Научная статья на тему 'Investigating the effects of physical activity levels, dairy products and calcium intakes on risk factors of osteoporosis prevention in female students of Islamic Azad university of Damavand, Iran'

Investigating the effects of physical activity levels, dairy products and calcium intakes on risk factors of osteoporosis prevention in female students of Islamic Azad university of Damavand, Iran Текст научной статьи по специальности «Науки о здоровье»

CC BY
162
61
i Надоели баннеры? Вы всегда можете отключить рекламу.
Ключевые слова
ПИЩЕВОЙ / РАЦИОН / ФИЗИЧЕСКАЯ / АКТИВНОСТЬ / ИРАН / ДЕВУШКИ / ХАРЧОВИЙ / РАЦіОН / ФіЗИЧНА / АКТИВНіСТЬ / ІРАН / ДіВЧАТА / DIETARY / INTAKE / PHYSICAL / ACTIVITY / IRAN / WOMEN

Аннотация научной статьи по наукам о здоровье, автор научной работы — Marya Rehmani Ghobadi, Rastegar Hoseini

Aim: Osteoporosis is a serious metabolic bone disorder that often results in hip fracture and usually asymptomatic in its initial stages. Since the majority of bone formation occurs during childhood and adolescence, it is important to begin primary prevention at an early age, although the optimal way for instilling this preventive behavior in youth has not yet been defined. The purpose of this study was to investigating the effects of physical activity levels, dairy products and calcium intakes on risk factors of osteoporosis prevention in female students of Islamic Azad university of Damavand in Iran. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted on 280 healthy female university students aged between 18 to 24 years old who were selected randomly from the university students of Islamic Azad university of Damavand, Iran. Subjects completed an informed consent form, health history questionnaire; food questionnaire was used to assess the entire dietary component intakes and physical activity questionnaire (Baecke). Result: The result shows that Increase in physical activity and diary product consumption, the calcium intake with a decrease in BMI, and increase in BMD. Also results shows that there were significant negative correlations between the physical activity levels, diary product consumption, the calcium intake and risk factors of osteoporosis. Conclusions: Increased physical activity and diary product consumption, the calcium intake is associated with an increase in BMD and a concomitant decrease in BMI. These findings suggest that population-level interventions to increase physical activity and diary product consumption, the calcium intake would favorably impact bone and other health outcomes. Thus, dietary pattern coupled with higher education levels and greater physical activity favored bone health and osteoporosis prevention in middle school females.

i Надоели баннеры? Вы всегда можете отключить рекламу.
iНе можете найти то, что вам нужно? Попробуйте сервис подбора литературы.
i Надоели баннеры? Вы всегда можете отключить рекламу.

Текст научной работы на тему «Investigating the effects of physical activity levels, dairy products and calcium intakes on risk factors of osteoporosis prevention in female students of Islamic Azad university of Damavand, Iran»

э

2014

11

Investigating the effects of physical activity levels, dairy products and calcium intakes on risk factors of osteoporosis prevention in female students of Islamic Azad University of Damavand, Iran

Marya Rehmani Ghobadi, Rastegar Hoseini

Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran

Annotation:

Aim: Osteoporosis is a serious metabolic bone disorder that often results in hip fracture and usually asymptomatic in its initial stages. Since the majority of bone formation occurs during childhood and adolescence, it is important to begin primary prevention at an early age, although the optimal way for instilling this preventive behavior in youth has not yet been defined. The purpose of this study was to investigating the effects of physical activity levels, dairy products and calcium intakes on risk factors of osteoporosis prevention in female students of Islamic Azad university of Damavand in Iran. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted on 280 healthy female university students aged between 18 to 24 years old who were selected randomly from the university students of Islamic Azad university of Damavand, Iran. Subjects completed an informed consent form, health history questionnaire; food questionnaire was used to assess the entire dietary component intakes and physical activity questionnaire (Baecke). Result: The result shows that Increase in physical activity and diary product consumption, the calcium intake with a decrease in BMI, and increase in BMD. Also results shows that there were significant negative correlations between the physical activity levels, diary product consumption, the calcium intake and risk factors of osteoporosis. Conclusions: Increased physical activity and diary product consumption, the calcium intake is associated with an increase in BMD and a concomitant decrease in BMI. These findings suggest that population-level interventions to increase physical activity and diary product consumption, the calcium intake would favorably impact bone and other health outcomes. Thus, dietary pattern coupled with higher education levels and greater physical activity favored bone health and osteoporosis prevention in middle school females.

