enlightenment resulted in a feeling of euphoria among Russian nobility and merchant literary class. In order to support their expectations Catherine by herself established and financed the 'Society for the Translation of Foreign Books' in 1768. By 1772 this Society had published over forty texts, including extracts from the Encyclopedie, works of Montesquieu and Voltaire (8).

Ideas of Enlightenment found their establishment not only in Saint Petersburg court but in Moscow intellectual nobility circle as well. Moscow Enlightenment public consisted of representatives of middle and petty nobility that concentrated in and around the Moscow University. Nikolai Novikov became the holder of the University publishing house in 1779. During his life in Moscow from 1779 to 1792 Novikov published 893 book titles that comprise more than thirty percent of all books printed in Russia at that time (9). In 1781 Novikov established his own 'Society for the Printing of Books'. As main aim of his Society Novikov set publishing and translation of the best Western, Ancient and Russian authors as well as publishing of cheap University text-books. His publishing and educational activity was officially ceased in 1789 with the beginning of the French Revolution.

French Revolution caused the great shock in all European monarchies. In Russia everything connected with France was prohibited even the use of the French language which was a kind of native among the Russian nobility. All

foreign books including musical notes forbade crossing the Russian border in both directions.

These censorship restrictions inspired publishing activity within two Russian capitals and resulted in development of the new tendency to publish multi-volume comprehension books which covered different branches of human knowledge. Two of them deserve to be mentioned as a prototype of the first Russian encyclopedias.

The first book 'Historical Dictionary or Compacted Library that included description of lives and deeds of Patriarchs, Tsars, Emperors and Kings; distinguished Military commanders, Ministers and Mayors; ancient Gods and heroes; including Romans, Christianity father-founders, ancient and modern Philosophers, Historians, Poets, Orators, Theologians, Lawyers, Medical doctors and others' was published in 1790-1791. Aleksei Vlas'ev, the editor of the book, intended to include into his book all important persons from religious and secular history which deserves to be mentioned (10). 'Historical Dictionary' was published in five parts, four of them were completed in 1790 and the fifth in 1791.

Every book printed at the Moscow university publishing house supposed to pass the censorship. 'Historical Dictionary' was not an exception from this rule and contains the censor permission. In these years the official censor of the Moscow university publishing house was professor Anton Barsov, prominent linguist and philosopher. In his publishing approval he wrote that 'Historical Dictionary' did not contain any dangerous ideas which contradicts the spirit of university education and may be recommended for publishing (11).

Second book that should be mentioned was 'Vast Field Cultivated and Fertile or General Historical Original Dictionary compiled from best compositions of foreign and Russian authors arranged, written and alphabetically arranged by priest Joann Alekseev'. First volume of the 'Vast Field' was published at the same publishing house of the Moscow University in 1793 (12). Author intended to publish his 'Vast Field' in twelve volumes but the printing ceased with the publishing of the second volume with letter 'E'.

Special mention should be made to 'Dictionary of the Russian Academy' which was published in six volumes by Russian Imperial Academy of Sciences in 1789-1794. 'Dictionary' project was initiated by the princess Yekaterina Vo-rontsova-Dashkova, who was appointed director of the Russian Academy in 1782. She was assured that dictionary of Russian language could make Russian language more usable by Russian westernized nobility and exempted it from foreign influence (13). 'Dictionary' authors were organized in four groups: Explanation department was responsible for the words definition, Grammatical department -for grammatical and stylist meaning of the words, Word construction department created a row of basic words and their variations and Publishing department was responsible for arrangement of preliminary material for printing (14).

