Научная статья на тему 'Interethnic differences of young family needs in various types of help'

Interethnic differences of young family needs in various types of help Текст научной статьи по специальности «Науки о здоровье»

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СЕМЬЯ / ЭТНОС / ВИДЫ ПОМОЩИ / FAMILY / ETHNOS / TYPES OF HELP

Аннотация научной статьи по наукам о здоровье, автор научной работы — Анафьянова Татьяна Владимировна, Капитонов Владимир Федорович, Носова Лариса Германовна

Various types of young family needs noted by the author are studied in the article: a need for parents’ help, state support, medical and social services. It is established that needs for medical and social help initially predominate in the structure of requirements of ethnic cohorts of young families both in cities and countryside, increasing according to the period and duration of marriage of a family. Ethnic differences of young family needs are revealed in all studied cohorts in the structure of the less significant types of assistance parents’ help and state support, undoubtedly, due to the differences in reproductive activity of young ethnic families depending on the area of residence.

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МЕЖЭТНИЧЕСКИЕ РАЗЛИЧИЯ НУЖДАЕМОСТИ МОЛОДОЙ СЕМЬИ В ВИДАХ ПОМОЩИ

В статье рассмотрены выделенные автором виды нуждаемости молодой семьи: потребность в помощи родителей, помощи государства и медикосоциальных услугах. Установлено, что в структуре потребностей этнических когорт молодых семей изначально преобладает нуждаемость в медико-социальной помощи как в городах, так и сельских территориях проживания, увеличивающейся соответственно периоду и длительности брачности семьи. Этнические различия нуждаемости молодой семьи выявлены во всех исследуемых когортах в структуре менее значимых видов помощи помощи родительских семей и в помощи государства, несомненно, обусловлены различиями в репродуктивной активности молодой этнической семьи в зависимости от территории проживания.

Текст научной работы на тему «Interethnic differences of young family needs in various types of help»

DOI: 10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-2

INTERETHNIC DIFFERENCES OF YOUNG FAMILY NEEDS IN VARIOUS TYPES OF HELP

Anafianova T.V., Kapitonov V.F., Nosova L.G.

Various types of young family needs noted by the author are studied in the article: a need for parents' help, state support, medical and social services.

It is established that needs for medical and social help initially predominate in the structure of requirements of ethnic cohorts of young families both in cities and countryside, increasing according to the period and duration of marriage of a family.

Ethnic differences of young family needs are revealed in all studied cohorts in the structure of the less significant types of assistance - parents' help and state support, undoubtedly, due to the differences in reproductive activity of young ethnic families depending on the area of residence.

Keywords: family, ethnos, types of help.

МЕЖЭТНИЧЕСКИЕ РАЗЛИЧИЯ НУЖДАЕМОСТИ МОЛОДОЙ СЕМЬИ

В ВИДАХ ПОМОЩИ

Анафьянова Т.В., Капитонов В.Ф., Носова Л.Г.

В статье рассмотрены выделенные автором виды нуждаемости молодой семьи: потребность в помощи родителей, помощи государства и медико-социальных услугах.

Установлено, что в структуре потребностей этнических когорт молодых семей изначально преобладает нуждаемость в медико-социальной помощи как

в городах, так и сельских территориях проживания, увеличивающейся соответственно периоду и длительности брачности семьи.

Этнические различия нуждаемости молодой семьи выявлены во всех исследуемых когортах в структуре менее значимых видов помощи - помощи родительских семей и в помощи государства, несомненно, обусловлены различиями в репродуктивной активности молодой этнической семьи в зависимости от территории проживания.

Ключевые слова: семья, этнос, виды помощи.

Research objective: to study interethnic features of young family needs in types of help.

Materials and research methods. A longitudinal study of 395 young families with children (220 urban and 175 rural families) was conducted on the change of young family needs in some types of help within 10 years of marriage in the following periods: one year of marriage, 2-4, 5-7 and 8-10 years of marriage (from 2006 to 2007). According to the ethnic cohorts young families are divided as follows: the Russians, the mixed Russians, Russian-speaking families, the Khakasses, the mixed Khakasses and others. The research was carried out by the method of statistical analysis with the use of relative quantities, ratio coefficients.

INTRODUCTION

Now, a young family as an object of scientific research represents not only developing system of concepts of incidence and prevalence of diseases that affect youth, but also protection of its health, in consideration of medical and social needs of a young family [4].

In their researches authors more often state an increasing role of an ethnic family as a system of social and hygienic adaptation to the new post - crisis conditions [2].