Keywords:

dietary, intake, physical, Iran, women.

activity,

Мария Рехмани Гобади, Растегар Хо-сеини. Влияние уровня физической активности, молочных продуктов и потребление кальция на факторы риска и профилактику остеопороза у студенток Исламского Азад университета (Дам-ванд, Иран). Цель: Остеопороз является серьезным метаболическим нарушение кости, что часто приводит к переломам бедра и, как правило, протекает бессимптомно в начальной стадии. Поскольку в большинстве случаев формирования костей происходит в детстве и юности, важно начать первичную профилактику в раннем возрасте. Хотя оптимальный способ в формировании в жизни людей этого превентивного поведения еще не определены. Цель данного исследования заключалась в исследовании влияния уровней физической активности, молочных продуктов и потребление кальция на факторы риска профилактики остеопороза у студенток Исламского университета Азад (Дамванд, Иран). Методы: Это перекрестное секционное исследование было проведено на 280 здоровых девушках в возрасте от 18 до 24 лет, которые были отобраны случайным образом из числа студенток Исламского Азад университета. Студентки выразили свое информированное согласие и заполнили анкету истории здоровья. Анкета питания и анкета физической активности были использованы для оценки диетических компонентов. Результат: Результаты показывают, что увеличение физической активности, потребления кальция в составе молочной продукции приводит к уменьшению индекса массы тела (ИМТ) и увеличению максимального потребления кислорода (МПК). Также результаты показывают существенные отрицательные корреляции между уровнем физической активности, потреблением кальция и факторами риска остеопороза. Выводы: Повышенная физическая активность и потребление кальция связаны с увеличением МПК и сопутствующим снижением ИМТ. Эти данные позволяют предположить, что действие общей направленности для повышения физической активности и потребление кальция положительно влияет на костную систему и другие показатели здоровья. Таким образом, режим питания в сочетании с более высоким уровнем обучения и большей физической активностью благоприятно влияет на здоровье костной системы в профилактике остеопороза у студенток.

Пищевой, рацион, физическая, активность, Иран, девушки.

Марія Рехмані Гобаді, Растегар Хосе-іні. Вплив рівня фізичної активності, молочних продуктів і споживання кальцію на чинники ризику і профілактику остеопорозу у студенток Ісламського Азад університету (Дамванд, Іран). Мета: Остеопороз є серйозним метаболічним порушення кістки, що часто призводить до переломів стегна і, як правило, протікає безсимптомно в початковій стадії. Оскільки в більшості випадків формування кісток відбувається в дитинстві і юності, важливо почати первинну профілактику в ранньому віці. Хоча оптимальний спосіб у формуванні в житті людей цієї превентивної поведінки ще не визначені. Мета даного дослідження полягала в дослідженні впливу рівнів фізичної активності, молочних продуктів і споживання кальцію на чинники ризику і профілактики остеопорозу у студенток Ісламського університету Азад (Дамванд, Іран). Методи: Це перехресне секційне дослідження було проведено на 280 здорових дівчатах у віці від 18 до 24 років, які були відібрані випадковим чином із числа студенток Ісламського Азад університету. Студентки висловили свою інформовану згоду і заповнили анкету історії здоров'я. Анкета харчування та анкета фізичної активності були використані для оцінки дієтичних компонентів. Результати: Результати показують, що збільшення фізичної активності, споживання кальцію у складі молочної продукції призводить до зменшення індексу маси тіла (ІМТ) і збільшенню максимального споживання кисню (МПК). Також результати показують суттєві негативні кореляції між рівнем фізичної активності, споживанням кальцію і факторами ризику остеопорозу. Висновки: Підвищена фізична активність і споживання кальцію пов'язані із збільшенням МПК і супутнім зниженням ІМТ. Ці дані дозволяють припустити, що дія загальної спрямованості для підвищення фізичної активності і споживання кальцію позитивно впливає на кісткову систему і інші показники здоров'я. Таким чином, режим харчування в поєднанні з більш високим рівнем навчання і більшою фізичною активністю сприятливо впливає на здоров'я кісткової системи в профілактиці остеопорозу у студенток.

Харчовий, раціон, фізична, активність, Іран, дівчата.