Within one hundred years new principles of reading became firmly established in Russia and number of literate persons grew considerably (15). Readers of the current literature were largely concentrated in the both Russian capitals -Saint Petersburg and Moscow. Many of them were themselves writers or would be writers and belonged to the same group of production and consumption of literature. Among circle of young intellectuals in Saint Petersburg was developed an idea to organize a publishing of encyclopedic dictionary in one of the free publishing houses. For their encyclopedia project they chose the well-known publishing house which belonged to Semen Selivanovskii, who published books for Moscow and Saint Petersburg universities and works of the members of the Russian Academy of Science. Initiator of the project, Vladimir Shteingel, intended to publish multi-volume encyclopedic dictionary which was based mostly on the translation from 'Conversations-Lexicon' of Brockhaus. The publishing was started in 1823 and ceased after releasing its third volume with letter 'E' in 1826. This unexpected end of the project was caused by the Decembrist revolt in Saint Petersburg on December 14, 1825 (16). Three already published volumes contained more than 1800 entries, about 160 of them were dedicated to Russian history, geography, literature and culture, and the rest were translations from 'Conversations-Lexicon', French and British encyclopedias (17).

Next attempt to publish encyclopedic dictionary in Russia was undertaken in 1835. Economic success of this intellectual enterprise should be granted by famous Saint Petersburg publisher Adolph Pluchart. He was a descent of rich publishers' family from Braunschweig. Adolph Pluchart in one of his best book shops in the center of Saint Petersburg established 'French Literary Salon', a famous intellectual gathering of Russian publishers, painters, scientists, writers, poets and artist. In one of these meetings in 1834 it was decided to initiate a publishing of 'Russian Conversations-Lexicon' (Russian Encyclopedic Lexicon) which supposed to be a translation of Brockhaus Conversations-Lexicon entries with addition of the Russian content. Russian 'Encyclopedic Lexicon' intended to be printed in 24 volumes, 4 volumes every year (18). Nikolai Grech was unanimously elected as 'Encyclopedical Lexicon' editor in chief (19).

'Encyclopedical Lexicon' structure and working process were defined very clear: contributors were organized under different departments, in the head of each department stood Department editor, who works in close cooperation with 'Encyclopedical Lexicon' editor in chief. Department editors gave tasks to their contributors, collected completed entries, approved them and followed to editor in chief who, in his turn, followed them to General department. General department arranged completed entries into volumes and released them for publishing (20). 'Encyclopedical Lexicon' structure included the following departments: Theology and Philosophy, Jurisprudence, Political History and Commerce, Physics and Chemistry, Natural History, Medicine, Mathematics, Military Sciences, Metrology and Mathematicians' biographies, Asia and Mongolia, Russian Geography and Statistics and Russian history and Literature. 78

In the fourth volume of 'Encyclopedical Lexicon' was printed the complete list of its subscribers (21). Volume twelve of the Lexicon was dedicated to His Highest Excellency the emperor Nikolai Pavlovich who willingly agreed to accept his protection over this magnificent work of Russian intellectuals (22).

Each volume included the list of names of this particular volume contributors, beginning with volume nine the list of volume content was also included (23).

Lexicon subscription was based on annual subscription; terms of subscription were published in the third volume of the Lexicon (24). Price for four volume set was 38 rubles for early-bird subscribers, all the rest paid 48 rubles.

First seven volumes of 'Encyclopedical Lexicon' were published according the original plan: first four volumes were released in 1835 and the rest in 1836. Due to disagreement within the editing board Nikolai Grech suddenly left his position of editor in chief, seventh and eights volumes were edited by the rector of Saint Petersburg university, professor Ivan Shul'gin who later was replaced by Alexander Shenin (25).

Changing of editors did not improve the situation within its editing board; in addition Adolph Pluchart publishing house began to suffer from financial difficulties. In 1838 Alexander Shenin was replaced by Osip Senkovskii as the Lexicon editor in chief (26). Next editor in chief rotation happened at the end of 1838 when Senkovskii resigned and was replaced by Dmitrii Yazykov. Last two volumes of 'Encyclopedical Lexicon' were published in 1839 and 1841 respectively and its further printing was seized.

Next attempt to publish encyclopedical dictionary in Russia was undertaken in 1873 by the private initiative of Ilya Berezin, prominent orientalist, professor of the Chair of Turkic-Tatar languages of the Saint Petersburg University. In the Introduction to the first issue of his 'Encyclopedic Dictionary' Berezin explained the meaning of the title 'Russian Encyclopedic Dictionary' as a strong desire to emphasize everything that have the slightest concern to Russia. As structural example for the RED was chosen 11th edition of Brockhaus 'Allgemeine deutsche Real-Encyclopadie fur die gebilten Stande: Conversations-Lexicon' which was published in 1864-1868. Russian-Slavic tendency of RED was strongly stressed in the Preface to the first issue (27).