The existence of a family as a social unit depends on as far as it as the system is in equilibrium with the environment.

Meanwhile not every violation of this balance is due to the circumstances of the environment, and makes it necessary to rearrange the structure and vital functions of the family.

There is positive growth or death of the system when it does not cope with its functions and it needs some help [5, 7].

Modern needs of a young family, undoubtedly, determine an individual approach when forming a complex of activities for the medical and social help, psycho-social and legal assistance to young families [1, 6].

This approach creates the necessary prerequisites for the prevention of violations of physical and mental health, as well as the manifestations of social deviance. [3]

No doubt, some young families need state support due to the existing circumstances, which include: birth of children in student years having extremely low income, a presence of one of the parents in the family (one mother, a military serviceman's wife), a presence of a disabled child (it requires care on the part of one of the parents and limits the family income), unemployment of one or both young spouses, employment of one or both spouses in the public sector with low level of salary.

Planning various forms of support and help for a young family state bodies and public organizations should know the specific services that the family needs. In this connection to interview respondents the appropriate question was stated:"What types of help does your family need?"

In our research types of young family needs in help were divided into three groups and defined as: need for parents' help (including both material help and moral support, help in grandchildren upbringing); state support (providing social housing, social benefits, monetary compensations, financing of programs on compensation of

mortgage expenses on housing) and medical and social services (health control, psychological assistance, social consultation).

DISCUSSION

Analysis of family needs in some types of help showed that for the entire period of observation over the families the need for the medical and social help dominates, its share growing from 47,8% to 70,2% (by 1,5 times) and decreasing in requirement for the parents' help from 44,2% to 22,6% (twice) (fig. 1).

8-10 year of marriage 5-7 year of marriage 2-4 year of marriage 1 year of marriage

% 0

20

40

60

80

100

1 year of marriage 2-4 year of marriage 5-7 year of marriage 8- 10 year of marriage

ED help medico-social 47,8 52,5 60,4 70,2

□ help of the state 8 9,1 10,9 7,2

□ help of parents 44,2 38,4 28,7 22,6

Fig. 1. Distinctions of young family needs in types of help (in dynamics during observation periods, %)

In the structure of state support for a young family (fig.2) initially minor requirement in social housing dominates - 62, 5% with a tendency to decrease to15, 3% (by 4 times).

As for the payment young families are more in need of monetary compensations during 2-4 years of marriage (36, 9%) when there are the most

number of child-bearing; as for the other monetary compensations requirement increases from 22,5% to 61,1% (2,7 times) to the end of the present observation.

During the whole period of observation over the young families requirement for the housing mortgage is slight and after 5-7 years of marriage it increases up to 7, 4% in connection with birth certificates.

100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0%

1 year of marriage 2-4 year of marriage 5-7 year of marriage 8-10 year of marriage

□ other monetary compensations 22,5 8,7 37 61,1

B children's grants 11,2 35,9 28,7 19,4

□ mortgage housing 3,8 4,3 7,4 4,2

□ granting social housing 62,5 51,1 26,9 15,3

Fig. 2. Structure of the young family needs for the state help (in dynamics during observation periods, %)

In the structure of medical and social need for young family help (fig. 3) initially the need for psychological assistance dominates - 51,9%, with a tendency to insignificant decrease to 42,9% (by 1,2 times), and increase in requirement for medical control from 29,6% to 46,5% (by 1,6 times). The need for social consultation makes 16,1% at the average with reduction during 8-10 years of observation to 10,6%.

□ medical control H social consultation

1 year of marriage

29,6 18,5

2-4 year of marriage

37,5 19,2

5-7 year of marriage

37,6 21,6

8-10 year of marriage

46.5

10.6

□ psychological assistance

51,9

43,3

40,8

42,9

Fig. 3. Structure of young family requirement in medical and social help (in dynamics during observation periods, %)

At the end of observation over the families the analysis of young family needs for types of help in the ethnic cohorts and their territorial features showed the following results (tab. 1).