Introduction

Osteoporosis is a clinically-silent disease in its early stages. It can lead to hip and spine fractures later in life. According to the National Osteoporosis Association of America in 1999, 28.5 million people in the U.S., of whom 89% are women, had osteoporosis in the USA. Also, 10

© Marya Rehmani Ghobadi, Rastegar Hoseini, 2014 doi:10.15561/18189172.2014.1114

million people in the U.S. were categorized as having low bone mass, exposing them to the risk of osteoporosis and osteopenia (Mark & Link, 1999; Drozdzowska et al., 2004). The effect of environmental factors on bone is likely to vary across the lifespan, and length of exposure to exercise, diet, alcohol, caffeine, and smoking may have increasing impact in older women. Physical activity and exercise have been demonstrated to have positive

І ПЕДАГОГІКА І та медик°-біол°гічні

*----“------------* проблеми фізичного

виховання і спорту _______________________________________________________________________________________________

women and results unclear [Takada. 2004], but the study involved only a small number of subjects and their results were inconsistent.

However, the associations’ physical activity levels, dairy products and calcium intakes on risk factors of osteoporosis prevention in Iranian have not been thoroughly investigated. The purpose of this study was investigating the effects of physical activity levels, dairy products and calcium intakes on risk factors of osteoporosis prevention in female students of Islamic Azad university of Damavand in Iran.

Materials and methods

The target population consisted entirely of female students of Islamic Azad university of Damavand in Iran. Among them 280 healthy female students with similar age and weight selected were randomly. The condition of the study was thoroughly explained to all subjects, and written informed consent was subsequently obtained. The protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of Islamic Azad university of Damavand, Tehran, Iran. Subjects completed an informed consent form, health history questionnaire; food questionnaire was used to assess the entire dietary component intakes and physical activity questionnaire (Baecke). SPSW statistical software (version 18) was used to analyze. Both descriptive (mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistical were used to Spearman correlation coefficient were used. Results

Subject age data are present in table 1. The result shows that Increase in physical activity and diary product consumption, the calcium intake with a decrease in BMI, and increase in BMD. Also results shows that there were significant negative correlations between the physical activity levels, diary product consumption and calcium intake with risk factors of osteoporosis (Table 2). Discussion

This study focused on the investigating the effects of physical activity levels, dairy products and calcium intakes on risk factors of osteoporosis prevention in

Table 1

Demographic characteristics of study subjects (n = 254)

Variables Mean SD

Age (year) 21.15±4.62

Height (cm) 162.16±5.04

Weight (Kg) 65.45±7.17

Body Mass Index 24.81±3.39

Table 2.

Relationship between Physical Activity, Dairy production and calcium intakes

Physical Activity Levels Dairy Products Calcium Intakes

Pearson correlation P Value Pearson correlation P Value Pearson correlation P Value

Risk Factors of Osteoporosis -49.6 0.023 -52.7 0.004 -64.8 0.002

effects on growing bones before and during puberty, and many studies have shown the beneficial effects of high-impact weight-bearing activity on the load-bearing sites of the skeleton [McKay et al., 2000; Shibata et al., 2003].Although bone mass achieved by early adulthood primanly reflects bone mass achieved during growth, the additional gain in bone mass that may potentially occur is likely to be dependent on lifestyle factors practiced during young adulthood these factors may include physical activity and nutrient intake, in particular calcium intake [Bonjour et al., 1991; Sowers et al., 1985]. Physical activity has been suggested as an intervention strategy to promote optimal bone density during youth and to reduce the rate of bone loss during middle and later life [Heaney et al., 2000, Kohrt et al., 1996]. Bone tissue responds to dynamic as opposed to static loading, as static loads (even those that produce fairly large stresses or strains) do not initiate osteogenesis [Lanyon et al., 1984]. For physical activity to have an osteogenic effect, the mechanical loads applied to the skeleton need to be in excess of those encountered in daily activity [Frost et al., 1988]. Nutrition could be an important modifiable factor in the development and maintenance of bone mass and the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Calcium and vitamin D nutrition play an important role in determining bone health. It has been shown that physical activities and sports during the growing years affect bone mass status in the perimenopausal period, and calcium intake is an additive contributing factor [Uusi-Rasi et al., 1998]. Reeker et al (3) reported that calcium intake and physical activity (PA) were significantly associated with increases in both compact and trabecular bone tissue [Reeker et al., 1992]. Also studies [Cooper et al., 1995; Uusi-Rasi et al., 1998] showed that physical activities and sports during growing years affect bone mass status in the perimenopausal period, and calcium intake is an additive contributing factor.