Specially organized was Slavic World department of RED whose editor was famous professor in the field of Slavic studies Vladimir Lamanskii. Byzantium department was necessary because of historical and religious ties between Russian and Byzantine empires. Oriental department was included not only because of scientist interest of RED editor in chief but because of special mission of Russia in the East (28). Military department was one of the largest departments of RED and included sub-departments on Navy, Artillery, Military Technology and Military geography.

RED structure looked very complicated from the very beginning. Instead of publishing volumes in alphabetical order the editing board decided to arrange entries into four departments: First department included letters A,E,B,r; Second department letters A, E, 3, H, H and K; Third department letters H, M, H, O, n, P and Forth department all the rest letters of the alphabet. On practice each issue of RED included several so called 'note-books' with different letters. After the release of the first issue, RED editing board was flooded by complaints of customers and book-binders who had difficulties in normal volume arrangement (29).

Every published note-book included list of contributors and content. Tables and statistics were provided at the beginning of each note-book without reference to the exact entry. First note-book of the first issue contained detailed tables on area and population of Asian countries (without Asiatic Russia) (30). At the end of every issue was published Subject Index especially for readers who wanted to extend their knowledge on the certain fields (31).

Editing board planned to release 3-4 issues annually, one issue every three month. The whole publishing must be accomplished within 4-5 years with 15-17 RED volumes. Subscription and distribution were managed and organized by editor in chief in person (32). First two issues of RED were published in 3,000 copies and the rest in 5,000 copies each (33). Second issue of the Third department of RED opened with acknowledgement to his Excellency the Heir of the Russian throne who agreed to be the highest patron of RED printed in bold letters (34). Third issue of the Fourth department contained the information that RED was approved by the Committee on Science of the Ministry of the People's Education as mandatory for the main libraries of the institutions for secondary education (35).

Next period in the history of Russian encyclopedias began with the publishing of the famous 'Encyclopedic Dictionary' of Brockhaus-Efron publishing house. Brockhaus-Efron publishing house was established in Saint Petersburg in 1889 and was one of the first Russian-German joint commercial enterprises. This publishing house supposed to develop publishing of scientific literature in Russia such as encyclopedias, dictionaries, vocabularies, anthologies, atlases and other reference books (36). The duty of editor in chief of the Russian version of Encyclopedic dictionary was proposed to professor of Saint Petersburg university Ivan Andreevskii.

With the establishing of Brockhaus-Efron publishing house administrative and academic tasks became separated fields. Editor in chief was responsible for the content and publishing house was responsible for scripts and external view of books, publishing format, decided upon publishing terms, price, and terms of subscription (37). In order to make 'Encyclopedic Dictionary' recognizable and to avoid pirate printing it was decided to use special script which became licensed property of the publishing house. 'Encyclopedic Dictionary' was printed in two versions: in whole volumes and cheaper edition in half-volumes.

Professor Andreevskii took upon himself duty of editor in chief of the 'Encyclopedic Dictionary' without clear concept of its organizational structure. As an example was chosen the 13th edition of Brockhaus 'Conversations-Lexicon' with all its supplement materials such as geographical maps, plates and tables (38).

Editorial board of 'Encyclopedic Dictionary' was established after the death of professor Andreevskii in 1891. Instead of one editor in chief it was decided upon two editors: professor Konstantin Arsenyev was appointed as editor of Humanities division and professor Fedor Petrushevskii was appointed as editor of Natural Sciences division. 'Encyclopedic Dictionary' was not a voluntary enterprise: all editors were paid and a pull of permanent paid contributors was established (39). Number of permanently paid contributors grew from volume to volume, in 1891 only 100 contributors were employed and in 1904, the year the 'Encyclopedical Dictionary' was completed, its permanent contributors' list contained 266 names with pictures (40).

Despite the editor's desire to establish a balance between Humanities and Natural Sciences, practical scientific content visibly prevailed. Only the term 'Technology' which was defines as sphere of practical knowledge and related fields were supposed to occupy 100 printing sheets within different volumes (41). For the reader's attention was proposed the list of 31 subjects related to the term of 'Technology' (42).