Table 1

Needs of young families for types of help in the ethnic cohorts on the territory

of residence (8-10 years of marriage, %)

The Russian- The The mixed The mixed Others

Russians speaking Khakasses with the with the

Russians Khakasses

all territories

help of parents 17,1 21,1 17,8 38,7 32,7 14,5

help of the state 4,0 5,2 17,1 10,9 5,7 10,8

Medical and social help 78,9 73,7 65,1 50,4 61,6 74,7

city

help of parents 27,9 0 25,3 49,2 40,8 15,5

help of the state 4,8 5,0 4,9 0 1,7 7,8

Medical and social help 67,3 95,0 69,8 50,8 57,5 76,7

countryside

help of parents 25,6 27 27,6 20,8 29,4 14

help of the state 8,3 6,8 10,1 16,6 8,4 14

medical and social help 66,1 66,2 62,3 62,6 62,2 72

On all territories of residence:

• in all ethnic cohorts the need for the medical and social help dominates (from 50,8% to 95%), among all ethnic cohorts this need is especially notable in "the Russians" (78,9%), "the Russian-speaking families" (73,7%) and "Others" (76,7%);

• parents' help is mainly needed by young families (see "The mixed with the Russians"- 38.7% and "The mixed with the Khakasses"32.7%);

• help of the state is mainly needed by young families of "the Khakasses" (17,2%), "The mixed with the Russians" (10,9%) and "Others" (10,8%).

On the urban territory of residence:

• the need for medical and social help dominates in all ethnic cohorts (from 50.4% to 78.9%), among all ethnic cohorts a great need stands in "the Russian-speaking families" (95%), and "Others" (74.7% );

• parents' help is mainly needed by young families of the following cohorts: «The mixed with the Russians» (49,2%) and «The mixed with the Khakasses» (40,8%);

• help of the state is mainly needed by young families of the cohort «Others» (7,2%).

On the territory of countryside:

• in all ethnic cohorts the need for medical and social help dominates (from 62,1% to 72%), among all ethnic cohorts this need is especially notable in «Others» (72%);

• parents' help is mainly needed by young families of the following cohorts: «The Russian-speaking families» (27%), «The Khakasses» (27,6%) and «The mixed with the Khakasses» (29,4%);

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• young families of the cohorts «The Khakasses» (10,1%), «The mixed with the Khakasses» (16,6%) and "Others" (14%) are mainly in need of the state help.

Conclusion

The obtained data indicate that in the structure of needs of ethnic cohorts of young families a need in medical and social help initially dominates both on the urban and countryside territories of residence, respectively, increasing depending on the period and duration of marriage of the family.

Ethnic differences of young family needs are found in all studied cohorts in the structure of the less significant types of assistance - parents' help and state help, undoubtedly, due to the differences in reproductive activity of young ethnic family.

While carrying out a comprehensive support of a young family, it is important to consider some features of requirements and needs in types of help for each family, taking into account their ethnic origin and the territory of residence.

References

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DATA ABOUT THE AUTHORS

Anafjanova Tatiana Vladimirovna, Professor RAE, candidate of medical sciences, doctor-organizer of health care

Ophthalmologic clinical hospital of a name of N.M. Odezhkina 27, Lenin's avenue, 655012, Abakan, Republic Khakassia, Russia e-mail: Anafianova@mail. ru

Kapitonov Vladimir Phedorovih, Professor, Doctor of Medical Science, Departament of Management, Economy of Public Health of Institute of the PostDiploma Education

Krasnoyarsk State Medical University named after. Prof. V.F. Voyno-Yasenetsky 1, Partizana Zheleznyaka str., Krasnoyarsk, 660022, Russia e-mail: vkapit5@mail.ru

Nosova Larisa Germanovna, Associate Professor of the Department of Latin and Foreign Languages

Krasnoyarsk State Medical University named after. Prof. V.F. Voyno-Yasenetsky 1, Partizana Zheleznyaka str., 660022, Krasnoyarsk, Russia E.mail: nosovalg@mail.ru

ДАННЫЕ ОБ АВТОРАХ

Анафьянова Татьяна Владимировна, профессор РАЕ, канд. мед. наук, врач-организатор здравоохранении, заместитель главного врача

Офтальмологическая клиническая больница имени Н.М. Одежкина пр. Ленина 27, г. Абакан, 655012 Республика Хакасия, Россия e-mail: Anafianova@mail. ru

Капитонов Владимир Федорович, профессор кафедры экономики и управления здравоохранения института последипломного образования, доктор медицинских наук

Красноярский государственный медицинский университет имени профессора В.Ф. Войно-Ясенецкого

ул. Партизана Железняка, д. 1, г. Красноярск, 660022, Россия e-mail: vkapit5@yandex. ru

Носова Лариса Германовна, доцент кафедры латинского и иностранных языков

Красноярский государственный медицинский университет имени профессора В.Ф. Войно-Ясенецкого

ул. Партизана Железняка, д. 1, г. Красноярск, 660022, Россия e-mail: Risusl@mail.ru

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