The studies evaluated the impact of both exercise and nutritional intake on bone mass in premenopausal young

ПСИХОЛОГІЯ

32014

n

female students of Islamic Azad university of Damavand in Iran. The results show that significant negative correlations between the physical activity levels, with risk factors of osteoporosis. The literature demonstrates the Physical activity is necessary for bone acquisition and maintenance through adulthood. The best evidence that exercise can slow bone loss or add bone mass to the postmenopausal skeleton comes from prospective intervention studies. Even job-related physical activity is an important factor in maintaining adequate bone mass. The suppression of bone turnover is the key mechanism for the positive response of lumbar BMD to moderate walking exercise in postmenopausal women [Yamazaki et al., 2004]. The researchers found that Physical activity in childhood may provide a significant positive contribution to an osteoporosis prevention strategy (i.e., maximizing peak adult bone density) that has been endorsed by some researchers [Burry et al., 1984; Stillman et al., 1987]. Our results suggest that the skeletal status of the os calcis in young women is influenced by the modulation of mechanical stress (i.e., physical activity) in the growing years.

Also results shows, that there were significant negative correlations between the diary product consumption and calcium intake with risk factors of osteoporosis. The major part of this dietary calcium came from plant sources, which are known to have low bioavailability. Inhibitors of calcium absorption such as phytates and oxalates are abundant in the vegetarian diet and retard the absorption of dietary calcium. Moreover, absorption of calcium could be hampered by vitamin D deficiency as

this is the major factor influencing absorption of calcium from the gut. Babarousti et al. (2005), reported that BMI, Ca intake, and time spent on physical activity affect heel BMD independently but not in an age-dependent manner [Babaroutsi et al., 2005]. Results with regard to the relationship between calcium intake and peak bone mass were disparate. Greater calcium intake is thought to contribute to the acquisition of a high peak bone mass. A meta-analysis showed that calcium intake correlated with BMD of all areas except in the ulna of postmenopausal women [Welten et al., 1995].It is paradoxical that, as health researchers and educators become increasingly aware of the importance of good habits in nutrition and physical activity in the prevention of a variety of chronic diseases, children and adolescents are adopting lifestyles that act counter to these. Diets in many developing as well as industrialized countries are moving towards foods that are poor in calcium and minerals, and children gravitate to television and computer games in place of outdoor games and sports. In order to reverse this trend, it is necessary to actively promote healthy behaviors and lifestyles to adolescents. School health education programs are critical opportunities for facilitating healthy lifestyles for youth.

Conclusions

Our results suggest that physical activity levels, dairy products and calcium intakes during the growing years has a positive effect on osteoporosis prevention and bone density attained by female students.

Acknowledgement

The authors would like to thank the female students for their willing participation in this study.

Reference

1. Babaroutsi E., Magkos F., Manios Y., & Sidossis L.S. Body mass index, calcium index, and physical activity affect calcaneal in healthy Greek males in an age-dependent and parameter-spcifi c manner. Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism. 2005, vol.23, pp.157-166.

2. Bonjour J., Theintz G., Bertrand B., Slosman D., & Rizzoli R. Critical years and stages of puberty for spinal and femoral bone mass accumulation during adolescence. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 1991, vol.73, pp.555-63.

3. Burry H.C., & Hughes O.R. Femoral neck fracture: A preventable phenomenon. New Zealand Medical Journal. 1984, vol. 97, pp.856-859.

4. Cooper C., Cawley M., Bhalla A., Egger P., Ring F., Morton L., & Barker D. Childhood growth, physical activity, and peak bone mass in women. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 1995, vol.10, pp.940-947.

5. Drozdzowska B., Pluskiewicz W., & Skiba W. Knowledge about osteoporosis in a cohort of Polish females: the influence of age, level of education and personal experiences. Osteoporosis international. 2004, vol.15, pp.645-648.

6. Frost H.M. Vital biomechanics: proposed general concepts for skeletal adaptations to mechanical usage. Calcified Tissue International. 1988, vol.42, pp.145-156.

7. Heaney R.P., Abrams S., Wson-Hughes B., Looker A., Marcus R., Matovic V., & Weaver C. Peak bone mass. Osteoporosis international. 2000, vol.11, pp.985-1009.

8. Kohrt W.M., Bloomfield S.A., Little K.D., Nelson M.E., & Yingling V.R. American College of Sports Medicine position stand on physical activity and bone health. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2004, vol.36, pp.1985-1996.

9. Lanyon L.E., & Rubin C.T. Static vs dynamic loads as an influence on bone remodelling. Journal of Biomechanics. 1984, vol.17, pp.897-905.

10. Mark S., & Link H. Reducing osteoporosis: prevention during childhood and adolescence. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 1999, vol.77, pp.423-424.