Necessity to introduce Political and Finance department, which was established relatively late in 1899, can show the tendencies in development of the Russian economy. Editor of the department professor Ivan Yanzhul was well-known specialist on taxation policy and working legislation.

'Encyclopedic Dictionary' was sold in both editions as volumes and half-volumes sets, purchase of separate volumes was also possible. In 1904 price for separate 'Encyclopedic Dictionary' volume stood on 35 rubles (43). Publishing of Brockhaus-Efron 'Encyclopedic Dictionary' was completed in 1904. Pace of economic development and technological changes was so fast that editing board with publishing house decided upon the publishing of two additional volumes (four half-volumes). Publishing of additional volumes was completed in 1907.

Success of this edition was evident and practically immediately was decided upon the publishing of the second edition of the 'Encyclopedic Dictionary'. A necessary administrative and structural change were carried out within the editing board and in 1910 was decided upon publishing of the 'New Encyclopedic Dictionary' with Konstantin Arsenyev as editor in chief. One of the characteristic features of the 'New Encyclopedic Dictionary' was the absence of the year of publishing on the front page of every volume. Beginning from 1911 up to 1915 every year were released five volumes of the 'New Encyclopedic Dictionary', in 1916 only four volumes were released and the publishing ceased completely with 29th volume (letter 'O') (44).

'New Encyclopedic Dictionary' promised to be more compact and cheap in order make its purchase available for middle strata of the Russian society (45). In Editorial preface to the first volume special accent was made on the new tendencies in sciences and international policy (46).

Democratization of Russian society found its practical realization in the length of entries. Biographical entries on personalities known for their democratic views and protest to authorities took more pages then those who were known only for their scientific or other professional activity (47).

WWI brought new visible and less visible changes into the content of the 'New Encyclopedic Dictionary'. Starting with 24th volume place of publishing was changed from Saint Petersburg to Petrograd, as well as disappeared names of Friedrich Brockhaus and Ilya Efron from the front page (48). Anti-German tendencies can be traced within biographical entries, the mention of the country 'Germany' practically was wiped out (49). First ten volumes of the 'New Encyclopedic Dictionary' were published in 20,000 copies and with the beginning of the WWI number of copies reduced to 16,000 (50). At the end of 1916 was released the last 29th volume of the 'New Encyclopedic Dictionary'.

History of encyclopedias in Russia was a necessary part of political and social reforms from above. Provided that the first encyclopedias were a result of individual initiatives but without permission and support on the side of the ruling authorities they hardly could be possible for practical realization. Encyclopedia content and organization of publishing houses for this purpose were based on best west-European examples. Lack of practical experience in realization of printed copies forced Russian publishers such as Ilya Efron to search for state involvement which granted commercial profit for sure.


(1) Иллюстрированный энциклопедический словарь Ф.А. Брокгауза и И.А. Эфрона: современная версия. - М., 2005.

(2) Rogger Hans. National Consciousness in Eighteenth-Century Russia. - Cambridge Massachusetts, 1960; Raeff, Marc. Origins of the Russian Intelligentsia. The Eighteenth-Century Nobility. - New York, 1966.

(3) Raeff M. Ibid. - P. 76-79.

(4) Кулакова И. Университетское пространство и его обитатели. Московский Университет в историко-культурной среде XVIII века. - М., 2006. - С. 25-26.

(5) Бартенев П.И. Биография И.И. Шувалова. - СПб., 1857.

(6) Герцен А.И. Письмо из Провинции. - М., 1954. - Т. 1. - С. 132.

(7) Wolff L. Inventing Eastern Europe. The Map of Civilization on the Mind of the Enlightenment. -Stanford, California, 1994. - Р. 90.

(8) Jones G. W. Nikolai Novikov. - Cambridge, 1984. - Р. 82.

(9) Фридберг Л. Книгоиздательская деятельность Н.И. Новикова в Москве (1779-1792) // Вопросы истории. - 1948. - № 8. - С. 23-42.

(10) Словарь Исторический или Сокращенная Библиотека, заключающая в себе жития и деяния Патриархов, Царей, Императоров и Королей; великих Полководцев, Ми-

нистров и Градоначальников; Богов и Героев древнего язычества; как и Римских, Учителей Церковных, Философов древних и нынешних веков, Историков, Стихотворцев, Ораторов, Богословов, Юриспрудентов, Медиков и прочих. - М., 1790. -Ч. 1. - С. 1.

(11) Там же. - С. 2.

(12) Пространное Поле, обработанное и плодоносящее или Всеобщий Исторический Оригинальный Словарь, из наилучших авторов, как российских так и иностранных, выбранный, сочиненный, по азбучным словам расположенный священником Иоанном Алексеевым. - М., 1793. - Т. 1. - С. XI.

(13) Словарь Академии Российской. - СПб., 1789. - Ч. 1. - С. I-XV.

(14) Артемьева Т.В. Пространное поле российского энциклопедизма // Век философии. -2004. - № 27. - С. 110-125.

(15) Fanger Donald. Gogol and his reader. Literature and Society in Imperial Russia, 18001914. - Stanford, 1978. - Р. 66-68.

(16) КауфманИ.М. Русские библиографические и биографические словари. - М., 1955. -С. 42.

(17) Библиографические заметки // Русский архив. - 1890. - Ч. 3. - № 2. - С. 329-348.

(18) Скабичевский А.М. Очерки истории Русской цензуры (1700-1865). - СПб., 1892. -С. 293-294.

(19) Энциклопедический Лексикон. - СПб., 1835. - Т. 1.- С. IV.

(20) Там же. - СПб., 1837. - Т. 9. - С. IV-V.

(21) Там же. - СПб., 1835. - Т. 4. - С. I.

(22) Там же. - СПб., 1837. - Т. 12. - С. I.

(23) Там же. - СПб., 1835. - Т. 1. - С. X-XI.

(24) Там же. - СПб., 1835. - Т. 3. - С. I-II.

(25) Там же. Предисловие к IX тому. - СПб., 1837. - С. VII-VIII.

(26) Там же. - С. I .

(27) Русский энциклопедический словарь, издаваемый профессором С.-Петебургского Университета И.Н. Березиным. Отдел I. A. - СПб., 1873. - С. I-II.

(28) Там же. - С. II-III.

(29) Там же. Объяснения редактора. Отдел II. - СПб., 1874. - Вып. V. - Т. I.

(30) Там же. Отдел I. A. - СПб., 1873. - С. 2-10.

(31) Там же. - С. V.

(32) Там же. - Объяснения редактора. Отдел II. - СПб., 1874. - Вып. V. - Т. I. - С. 6-8.

(33) Кауфман И.М. Русские энциклопедии. Общие энциклопедии: библиография и краткие очерки. - М., 1960. - Вып. 1. - С. 38.

(34) Русский энциклопедический словарь, издаваемый проф. С.-Петебургского университета И.Н. Березиным. Отдел III. - СПб., 1874. - Т. II.

(35) Там же. Отдел IV. - СПб., 1878. - Т. III.

(36) Брокгауз-Эфрон. Большая советская энциклопедия. - М., 1927. - Т. 7. - С. 571-572.

(37) Российская национальная библиотека.- Ф. 1362 (личный фонд В.М. Лазаревского). -Д. 681. - Л. 1.

(38) Энциклопедический словарь / Под ред. проф. И.А. Андреевского. - СПб., 1890. -Т. I.

(39) Там же. - СПб., 1891. - Т. V. - С. I-IV.

(40) Там же. - СПб., 1904. - Т. XLI (a).

(41) Менделеев Д.И. К статьям о заводско-фабричных производствах // Энциклопедический словарь. - СПб., 1891. - Т. IV(a). - С. I-VI.

(42) Там же. - С. IV-VI.

(43) Кауфман И.М. Русские энциклопедии. Общие энциклопедии: библиография и краткие очерки. - М., 1960. - С. 50-54.

(44) Кауфман И.М. Русские библиографические и биографические словари... - С. 45.

(45) Новый энциклопедический словарь. От редакции. - СПб., [1911]. - Т. 1.