11. McKay H.A., Petit M.A., Schutz R.W., Prior J.C., Barr S.I., & Khan K.M. Augmented trochanteric bone mineral density after modified physical education classes: a randomized school-based exercise intervention study in prepubescent and early pubescent children. Journal of Pediatrics. 2000, vol.136, pp.156-162.

12. Reeker R.R., Davies K.M., Hinders S.M., Heaney R.P, Stegman M.R., & Kimmel D.B. Bone gain in young adult women. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1992, vol.268, pp.2403-8.

13. Shibata Y., Ohsawa I., Watanabe T., Miura T., & Sato Y. Effects of physical training on bone mineral density and bone metabolism. Journal of Physiological Anthropology and Applied Human Science. 2003, vol.22, pp.203-208

14. Sowers M.F.R., Wallace R.B., & Lemke J.H. Correlates ofmid-radius bone density among postmenopausal women: a community study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1985, vol.41, pp.1045-53.

15. Stillman R.J. Physical activity and skeletal health: a brief survey. Medicine and Sport Science. 1987, vol.24, pp. 1-12.

16. Takada K. Bone mass and lifestyle-effect of exercise and nutrition (in Japanese). Clinical calcium. 2004, vol. 14, pp.1684-1695.

17. Uusi-Rasi K., Sievanen H., Vuori I., Pasanen M., Heinonen A., & Oja P. Associations of physical activity and calcium intake with bone mass and size in healthy women at different ages. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 1998, vol.13, pp.133-142.

18. Welten D.C., Kemper H.C.G., Post G.B., & Van Staveren W.A. A meta-analysis of the effect of calcium intake on bone mass in young and middle aged females and males. Journal of Nutrition. 1995, vol.125, pp. 2802-2813.

19. Yamazaki S., Ichimura S., Iwamoto J., Takeda T., & Toyama Y. Effect of walking exercise on bone metabolism in postmenopausal women with osteopenia/osteoporosis. Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism. 2004, vol.22, pp.500-508.

І ПЕДАГОГІКА I

ПСИХОЛОГІЯ

та медико-біологічні проблеми фізичного виховання і спорту

Информация об авторах:

Мария Рехмани Гобади: ORCID: 0000-0001-6647-1305; M_RAH56@ yahoo.com; Исламский Азад университет; п/я: 1666976113, No 75, 4 Голестан, Пасдаран Аве, Тегеран, Иран.

Растегар Хосеини: ORCID: 0000-0001-8685-2471; Rastegar.

Hoseini@gmail.com; Университет Гилян; п/я 1841, г. Рашт, Иран.

Цитируйте эту статью как: Мария Рехмани Гобади, Растегар Хосеини. Влияние уровня физической активности, молочных продуктов и потребление кальция на факторы риска и профилактику остеопороза у студенток Исламского Азад университета (Дамванд, Иран). // Педагогіка, психологія та медико-біологічні проблеми фізичного виховання і спорту. - 2014. - № 11. - С. 7982. doi:10.15561/18189172.2014.1114

Электронная версия этой статьи является полной и может быть найдена на сайте: http://www.sportpedagogy.org.ua/html/arhive.html

Это статья Открытого Доступа распространяется под терминами Creative Commons Attribution License, которая разрешает неограниченное использование, распространение и копирование любыми средствами, обеспечивающими должное цитирование этой оригинальной статьи (http:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/deed.ru).

Дата поступления в редакцию: 25.05.2014 г.

Опубликовано: 05.06.2014 г.

Information about the authors:

Marya Rehmani Ghobadi: ORCID: 0000-0001-6647-1305; M_RAH56@ yahoo.com; Islamic Azad University; P.O.BOX: 1666976113, No 75, 4th Golestan St., Pasdaran Ave, Tehran, Iran.

Rastegar Hoseini: ORCID: 0000-0001-8685-2471; Rastegar.Hoseini@ gmail.com; University of Guilan; P.O. Box 1841, Rasht, Iran.

Cite this article as: Marya Rehmani Ghobadi, Rastegar Hoseini. Investigating the effects of physical activity levels, dairy products and calcium intakes on risk factors of osteoporosis prevention in female students of Islamic Azad University of Damavand, Iran. Pedagogics, psychology, medical-biological problems of physical training and sports, 2014, vol.11, pp. 79-82. doi:10.15561/18189172.2014.1114

The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at: http://www.sportpedagogy.org.ua/html/arhive-e.html

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (http:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/deed.en).

Received: 25.05.2014 Published: 05.06.2014

i Надоели баннеры? Вы всегда можете отключить рекламу.