(46) Там же. - С. 1-2.

(47) Там же. - СПб., [1914]. - Т. 16. - С. 439-448.

(48) Там же. От редакции. - Пг., [1915]. - Т. 24.

(49) Там же. - СПб., [1911]. - Т. 1. - С. 10, 12.

(50) Кауфман И.М. Русские библиографические и биографические словари. - С. 46


(1) Illjustrirovannyj jenciklopedicheskij slovar'F.A. Brokgauza i I.A. Jefrona: sovremennaja versija [Illustrated Encyclopedic Dictionary FA Brockhaus and IA Efron: modern version]. Moscow, 2005.

(2) Hans Rogger National Consciousness in Eighteenth-Century Russia. Cambridge Massachusetts, 1960; Raeff Marc Origins of the Russian Intelligentsia. The Eighteenth-Century Nobility. New-York, 1966.

(3) Raeff Marc. Ibid., pp.76-79.

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(4) Kulakova I. Universitetskoe prostranstvo i ego obitateli. Moskovskij Universitet v is-toriko-kul'turnoj srede XVIII veka [University space and its inhabitants. Moscow University in the historical and cultural environment of the XVIII century]. Moscow, 2006, pp. 25-26.

(5) Bartenev P.I. BiografjaI.I. Shuvalova [II Shuvalov's Biography]. St.-Petersburg, 1857.

(6) Gercen A.I. Pis'mo iz Provincii [Letter from Province]. Moscow,1954, vol. 1, p. 132.

(7) Wolff Larry Inventing Eastern Europe. The Map of Civilization on the Mind of the Enlightenment. Stanford, California, 1994, p. 90.

(8) Gereth W. Jones Nikolai Novikov. Cambridge, 1984, p. 82.

(9) Fridberg L. Voprosy Istorii - Questions of history, 1948, no. 8, pp. 23-42.

(10) Slovar' Istoricheskij ili Sokrashhennaja Biblioteka, zakljuchajushhaja v sebe zhitija i de-janija Patriarhov, Carej, Imperatorov i Korolej; velikih Polkovodcev, Ministrov i Gra-donachal'nikov; Bogov i Geroev drevnego jazychestva; kak i Rimskih, Uchitelej Cerkov-nyh, Filosofov drevnih i nyneshnih vekov, Istorikov, Stihotvorcev, Oratorov, Bogoslovov, Jurisprudentov, Medikov i prochih [Historical Dictionary Abridged Library or enclosing a lives and deeds of the patriarchs, kings, emperors and kings, great generals, ministers and governor of the city, the gods and heroes of ancient paganism, as well as Roman, Church Teachers, philosophy of ancient and present centuries, historians, poets, speakers, theologians, Yurisprudentov, physicians and other]. Moscow, 1790, Part 1, p. 1.

(11) Ibid., p. 2.

(12) Prostrannoe Pole, obrabotannoe i plodonosjashhee ili Vseobshhij Istoricheskij Origi-nal'nyj Slovar', iz nailuchshih avtorov, kak rossijskih tak i inostrannyh, vybrannyj, so-chinennyj, po azbuchnym slovam raspolozhennyj svjashhennikom Ioannom Alekseevym [Lengthy field, processed and fruiting or Universal Dictionary Original Works of the

best authors, both Russian and foreign, selected, composed, located on the ABCs words priest John Alexeyev]. Moscow, 1793, vol. 1, p. 11.

(13) Slovar' Akademii Rossijskoj [Dictionary of the Russian Academy]. St-Petersburg, 1789, part. 1, pp. 1-15.

(14) Artem'eva T.V. VekFilosofii - The century of Philosophy, 2004, no. 27, pp. 110-125.

(15) Fanger D. Gogol and his reader. Literature and Society in Imperial Russia, 1800-1914. Stanford, 1978, pp. 66-68.

(16) Kaufman I.M. Russkie bibliograficheskie i biograficheskie slovari Russian bibliographical and biographical dictionaries [Russian bibliographical and biographical dictionaries]. Moscow, 1955, p. 42.

(17) Bibliograficheskie zametki, Russkij Arhiv - Russian Archive, 1890, part 3, no. 2, pp.329-348.

(18) Skabichevskij A.M. Ocherki istorii Russkoj cenzury (1700-1865) [Essays on the history of Russian censorship (1700-1865)]. St-Petersburg, 1892, pp. 293-294.

(19) JenciklopedicheskijLeksikon [Encyclopedic Lexicon]. St-Petersburg, 1835, vol. 1, s. 4.

(20) Ibid., 1837, vol. 9, pp. 4-5.

(21) Ibid., 1835, vol. 4, p. 1.

(22) Ibid., 1837, vol. 12, p. 1.

(23) Ibid., 1837, vol. 1, pp. 10-11.

(24) Ibid., 1835, vol. 3, pp. 1-2.

(25) Ibid., 1837, vol. 3, p. 1.

(26) Ibid., p. 1.

(27) Russkij Jenciklopedicheskij Slovar' [Russian Collegiate Dictionary]. St-Petersburg, 1873, division 1, pp. 1-2.

(28) Ibid., pp. 2-3.

(29) Ibid., 1874, division 2, issue. 5, vol. 1.

(30) Ibid., 1873, devusion 1, pp. 2-10.

(31) Ibid., p. 5.

(32) Ibid., 1874, devision 2, issue 5, vol. 1, pp. 6-8.

(33) Kaufman I.M. Russkie jenciklopedii. Obshhie jenciklopedii: bibliografija i kratkie ocherki [Russian encyclopedia. General encyclopedias: bibliography and brief essays]. Moscow, 1960, issue 1, p. 38.

(34) Russkij Jenciklopedicheskij Slovar' [Russian Collegiate Dictionary], I.N. Berezin, 1874, devision 3, vol. 2.

(35) Ibid., 1878, devision 4, vol. 3.

(36) Brokgauz-Jefron. Bol'shaja Sovetskaja Jenciklopedija [Brockhaus-Efron Great Soviet Encyclopedia]. Moscow, 1927, vol. 7, pp. 571-572.

(37) Russian National Library. Personal Fund VM Lazarian, f. 1362, d. 681, l. 1.

(38) Jenciklopedicheskij Slovar' [Encyclopaedic Dictionary]. Ed. by I.A. Andreevskogo, St-Peterburg, 1890, vol. 1.

(39) Ibid., 1891, vol. 5, pp. 1-4.

(40) Ibid., 1904, vol. 41 (a).

(41) Mendeleev D.I. Jenciklopedicheskij Slovar' [Encyclopaedic Dictionary], 1891, vol. 4 (a), pp. 1-6.

(42) Ibid., pp. 4-6.

(43) Kaufman. I.M. Russkie jenciklopedii [Russian encyclopedia], pp. 50-54.

(44) Idem. Russkie bibliograficheskie i biograficheskie slovari [Russian bibliographical and biographical dictionaries], p. 45.

(45) Novyj Jenciklopedicheskij Slovar'. Ot redakcii [New encyclopaedic Dictionary. from the Editor]. St-Peterburg, 1911, vol. 1.

(46) Ibid., pp. 1-2.

(47) Ibid., 1914, vol. 16, pp. 439-448.

(48) Ibid., 1915, vol. 24.

(49) Ibid., 1911], vol. 1, pp. 10, 12.

(50) Kaufman I.M. Russkie bibliograficheskie i biograficheskie slovari [Russian bibliographical and biographical dictionaries],. 46.



И. Владимирски

Кафедра истории Академический колледж Ахва Шикмим, Израиль, 79800

В статье рассматриваются основные этапы в развитии отечественной энцикполе-дистики в царской России. Формирование российской энциклопедистики совпало по времени с формированием национальной интеллектуальной элиты и началом борьбы против иностранного, преимущественно немецкого, влияния в только что созданных Университете и Академии наук. Первые российские энциклопедии старались критически переработать опыт немецких, британских и французских энциклопедий. Изданный в конце XIX - начале XX в. Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Эфрона стал первой подлинно российской энциклопедией и национальным бестселлером.

Ключевые слова: энциклопедистика, универсальное образование, систематизация знания, популяризация универсальных ценностей и идей.

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